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Οὐτίκη and Ἰτυκή). Now Bon-Shater; the greatest city of ancient Africa next to Carthage. It was a Phœnician colony, much older, according to the ancient chronologists, than Carthage. Like others of the very ancient Phœnician colonies in the territory of Carthage, Utica maintained a comparative independence, even during the height of the Punic power, and was rather the ally of Carthage than her subject. It stood on the shore of the northern part of the Carthaginian Gulf, a little west of the mouth of the Bagradas, and twentyseven Roman miles northwest of Carthage; but its site is now inland, in consequence of the changes effected by the Bagradas in the coast-line. In the Third Punic War, Utica took part with the Romans against Carthage, and was rewarded with the greatest part of the Carthaginian territory. It afterwards became renowned to all future time as the scene of the last stand made by the Pompeian party against Caesar, and of the self-sacrifice of the younger Cato , who is, in consequence, usually styled Cato Uticensis. See Cato.

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