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Philippine Islands,

An archipelago between the Pacific Ocean and the China Sea; formerly belonging to Spain, and ceded to the United States for $20,000,000 by the treaty of peace between the United States and Spain in 1898.

The following Memoranda by Maj.-Gen. Francis V. Greene, U. S. V., forming Senate document no. 62, of the 55th Congress, 3d session, gives a succinct statement of the islands, their people, productions, and commerce, when they came into our possession.

Area and population.

These islands, including the Ladrones, Carolines, and Palaos, which are all under the government of Manila, are variously estimated at from 1,200 to 1,800 in number. The greater portion are small and are of no more value than the islands off the coast of Alaska. The important islands are less than a dozen in number, and 90 per cent. of the Christian population live on Luzon and the five principal islands of the Visayas group.

The total population is somewhere between 7,000,000 and 9,000,000. This includes the wild tribes of the mountains of Luzon and of the islands in the extreme south. The last census taken by the Spanish government was on Dec. 31, 1887, and this stated the Christian population to be 6,000,000 (in round numbers). This is distributed as follows:

Islands.Area.Population.Per Square Mile.

The density of population in the six first islands named is nearly 50 per cent. greater than in Illinois and Indiana (census of 1890), greater than in Spain, about one-half as great as in France, and onethird as great as in Japan and China.

Various smaller islands, including the Carolines, Ladrones, and Palaos, carry the total area and Christian population to: Area, 140,000; population, 6,000,000; per square mile, 43.

This is considerably greater than the density of population in the States east of the Rocky Mountains. Owing to the existence of mountain ranges in all the islands and lack of communication in the interior, only a small part of the surface is inhabited. In many provinces the density of population exceeds 200 per square mile. The total area of the Philippines is about the same as that of Japan.

In addition to the Christian population, it is estimated (in the Official guide) that the islands contain the following:

Chinese (principally in Manila75,000
Moors or Mohammedans in Paragan and Jolo100,000
Moors or Mohammedans in Mindanao and Basalan209,000
Heathens in the Philippines830,000
Heathens in the Carolines and Palaos50,000

The Official guide gives a list of more than thirty different races, each speaking a different dialect, but five-sixths of the Christian population are either Tagalos or Visayas. All the races are of the Malay type. Around Manila there has been some mixture of Chinese and Spanish blood with that of the natives, resulting in the Mestizos, or half-breeds, but the number of these is not very great.

As seen in the provinces of Cavite and [170] Manila, the natives (Tagalos) are of small stature, averaging probably 5 feet 4 inches in height and 120 pounds in weight for the women. Their skin is coppery brown, somewhat darker than that of a mulatto. They seem to be industrious and hardworking, although less so than the Chinese.

By the Spaniards they are considered indolent, crafty, untruthful, treacherous, cowardly, and cruel; but the hatred

A native Filipino village.

between the Spaniards and the native races is so intense and bitter that the Spanish opinion of the natives is of little or no value. To us they seemed industrious and docile, but there were occasional evidences of deceit and untruthfulness in their dealings with us. The bulk of the population is engaged in agriculture, and there were hardly any evidences of manufactures, arts, or mining. The greater number seemed to be able to read and write, but I have been unable to obtain any exact figures on this subject. They are all devout Roman Catholics, although they hate the monastic orders.

In Manila (and doubtless also in Zebu and Iloilo) are many thousands of educated natives, who are merchants, lawyers, doctors, and priests. They are well-informed and have accumulated property. The bibliography of the Philippines is said to number 4,500 volumes, the greater part of which has been written by Spanish priests and missionaries.


The climate is one of the best known in the tropics. The thermometer during July and August rarely went below 79° or above 85°. The extreme ranges in a year are said to be 61° and 97°. There are three well-marked seasons—temperate and dry from November to February, hot and dry from March to May, and temperate and wet from June to October. The rainy season reaches its maximum in July and August, when the rains are constant and very heavy. The total rainfall has been as high as 114 inches in one year.

Yellow fever appears to be unknown. The diseases most fatal among the natives are cholera and small-pox, both of which are brought from China.

Mineral wealth.

Very little is known concerning the mineral wealth of the islands. It is stated that there are deposits of coal, petroleum, iron, lead, sulphur, copper, and gold in the various islands, but little or nothing has been done to develop them. A few concessions have been granted for working mines, but the output is not large. The gold is reported on Luzon, coal and petroleum on Zebu and [171] Iloilo, and sulphur on Leyte. The imports of coal in 1894 (the latest year for which statistics have been printed) were 91,511 tons, and it came principally from Australia and Japan. In the same year the imports of iron of all kinds were 9,632 tons.

If the Zebu coal proves to be of good quality, there is a large market for it in competition with coal from Japan and Australia.


Although agriculture is the chief occupation of the Philippines, yet only one-ninth of the surface is under cultivation. The soil is very fertile, and even after deducting the mountainous areas it is probable that the area of cultivation can be very largely extended and that the islands can support a population equal to that of Japan (42,000,000).

The chief products are rice, corn, hemp, sugar, tobacco, cocoanuts, and cacao. Coffee and cotton were formerly produced in large quantities—the former for export and the latter for home consumption; but the coffee plant has been almost exterminated by insects and the homemade cotton cloths have been driven out by the competition of those imported from England. The rice and corn are principally produced in Luzon and Mindoro, and are consumed in the islands. The rice crop is about 765,000 tons. It is insufficient for the demand, and 45,000 tons of rice were imported in 1894; also 8,669 tons (say 60,000 barrels) of flour, of which more than two-thirds came from China and less than one-third from the United States.

The cacao raised in the southern islands amounts only to 150 tons, and is all made into chocolate and consumed in the islands.

The sugar-cane is raised in the Visayas. The crop yielded in 1894, about 235,000 tons of raw sugar, of which one-tenth was consumed in the islands, and the balance, or 210,000 tons, valued at $11,000,000, was exported, the greater part to China, Great Britain, and Australia.

The hemp is produced in southern Luzon, Mindoro, the Visayas, and Mindanao. It is nearly all exported in bales. In 1894 the amount was 96,000 tons, valued at $12,000,000.

Tobacco is raised in all the islands, but the best quality and greatest amount in Luzon. A large amount is consumed in the islands, smoking being universal among women as well as the men, but the best quality is exported. The amount in 1894 was 7,000 tons of leaf tobacco, valued at $1,750,000. Spain took 80 per cent. and Egypt 10 per cent. of the leaf tobacco. Of the manufactured tobacco 70 per cent. goes to China and Singapore, 10 per cent. to England, and 5 per cent. to Spain.

Cocoanuts are grown in southern Luzon, and are used in various ways. The products are largely consumed in the islands, but the exports in 1894 were valued at $2,400,000.

Cattle, goats, and sheep have been introduced from Spain, but they are not numerous. Domestic pigs and chickens are seen everywhere in the farming districts.

The principal beast of burden is the carabao, or water buffalo, which is used

Tagal man.

[172] for ploughing rice-fields as well as drawing heavy loads on sledges or on carts.

Large horses are almost unknown, but there are great numbers of native ponies from 9 to 12 hands high, possessing

A native type.

strength and endurance far beyond their size.

Commerce and transportation.

The internal commerce between Manila and the different islands is quite large, and is carried on almost entirely by water, in steamers of 500 to 1,000 tons. There are regular mail steamers once in two weeks on four routes—viz., northern Luzon, southern Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao; also a steamer every two months to the Carolines and Ladrones, and daily steamers on Manila Bay. These lines are all subsidized. To facilitate this navigation extensive harbor works have been in progress at Manila for several years, and a plan for lighting the coasts has been made, calling for forty-three principal lights, of which seventeen have already been constructed in the most substantial manner, besides sixteen lights of secondary importance.

There is only one line of railway, built by English capital, running from Manila north to Dagupan, a distance of about 120 miles. The roads in the immediate vicinity of Manila are macadamized and in fairly good order; elsewhere they are narrow paths of soft black soil, which become almost impassable in the rainy season. Transportation is then effected by sledges drawn through the mud by carabaos. There are telegraph lines connecting most of the provinces of Luzon with Manila, and cables to the Visayas and southern islands and thence to Borneo and Singapore, as well as a direct cable from Manila to Hong-Kong. The land telegraph lines are owned by the government, and the cables all belong to an English company, which receives a large subsidy. In Manila there is a narrow-gauge railway operated by horse-power, about 11 miles in total length; also a telephone system and electric lights.

Communications with Europe are maintained by the Spanish Transatlantic Company (subsidized), which sends a steamer every four weeks from Manila and Barcelona, making the trip in about twenty-seven days; the same company also sends an intermediate steamer from Manila to Singapore, meeting the French Messageries steamer each way. There is also a non-subsidized line running from Manila to Hong-Kong every two weeks, and connecting there with the English, French, and German mails for Europe, and with the Pacific Mail and Canadian Pacific steamers for Japan and America.

There has been no considerable development of manufacturing industries in the Philippines. The only factories are those connected with the preparation of rice, tobacco, and sugar. Of the [173] manufactures and arts in which Japan so excels there is no evidence.

The foreign commerce amounted in 1894 to $23,558,552 in imports and $33,149,984 in exports, 80 per cent. of which goes through Manila. About 60 per cent. of the trade is carried in British vessels, 20 per cent. in Spanish, and 10 per cent. in German.

The value of the commerce with other countries in 1894 was as follows:

(In millions of dollars, silver.)

Great Britain7.18.7
United States.77.4
Other countries1.5.6

Next to Great Britain we are the largest consumers of the products of the Philippines, and they export to us nearly three times as much as to Spain. On the other hand, Spain sells to the Philippines fifteen times as much as we do.

With the construction of railroads in the interior of Luzon, it is probable that an enormous extension could be given to this commerce, nearly all of which would come to the United States. Manila cigars of the best quality are unknown in America. They are but little inferior to the best of Cuba and cost only one-third as much. The coffee industy can be revived and the sugar industry extended, mainly for consumption in the far East. The mineral resources can be explored with American energy, and there is every reason to believe that when this is done the deposits of coal, iron, gold, and lead will be found very valuable. On the other hand, we ought to be able to secure the greater part of the trade which now goes to Spain in textile fabrics, and a considerable portion of that with England in the same goods and in iron.

Revenue and expenses.

The budget for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1897, was as follows:


Direct taxes$8,496,170
Indirect taxes6,200,550
Proceeds of monopolies1,222,000
Income of government property257,000
Sundry receipts298,300

articles of import and their values in 1894.

(In millions of dollars, silver.)

Articles.Spain.Great Britain.China.Germany.United States.Other Countries.Total.
Cotton goods 3.940.
Cotton yarns1.
Mineral oils.
Linen goods.
Other articles2.

articles of export and their values in 1894.

(In millions of dollars, silver.)

Articles.Spain.Great Britain.China.United States.Australia.Other Countries.Total.
Manufactured tobacco.
Leaf tobacco1.1.31.4
Other articles.


The direct taxes were as follows:

Real estate, 5 per cent. on income$140,280
Industry and commerce1,400,700
Cedulas (poll tax)5,600,000
Chinese poll tax510,190
Tribute from Sultan of Jolo20,000

Indirect taxes were as follows:

Loading tax410,000
Unloading tax570,000
Fines and penalties27,000
Special tax on liquors, beer, vegetables, flour, salt, and mineral oils301,000


Opium contract$576,000
Stamped paper and stamps646,000


General expenses, pensions, and interest$1,506,686
Diplomatic and consular service74,000
Clergy and courts1,876,740
War department6,035,316
Treasury department1,392,414
Navy department3,562,716
Civil administration2,195,378
Railroads, 10 percent. on passenger receipts$32,000
Income tax, 10 per cent. on public salaries730,000
Sundry taxes63,000


Sale of tickets, less cost of prizes$964,000
Unclaimed prizes30,000
Sundry receipts6,000

Income of government property:

Forestry privileges$170,000
Sale and rent of public land and buildings85,000
Mineral privileges2,000

Sundry Receipts:

Mint (seigniorage)$200,000

The largest source of income is the cedula or poll tax. Every man and woman above eighteen years of age residing in the Philippines, whether Spanish subject or foreigner, is required to have in his or her possession a paper stating name, age, and occupation, and other facts of personal identity. Failure to produce and exhibit this when called upon renders any one liable to arrest and imprisonment. This paper is obtained from the internalrevenue office annually, on payment of a certain sum, varying, according to the occupation and income of the person, from 75 cents to $20, and averaging about $3 for each adult. An extra sum of 2 per cent. is paid for expenses of collection. The tax is collected at the tribunal in each pueblo, and 20 per cent. is retained for expenses of local administration and 80 per cent. paid to the general treasury. This tax falls heavily on the poor and lightly on the rich. The tax on industry and commerce is similarly graded, according to the volume of business transacted by each merchant or mercantile corporation. The tax on real estate is absurdly low and is levied only on municipal property and on the rent, not the value.

The tax on imports is specific and not ad valorem; it amounts to about 13 per cent. of estimated values. The free list is very small, nearly everything of commercial value which is imported being subject to duty. The revenue from imports has increased from $566,143 in 1865 to $3,695,446 in 1894. It was about the same in 1897. On the other hand, the export tax, which was nothing in 1892, the loading tax, which was nothing in 1893, and the unloading tax, which was nothing in 1894, have all been increased in the last few years in order to meet the expenses of suppressing the insurrection. These three items yielded nearly $2,700,000 in 1897.

The monopoly of importing and selling opium is sold by auction to the highest bidder for a term of three years. The present contract runs until 1899, and yields $48,000 per month.

Every legal document must be drawn up on paper containing a revenue stamp engraved and printed in Spain, and every note, check, draft, bill of exchange, receipt, or similar document must bear a [175] revenue stamp in order to be valid. These stamps and stamped paper yielded a revenue of $646,000 in 1897.

The lottery is conducted by the government, the monthly drawings taking place in the treasury (hacienda) department. The sale of tickets yielded $1,000,000 over and above the prizes in 1897.


The standard of value has always, until within a few years, been the Mexican milled dollar.

All valuation of goods and labor are based on the silver dollar, and a change to the gold standard would result in great financial distress. While trade would

Indian huts on the Pasig River.

eventually adjust itself to the change, yet many merchants would be ruined in the process and would drag some banks down with them.

The Mexican dollar is the standard also in Hong-Kong and China, and the whole trade of the far East has for generations been conducted on a silver basis. Japan has within the last year broken away from this and established the gold standard, but in doing so the relative value of silver and gold was fixed at 32 1/2 to 1, or about the market rate.

Public debt.

I was unable to obtain any precise information in regard to the colonial debt. The last book on statistics of imports and exports was for the fiscal year 1894; and the last printed budget was for 1896-97, which was approved by the Queen Regent in August, 1896. Subsequent to this date, according to the statements made to us by foreign bankers, the Cortes authorized two colonial loans of $14,000,000 (silver) cash, known as Series A and Series B. The proceeds were to be used in suppressing the insurrection. Both were to be secured by a first lien on the receipts of the Manila custom-house.

Series A is said to have been sold in Spain and the proceeds to have been paid in the colonial office, but no part of them has ever reached the Philippines. Possibly a portion of it was used in sending out the 25,000 troops which came from Spain to the Philippines in the autumn of 1896.

Series B was offered for sale in Manila, but was not taken. An effort was then made to obtain subscribers in the provinces, but with little or no success. The government then notified the depositors in the Public Savings Bank (a branch of the treasury department similar to the postal savings bureaus in other countries) that their deposits would no longer be redeemed in cash, but only in Series B bonds. Some depositors were frightened and took bonds; others declined to do so. Then came the blockade of Manila, and all business was practically suspended.

Americanizing the Islands.

On Jan. 17, 1899, President McKinley announced to [176] his Cabinet the appointment of the following commission to visit and report on the affairs of the archipelago: Messrs. Jacob G. Schurman, president of Cornell University; Admiral George Dewey, U. S. N.; Maj.-Gen. Elwell S. Otis, U. S. A.; Col. Charles Denby, ex-minister to China; and Prof. Dean C. Worcester, of the University of Michigan. The report of this commission was sent to Congress in February, 1900. After reviewing the situation the commission reached the following conclusions:

1. The United States cannot withdraw from the Philippine Islands. We are there and duty binds us to remain. There is no escape from our responsibility to the Filipinos and to mankind for the government of the archipelago and the amelioration of the condition of the inhabitants.

2. The Filipinos are wholly unprepared for independence, and if independence were given to them they could not maintain it.

3. Under the third head is included a copy of Admiral Dewey's letter to Senator Lodge, which was read in the Senate the other day, denying Aguinaldo's claim that he was promised independence.

4. There being no Philippine nation, but only a collection of different peoples, there is no general public opinion in the archipelago; but the men of property and education, who alone interest themselves in public affairs, in general recognize as indispensable American authority, guidance, and protection.

5. Congress should, at the earliest practicable time, provide for the Philippines the form of government herein recommended or another equally liberal and beneficent.

6. Pending any action on the part of Congress, the commission recommends that the President put in operation this scheme of civil government in such parts of the archipelago as are at peace.

7. So far as the finances of the Philippines permit, public education should be promptly established, and, when established, free to all.

8. The greatest care should be taken in the selection of officials for administration. They should be men of the highest character and fitness, and partisan politics should be entirely separated from the government of the Philippines.

On the return of this commission the President appointed a second one, and prescribed their duties in the following letter of instructions:

Executive Mansion, April, 7, 1900, Washington.
The Secretary of War
Sir,—In the message transmitted to the Congress on Dec. 5, 1899, I said, speaking of the Philippine Islands: “As long as the insurrection continues the military arm must necessarily be supreme. But there is no reason why steps should not be taken from time to time to inaugurate governments essentially popular in their form as fast as territory is held and controlled by our troops. To this end I am considering the advisability of the return of the commission, or such of the members thereof as can be secured, to aid the existing authorities and facilitate this work throughout the islands.”

To give effect to the intention thus expressed, I have appointed Hon. William H. Taft, of Ohio; Prof. Dean C. Worcester, of Michigan; Hon. Luke E. Wright, of Tennessee; Hon. Henry C. Ide, of Vermont; and Prof. Bernard Moses, of California, commissioners to the Philippine Islands to continue and perfect the work of organizing and establishing civil government already commenced by the military authorities, subject in all respects to any laws which Congress may hereafter enact.

The commissioners named will meet and act as a board, and the Hon. William H. Taft is designated as president of the board. It is probable that the transfer of authority from military commanders to civil officers will be gradual and will occupy a considerable period. Its successful accomplishment and the maintenance of peace and order in the mean time will require the most perfect co-operation between the civil and military authorities in the islands, and both should be directed during the transition period by the same executive department. The commission will therefore report to the Secretary of War, and all their action will be subject to your approval and control.

You will instruct the commission to proceed to the city of Manila, where they will make their principal office, and to communicate with the military governor of the Philippine Islands, whom you will at the same time direct to render to them every assistance within his power in the [177] performance of their duties. Without hampering them by too specific instructions, they should in general be enjoined, after making themselves familiar with the conditions and needs of the country, to devote their attention in the first instance to the establishment of municipal governments, in which the natives of the islands, both in the cities and in the rural communities, shall be afforded the opportunity to manage their own local affairs to the fullest extent of which they are capable, and subject to the least degree of supervision and control which a careful study of their capacities and observation of the workings of native control show to be consistent with the maintenance of law, order, and loyalty.

The next subject in order of importance should be the organization of government in the larger administrative divisions corresponding to counties, departments, or provinces, in which the common interests of many or several municipalities falling within the same tribal lines or the same natural geographical limits, may best be subserved by a common administration. Whenever the commission is of the opinion that the condition of affairs in the islands is such that the central administration may safely be transferred from military to civil control, they will report that conclusion to you, with their recommendations as to the form of central government to be established for the purpose of taking over the control.

Beginning with Sept. 1, 1900, the authority to exercise, subject to my approval, through the Secretary of War, that part of the power of government in the Philippine Islands which is of a legislative nature is to be transferred from the military governor of the islands to this commission, to be thereafter exercised by it in the place and stead of the military governor, under such rules and regulations as you shall prescribe, until the establishment of the civil central government for the islands contemplated in the last foregoing paragraph, or until Congress shall otherwise provide. Exercise of this legislative authority will include the making of rules and orders, having the effect of law, for the raising of revenue by taxes, customs duties, and imposts; the appropriation and expenditure of public funds of the islands, the establishment of an educational system throughout the islands, the establishment of a system to secure an efficient civil service, the organization and establishment of courts, the organization and establishment of municipal and departmental governments, and all other matters of a civil nature for which the military governor is now competent to provide by rules or orders of a legislative character.

The commission will also have power during the same period to appoint to office such officers under the judicial, educational, and civil service systems, and in the municipal and departmental governments, as shall be provided for. Until the complete transfer of control the military governor will remain the chief executive head of the government of the islands, and will exercise the executive authority now possessed by him and not herein expressly assigned to the commission, subject, however, to the rules and orders enacted by the commission in the exercise of the legislative powers conferred upon them. In the mean time the municipal and departmental governments will continue to report to the military governor and be subject to his administrative supervision and control, under your direction, but that supervision and control will be confined within the narrowest limits consistent with the requirement that the powers of government in the municipalities and departments shall be honestly and effectively exercised and that law and order and individual freedom shall be maintained.

All legislative rules and orders, establishments of government and appointments to office by the commission will take effect immediately, or at such times as they shall designate, subject to your approval and action upon the coming in of the commission's reports, which are to be made from time to time as their action is taken. Wherever civil governments are constituted under the direction of the commission, such military posts, garrisons, and forces will be continued for the suppression of insurrection and brigandage, and the maintenance of law and order, as the military commander shall deem requisite, and the military forces shall be at all times subject under his orders to the call of the civil authorities for the maintenance of law and order and the enforcement of their authority. [178]

In the establishment of municipal governments the commission will take as the basis of their work the governments established by the military governor under his order of Aug. 8, 1899, and under the report of the board constituted by the military governor by his order of Jan. 29, 1900, to formulate and report a plan of municipal government, of which his Honor Cayetano Arellano, president of the Audiencia, was chairman, and they will give to the conclusions of that board the weight and consideration which the high character and distinguished abilities of its members justify.

In the constitution of departmental or provincial governments they will give special attention to the existing government of the island of Negros, constituted, with the approval of the people of that island, under the order of the military governor of July 22, 1899, and after verifying, so far as may be practicable, the reports of the successful working of that government, they will be guided by the experience thus acquired, so far as it may be applicable to the condition existing in other portions of the Philippines. They will avail themselves to the fullest degree practicable of the conclusions reached by the previous commission to the Philippines.

In the distribution of powers among the governments organized by the commission, the presumption is always to be in favor of the smaller subdivision, so that all the powers which can properly be exercised by the municipal government shall be vested in that government, and all the powers of a more general character which can be exercised by the departmental government shall be vested in that government, and so that in the governmental system, which is the result of the process, the central government of the islands, following the example of the distribution of the powers between the States and the national government of the United States, shall have no direct administration except of matters of purely general concern, and shall have only such supervision and control over local governments as may be necessary to secure and enforce faithful and efficient administration by local officers.

The many different degrees of civilization and varieties of custom and capacity among the people of the different islands preclude very definite instruction as to the part which the people shall take in the selection of their own officers; but these general rules are to be observed: That in all cases the municipal officers, who administer the local affairs of the people, are to be selected by the people, and that, wherever officers of more extended jurisdiction are to be selected in any way, natives of the islands are to be preferred, and, if they can be found competent and willing to perform the duties, they are to receive the offices in preference to any others.

It will be necessary to fill some offices for the present with Americans, which, after a time, may well be filled by natives of the islands. As soon as practicable a system for ascertaining the merit and fitness of candidates for civil office should be put in force. An indispensable qualification for all offices and positions of trust and authority in the islands must be absolute and unconditional loyalty to the United States, and absolute and unhampered authority and power to remove and punish any officer deviating from that standard must at all times be retained in the hands of the central authority of the islands.

In all the forms of government and administrative provisions which they are authorized to prescribe, the commission should bear in mind that the government which they are establishing is designed not for our satisfaction, or for the expression of our theoretical views, but for the happiness, peace, and prosperity of the people of the Philippine Islands, and the measures adopted should be made to conform to their customs, their habits, and even their prejudices, to the fullest extent consistent with the accomplishment of the indispensable requisites of just and effective government.

At the same time the commission should bear in mind, and the people of the islands should be made plainly to understand, that there are certain great principles of government which have been made the basis of our governmental system which we deem essential to the rule of law and the maintenance of individual freedom, and of which they have, unfortunately, been denied the experience possessed by us; that there are also certain practical rules of government which we have found to be essential to the preservation [179] of these great principles of liberty and law, and that these principles and these rules of government must be established and maintained in their islands for the sake of their liberty and happiness, however much they may conflict with the customs or laws of procedure with which they are familiar.

It will be the duty of the commission to make a thorough investigation into the titles to the large tracts of land held or claimed by individuals or by religious orders; into the justice of the claims and complaints made against such landholders by the people of the island or any part of the people, and to seek by wise and peaceable measures a just settlement of the controversies and redress of wrongs which have caused strife and bloodshed in the past. In the performance of this duty the commission are enjoined to see that no injustice is done; to have regard for substantial rights and equity, disregarding technicalities so far as substantial right permits, and to observe the following rules.

That the provision of the treaty of Paris, pledging the United States to the protection of all rights of property in the islands, and as well the principle of our own government which prohibits the taking of private property without due process of law, shall not be violated; that the welfare of the people of the islands, which should be a paramount consideration, shall be attained consistently with this rule of property right; that if it becomes necessary for the public interest of the people of the islands to dispose of claims to property which the commission find to be not lawfully acquired and held, disposition shall be made thereof by due legal procedure, in which there shall be full opportunity for fair and impartial hearing and judgment; that if the same public interests require the extinguishment of property rights lawfully acquired and held, due compensation shall be made out of the public treasury therefor; that no form of religion and no minister of religion shall be forced upon any community or upon any citizen of the islands; that upon the other hand no minister of religion shall be interfered with or molested in following his calling, and that the separation between State and Church shall be real, entire, and absolute.

It is evident that the most enlightened thought of the Philippine Islands fully appreciates the importance of these principles and rules, and they will inevitably within a short time command universal assent. Upon every division and branch of the government of the Philippines, therefore, must be imposed these inviolable rules:

That no person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law; that private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation; that in all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation, to be confronted with the witnesses against him, to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defence; that excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted; that no person shall be put twice in jeopardy for the same offence, or be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself; that the right to be secure against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be violated; that neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exist, except as a punishment for crime; that no bill of attainder, or ex-post-facto law shall be passed; that no law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech or of the press, or the rights of the people to peaceably assemble and petition the government for a redress of grievances; that no law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, and that the free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship without discrimination or preference shall forever be allowed.

It will be the duty of the commission to promote and extend, and as they find occasion, to improve, the system of education already inaugurated by the military authorities. In doing this they should regard as of first importance the extension of a system of primary education which shall be free to all, and which shall tend to fit the people for the duties of citizenship and for the ordinary avocations of a civilized community. This instruction should be given in the first instance in [180] every part of the islands in the language of the people. In view of the great number of languages spoken by the different tribes, it is especially important to the prosperity of the islands that a common medium of communication may be established, and it is obviously desirable that this medium should be the English language. Especial attention should be at once given to affording full opportunity to all the people of the islands to acquire the use of the English language.

It may be well that the main changes which should be made in the system of taxation and in the body of the laws under which the people are governed, except such changes as have already been made by the military government, should be relegated to the civil government which is to be established under the auspices of the commission. It will, however, be the duty of the commission to inquire diligently as to whether there are any further changes which ought not to be delayed, and, if so, they are authorized to make such changes, subject to your approval. In doing so they are to bear in mind that taxes which tend to penalize or repress industry and enterprise are to be avoided; that provisions for taxation should be simple, so that they may be understood by the people; that they should affect the fewest practicable subjects of taxation which will serve for the general distribution of the burden.

The main body of the laws which regulate the rights and obligations of the people should be maintained with as little interference as possible. Changes made should be mainly in procedure, and in the criminal laws to secure speedy and impartial trials, and at the same time effective administration and respect for individual rights.

In dealing with the uncivilized tribes of the islands the commission should adopt the same course followed by Congress in permitting the tribes of our North American Indians to maintain their tribal organization and government, and under which many of those tribes are now living in peace and contentment, surrounded by a civilization to which they are unable or unwilling to conform. Such tribal governments should, however, be subjected to wise and firm regulation; and, without undue or petty interference, constant and active effort should be exercised to prevent barbarous practices and introduce civilized customs.

Upon all officers and employes of the United States, both civil and military, should be impressed a sense of the duty to observe not merely the material but the personal and social rights of the people of the islands, and to treat them with the same courtesy and respect for their personal dignity which the people of the United States are accustomed to require from each other.

The articles of capitulation of the city of Manila on Aug. 13, 1898, concluded with these words:

This city, its inhabitants, its churches and religious worship, its educational establishments, and its private property of all descriptions are placed under the special safeguard of the faith and honor of the American army.

I believe that this pledge has been faithfully kept. As high and sacred an obligation rests upon the government of the United States to give protection for property and life, civil and religious freedom, and wise, firm, and unselfish guidance in the paths of peace and prosperity to all the people of the Philippine Islands. I charge this commission to labor for the full performance of this obligation, which concerns the honor and conscience of their country, in the firm hope that through their labors all the inhabitants of the Philippine Islands may come to look back with gratitude to the day when God gave victory to American arms at Manila and set their land under the sovereignty and the protection of the people of the United States.

Code of Civil government.

On Jan. 31, 1901, the Taft Commission enacted into law a code of civil government for the islands, thus outlined in the official report of the commission:

The pueblos of these islands sometimes include a hundred or more square miles. They are divided into so-called barrios, or wards, which are often very numerous and widely separated. In order that the interests of the inhabitants of each ward may be represented in the council, on the one hand, and that the body may not become so numerous as to be [181] unwieldy, on the other, it is provided that the councillors shall be few in number (eighteen to eight, according to the number of inhabitants), and shall be elected at large; that where the wards are more numerous than are the councillors the wards shall be grouped into districts, and that one councillor shall be in charge of each ward or district with power to appoint a representative from among the inhabitants of every ward thus assigned to him, so that he may the more readily keep in touch with conditions in that portion of the township which it is his duty to supervise and represent.

The subject of taxation has been made the object of especially careful attention. The effect of the old Spanish system was to throw practically the whole burden on those who could least afford to bear it. The poor paid the taxes, and the rich, in many instances, went free, or nearly so, unless they were unfortunate enough to hold office and thus incur responsibility for the taxes of others which they failed to collect. There was a considerable number of special taxes, many of which were irritating and offensive to the people, and yielded at the best a pitifully small revenue.

In dealing with the question of taxation it has been our purpose, first, to do away with all taxes which, through irritating those from whom they were collected or through the small amount of resulting revenue, were manifestly objectionable; second, to remove the so-called industrial taxes, except where levied on industries requiring police supervision; third, to abolish special taxes, such as the tax for lighting and cleaning the municipality and the tax for the repair of roads and streets; fourth, to provide abundant funds for the legitimate needs of the township by a system which should adjust the burden of contribution with some reference to the resources of those called upon to bear it. To this end provision has been made for a moderate tax on land and improvements thereon.

It is reasonably certain that at the outset there will be more or less opposition to this tax. This opposition will come from the rich, who have thus far escaped their fair share of the burden of taxation, and who will naturally be more or less unwilling to assume it. It is believed, however, that this opposition will be transient and will disappear as the people come to realize that the payment of taxes results in direct benefit to the communities in which they live and to themselves individually.

The exact rate of taxation on land and improvements is left to the several municipal councils, within certain limits. They may reduce it to one-fourth of 1 per cent. of the assessed valuation or raise it to one-half of 1 per cent.; but in any event they must spend the amount accruing from a tax of at least one-fourth of 1 per cent. on free public schools. Education is the crying need of the inhabitants of this country, and it is hoped and believed that the funds resulting from the land tax will be sufficient to enable us to establish an adequate primary-school system. Careful and, it is believed, just provisions have been made for the determination of values and for the protection of the rights of property owners.

In the matter of collection of revenues a complete innovation has been introduced, which, it is believed, will be productive of satisfactory results. It is intended to create for the islands a centralized system for the collection and disbursement of revenues, the head officer of which shall be the insular treasurer at Manila. It is proposed to establish subordinate offices in the several departments, and others, subordinate in turn to the several department al offices, in the various provinces. All revenues within any given province, whether for the municipal, provincial, departmental, or insular treasury, will be collected by deputies of the provincial treasurer, who will immediately turn over to the several municipalities all funds collected for them. It is believed that by this means a much higher degree of honesty and efficiency can be secured than would be the case were the collectors appointed by the municipalities or chosen by suffrage, while it will be of great convenience to the taxpayer to be able to meet his obligations to all departments of the government at one time, and thus escape annoyance at the hands of a multiplicity of officials, each of whom is collecting revenue for a different end. Furthermore, the provincial treasurer will know the exact amount paid in to each municipal treasury, and [182] will thus have a valuable check on the finances of every one in his province.

In order to meet the situation presented by the fact that a number of the pueblos have not as yet been organized since the American occupation, while some 250 others are organized under a comparatively simple form of government and fifty-five under a much more complicated form on which the new law is based, the course of procedure which must be followed in order to bring these various towns under the provisions of the new law has been prescribed in detail, and every effort has been made to provide against unnecessary friction in carrying out the change.

In view of the disturbed conditions which still prevail in some parts of the archipelago it has been provided that the military government should be given control of the appointment and arming of the municipal police, and that in all provinces where civil provincial government hams not been established by the commission the duties of the provincial governor, provincial treasurer, and provincial “fiscal” (prosecuting attorney) shall be performed by military officers assigned by the military governor for these purposes.

The law does not apply to the city of Manila or to the settlements of non-Christian tribes, because it is believed that in both cases special conditions require special legislation.

The question as to the best methods of dealing with the non-Christian tribes is one of no little complexity. The number of these tribes is greatly in excess of the number of civilized tribes, although the total number of Mohammedans and pagans is much less than the number of Christanized natives. Still, the non-Christian tribes are very far from forming an insignificant element of the population. They differ from each other widely, both in their present social, moral, and intellectual state and in the readiness with which they adapt themselves to the demands of modern civilization.

The necessity of meeting this problem has been brought home to the commission by conditions in the province of Benguet.

The Igorrotes, who inhabit this province, are a pacific, industrious, and relatively honest and truthful people, who have never taken any part in the insurrection, and who have rendered our forces valuable service by furnishing them with information, serving as carriers, and aiding them in other ways. They certainly deserve well of us. They are, however, illiterate pagans, and it is stated on good authority that there are not three Igorrotes in the province who can read or write. They are uncomplaining, and, when wronged, fly to the mountain fastnesses in the centre of the island, instead of seeking redress.

The conditions in Benguet may be taken as fairly typical of those which prevail in many other provinces, populated in whole or in part by harmless and amiable but ignorant and superstitious wild tribes. The commission has already passed an act for the establishment of township governments in this province, and it is believed that this measure will serve as a model for other acts necessitated by similar conditions in other provinces. The division of the province into townships and wards is provided for. The government of each township is nominally vested in a president and council, the latter composed of one representative from each ward of the township. The president and vice-president are chosen at large by a viva voce vote of the male residents of the township eighteen or more years of age, and the councillors are similarly chosen by the residents of the several barrios.

The difficulties arising from the complete illiteracy of the people are met by providing for the appointment of a secretary for each town, who shall speak and write Ilocano, which the Igorrotes understand, and English or Spanish. He is made the means of communication between the people and the provincial governor, makes and keeps all town records, and does all clerical work.

The president is the chief executive of the township, and its treasurer as well. He is also the presiding officer of a court consisting of himself and two councillors chosen by the council to act with him. This court has power to hear and adjudge violations of local ordinances.

It is believed that, by encouraging the municipal councils to attempt to make ordinances, and then giving them the benefits of the criticism and suggestions of the provincial governor with reference to such [183] attempts, they may be gradually taught much-needed lessons in self-government, while sufficient power is given to the governor to enable him to nullify harmful measures and to take the initiative when a council fails to act.

The Igorrotes are tillers of the soil, and a few of the inhabitants of each township have acquired very considerable wealth.

Civil government inaugurated.

On July 4, 1901, the authorities in Manila ceremoniously inaugurated civil government in the Philippines. The President had previously appointed Judge Taft civil governor of the islands, and Gen. Adna R. Chaffee (q. v.) military governor in succession to Gen. Arthur MacARTHURrthur (q. v.).

Commissioner Taft was escorted by Generals MacArthur and Chaffee from the palace to a great temporary tribune opposite the Plaza Palacio. Standing on a projecting centre of the Tribuna, Judge Taft took the oath of office, which was administered by Chief-Justice Arellano. Governor Taft was then introduced by General MacArthur, a salute being fired by the guns of Fort Santiago.

A feature of the inaugural address of Governor Taft was the announcement that on Sept. 1, 1901, the Philippine Commission would be increased by the appointment of three native members, Dr. Wardo Detavera, Benito Legarda, and Jose Luzuriaga. Before Sept. 1 departments would exist as follows, heads having been arranged thus: Interior Commissioner, Worcester; Commerce and Police Commissioner, Wright; Justice and Finance Commissioner, Ide; Public Instruction Commissioner, Moses. Of the twenty-seven provinces organized, Governor Taft said the insurrection still existed in five. This would cause the continuance of the military government in these provinces. Sixteen additional provinces were reported without insurrection, but as yet they had not been organized. Four provinces were not ready for civil government.

Governor Taft predicted that with the concentration of troops into larger garrisons it would be necessary for the people to assist the police in the preservation of order. Fleet launches would be procured, which would facilitate communication among the provinces as well as aid the postal and revenue departments. In connection with educational efforts, Governor Taft said that adults should be educated by an observation of American methods, He said that there was a reasonable hope that Congress would provide a tariff that would assist in the development of the Philippines instead of an application of the United States tariff. According to the civil governor, there was an unexpended balance in the insular treasury of $3,700,000, and an anual income of $10,000,000.

The reading of President McKinley's message of congratulation was enthusiastically cheered. The entire front of the Tribuna, a block long, was decorated with flags, and several hundred officers, with their families and friends, were seated therein. General MacArthur, Civil Governor Taft, and Military Governor Chaffee, with the other generals. Rear-Admiral Kempff and his staff, the United States commissioners and the justices of the Supreme Court were present. The mass of the people stood in the park opposite. The Filipino leaders were there, but there were more Americans than Filipinos present.

The transfer of the military authority to General Chaffee was carried out in the presence of the generals in General MacArthur's office. There was no formality.

Military and naval operations.

For an account of the principal operations of the United States forces against Spain and the Filipino insurgents the reader is referred to Aguinaldo, Dewey, MacARTHURrthur, Manila, Merritt; Spain, War with, and other readily suggested titles. In his last annual report as military commander of the Division of the Philippines, General MacArthur gave the folowing statistics of military operations from May 5, 1900, to June 30, 1901: 1,062 contacts between American troops and insurgents, involving the following casualties: Americans—killed, 245; wounded, 490; captured, 118; missing, 20. Insurgents—killed, 2,854; wounded. 1,193; captured, 6,572; surrendered, 23,095. During the same period the following material was captured from or surrendered by the insurgents: rifles, 15,693; rifle ammunition, 296,365 rounds; revolvers, 868; bolos, 3,516; cannon, 122; cannon ammunition, 10,270 rounds.

Chronology of the War.

The following is a list of the more important events from [184] the outbreak of the insurrection to October, 1901:

Feb. 4, 1899. The Filipinos, under Aguinaldo, attacked the American defences at Manila. The Americans assumed the offensive the next day, and in the fighting which ensued for several days the American loss was fifty-seven killed and 215 wounded. Five hundred Filipinos were killed, 1,000 wounded, and 500 captured.

Feb. 10. Battle of Caloocan.

March 13-19. General Wheaton attacked and occupied Pasig.

March 21-30. General MacArthur advanced towards and captured Malolos.

Military operations were partially suspended during the rainy season.

Meanwhile the southern islands were occupied by the American forces; Iloilo by General Miller, Feb. 11; Cebu by the Navy, March 27; and Negros, Mindanao, and the smaller islands subsequently.

A treaty was concluded with the Sultan of Sulu, in which his rights were guaranteed, and he acknowledged the supremacy of the United States.

With the advance of the dry season military operations on a much larger scale than heretofore were begun, the army of occupation having been reinforced by 30,000 men.

April 4. The commission issued a proclamation promising “The amplest liberty of self-government, reconcilable with just, stable, effective, and economical administration, and compatible with the sovereign rights and obligations of the United States.”

April 22–May 17. General Lawton led an expedition to San Isidro.

April 25–May 5. General MacArthur captured Calumpit and San Fernando.

June 10-19. Generals Lawton and Wheaton advanced south to Imnus.

June 26. General Hall took Calamba.

Aug. 16. General MacArthur captured Angeles.

Sept. 28. General MacArthur, after several days' fighting, occupied Porac.

Oct. 1-10. General Schwan's column operated in the southern part of Luzon and captured Rosario and Malabon.

Nov. 2. The Philippine commission appointed by the President, consisting of J. G. Schurman, Prof. Dean Worcester, Charles Denby, Admiral Dewey, and General Otis, which began its labors at Manila, March 20, and returned to the United States in September, submitted its preliminary report to the President.

Nov. 7. A military expedition on board transports, under General Wheaton, captured Dagupan.

Dec. 25. Gen. S. B. M. Young appointed military governor of northwestern Luzon.

Dec. 26. The Filipino general Santa Ana, with a force of insurgents, attacked the garrison at Subig; the Americans successfully repelled the attack.

Dec. 27. Colonel Lockett, with a force of 2,500 men, attacked a force of insurgents near Montalban; many Filipinos were killed.

Jan. 1, 1900. General advance of the American troops in southern Luzon; Cabuyac, on Laguna de Bay, taken by two battalions of the 39th Infantry; two Americans killed and four wounded.

Jan. 7. Lieutenant Gillmore and the party of Americans held as prisoners by the Filipinos arrive at Manila.

Jan. 12. A troop of the 3d Cavalry defeated the insurgents near San Fernando de la Union; the Americans lose two killed and three wounded. General Otis reports all of Cavite province as occupied by General Wheaton.

Jan. 17. Lieutenant McRae, with a company of the 3d Infantry, defeated an insurgent force under General Hizon and captured rifles and ammunition near Mabalacat.

Feb. 5. Five thousand Filipino insurgents attacked American garrison at Duroga and were repulsed.

Feb. 16. Expedition under Generals Bates and Bell leave Manila to crush rebellion in Camarines. March. Civil commission appointed by President McKinley (Win. H. Taft, Dean C. Worcester, Luke E. Wright, Henry C. Ide, Bernard Moses). They reached the Philippines in April.

April 7. General Otis relieved. General MacArthur succeeds him.

May 5. Gen. Pantelon Garcia, the chief Filipino insurgent in central Luzon, is captured.

May 29. Insurgents capture San Miguel de Mayamo, five Americans killed, seven [185] wounded, and Capt. Charles D. Reports made a prisoner.

June 8. Gen. Pio del Pilar is captured at San Pedro Macati.

June 12. General Grant reports the capture of an insurgent stronghold near San Miguel.

June 21. General MacArthur issues a proclamation of amnesty.

Nov. 14. Major Bell entered Tarlac.

Nov. 14. Brisk fighting near San Jacinto. Maj. John A. Logan killed.

Nov. 24. General Otis announced to the War Department that the whole of central Luzon was in the hands of the United States authorities; that the president of the Filipino congress, the Filipino secretary of state, and treasurer were captured, and that only small bands of the enemy were in arms, retreating in different directions, while Aguinaldo, a fugitive with a small escort, was being pursued towards the mountains.

Nov. 24. Bautista, president of the Filipino congress, surrenders to General MacArthur.

Nov. 26. The navy captured Vigan on the coast.

Nov. 26. At Pavia, island of Panay, the 18th and 19th Regiments drive the Filipinos out of their trenches; a captain and one private killed.

Nov. 28. Colonel Bell disperses the insurgents in the Dagupan Valley. Bayombong, in the province of Nueva Viscaya, defended by 800 armed Filipinos, surrenders to Lieutenant Monroe and fifty men of the 4th Cavalry.

Dec. 3. Gen. Gregorio del Pilar, one of the Filipino insurgent leaders, is killed in a fight near Cervantes.

Dec. 4. Vigan, held by American troops under Lieutenant-Colonel Parker, attacked by 800 Filipinos; they are driven off, leaving forty killed and thirty-two prisoners; the Americans lose eight men.

Dec. 11. General Tierona, the Filipino insurgent commander in Cagayan, surrenders the entire province to Captain McCalla, of the Newark.

Dec. 11. The President directed General Otis to open the ports of the Philippines to commerce.

Dec. 19. General Lawton was killed in attacking San Mateo.

Jan. 22, 1901. Treaty with Spain for the purchase of the island of Cibutu and Cagayan for $100,000 ratified by United States Senate.

Jan. 28. Petition from Filipino federal party praying for civil government presented to the Senate.

March 1. Twenty-one officers and 120 bolomen surrender.

March 23. Aguinaldo captured by General Funston.

April 2. Aguinaldo takes oath of allegiance.

April 20. General Tinio surrendered.

June 15. United States Philippine Commission appoints Arellano, chief-justice, and six other Supreme Court judges.

June 21. Promulgation of President McKinley's order establishing civil government and appointing William H. Taft the first governor.

June 23. General MacArthur is succeeded by General Chaffee.

July 4. Civil government established.

July 24. General Zunbano with twenty-nine officers and 518 men surrender at Zabayas.

Sept. 29. Massacre of forty-eight Americans at Balangiga, Samar.

October. General Hughes, with a portion of the 9th United States Infantry, sent to Samar; burns Balangiga and pursues the insurgents.

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