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Xenophon, Hellenica (ed. Carleton L. Brownson) 23 23 Browse Search
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 23 23 Browse Search
Aristotle, Politics 1 1 Browse Search
Isocrates, Speeches (ed. George Norlin) 1 1 Browse Search
Pausanias, Description of Greece 1 1 Browse Search
Xenophon, Minor Works (ed. E. C. Marchant, G. W. Bowersock, tr. Constitution of the Athenians.) 1 1 Browse Search
Polybius, Histories 1 1 Browse Search
M. Tullius Cicero, De Officiis: index (ed. Walter Miller) 1 1 Browse Search
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Browsing named entities in A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith). You can also browse the collection for 370 BC or search for 370 BC in all documents.

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Alexander (*)Ale/candros), tyrant of PHERAE. The accounts of his usurpation vary somewhat in minor points; Diodorus (15.61 ) tells us that, on the assassination of Jason, B. C. 370, Polydorus his brother ruled for a year, and was then poisoned by Alexander, another brother. According to Xenophon (Xenoph. Hell. 6.4.34), Polydorus was murdered by his brother Polyphron, and Polyphron, in his turn, B. C. 369, * This date is at variance with Pausanias (6.5); but, see Wesseling on Diod. (15.75.) by Alexander--his nephew, according to Plutarch, who relates also that Alexander worshipped as a god the spear with which he slew his uncle. (Plut. Pelop. p. 293, &c.; Wess. ad Diod. l.c.) Alexander governed tyrannically, and according to Diodorus (l.c.), differently from the former rulers, but Polyphron, at least, seems to have set him the example. (Xen. l.c.) The Thessalian states, however, which had acknowledged the authority of Jason the Tagus (Xen. Hell. 6.1.4, 5, &c.; Diod. 15.60), were not s
ebes. Of his friendship towards the Athenians he gave proof, 1st, by advocating their claim to the possession of Amphipolis (Aesch. *Peri\ *Parapr. p. 32); and, 2ndly, by adopting Iphicrates as his son. (Id. p. 32.) It appears to have been in the reign of Amyntas, as is perhaps implied by Strabo (Exc. vii. p. 330), that the seat of the Macedonian government was removed from Aegae or Edessa to Pella, though the former still continued to be the burying-place of the kings. Justin (7.4) relates, that a plot was laid for his assassination by his wife Eurydice, who wished to place her son-in-law and paramour, Ptolemy of Alorus, on the throne, but that the design was discovered to Amyntas by her daughter. Diodorus (15.71) calls Ptolemy of Alorus the son of Amyntas ; but see Wesseling's note ad loc., and Thirlwall, Gr. Hist. vol. v. p. 162. Amyntas died in an advanced age, B. C. 370, leaving three legitimate sons, Alexander, Perdiccas, and the famous Philip. (Just. l.c. ; Diod. 15.60.)
Apollodo'rus (*)Apollo/dworos). 1. Of ACHARNE in Attica, son of Pasion, the celebrated banker, who died B. C. 370, when his son Apollodorus was twenty-four years of age. (Dem. pro Phorm. p. 951.) His mother, who married Phormion, a freedman of Pasion, after her husband's death, lived ten years longer, and after her death in B. C. 360, Phormion became the guardian of her younger son, Pasicles. Several years later (B. C. 350), Apollodorus brought an action against Phormion, for whom Demosthenes wrote a defence, the oration for Phormion, which is still extant. In this year, Apollodorus was archon eponymus at Athens. (Diod. 16.46.) When Apollodorus afterwards attacked the witnesses who had supported Phormion, Demosthenes wrote for Apollodorius the two orations still extant kata\ *Stefa/nou. (Aeschin. de Fals. Leg. p. 50; Plut. Dem. 15.) Apollodorus had many and very important law-suits, in most of which Demosthenes wrote the speeches for him (Clinton, Fast. Hell. ii. p. 440, &100.3d. e
; it was not in his life that retribution was to come ; but while he was consulting the Delphic oracle, Damagetus, king of Ialysus in Rhodes, being there at the same time, was enjoined by the god "to marry the daughter of the best of the Greeks." Such a command, he thought, could have but one interpretation; so he took to wife the daughter of Aristomenes, who accompanied him to Rhodes, and there ended his days in peace. The Rhodians raised to him a splendid monument, and honoured him as a hero, and from him were descended the illustrious family of the Diagoridae. (Paus. 4.24; Pind. Ol. vii.; Müll. Dor. 1.7.11.) His bones were said to have been brought back to Messenia (Paus. 4.32); his name still lived in the hearts of his worshipping countrymen; and later legends told, when Messenia had once more regained her place among the nations (B. C. 370), how at Leuctra the apparition of Aristomenes had been seen, aiding the Theban host and scattering the bands of Sparta. (Paus. 4.32.) [E.E
Calli'bius 2. One of the leaders of the democratic party at Tegea, B. C. 370, who having fiiled in obtaining the sanction of the Tegeans assembly for the project of uniting the Arcadian towns into one body. endeavoured to gain their point by an appeal to arms. These were, however, defeated by the oligarchical leader, Stasippus, and Proxenus, the colleague of Callibius, was slain. Callibius on this retreated with his forces close to the walls of the city, and, while he affected to open a negotiation with Stasippus, waited for the arrival of a reinforcement for which he had sent from Mantineia. On its appearance, Stasippus and his friends fled from the city and took refuge in the temple of Artemis; but the party of Callibius unroofed the building and attacked them with missiles, and being thus obliged to surrender, they were taken to Tegea and put to death after the mockery of a trial. (Xen. Hell. 6.5.6, &c.; comp. Paus. 8.27.) [E.E]
A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith), (search)
Cleo'menes Ii. the 25th king of Sparta of the Agid line, was the son of Cleombrotus I. and the brother of Agesipolis II., whom he succeeded in B. C. 370. He died in B. C. 309, after a reign of sixty years and ten months; but during this long period we have no information about him of any importance. He had two sons, Acrotatus and Cleonymus. Acrotatus died during the life of Cleomenes, upon whose death Areus, the son of Acrotatus, succeeded to the throne. [AREUS I; CLEONYMUS.] (Diod. 20.29; Plut. Agis 3; Paus. 1.13.3, 3.6.1; Manso, Sparta, 3.1, p. 164, 2. pp. 247, 248: Diod. 15.60, contradicts himself about the time that Cleomenes reigned, and is evidently wrong; see Clinton, Fast. ii. pp. 213, 214.) [P.S]
Da'mophon (damofw=n), a sculptor of Messene, was the only Messenian artist of any note. (Paus. 4.31.8.) His time is doubtful. Heyne and Winckelmann place him a little later than Phidias; Quatremère de Quincy from B. C. 340 to B. C. 300. Sillig (Catal. Art. s. v. Demophon) argues, from the fact that he adorned Messene and Megalopolis with his chief works, that he lived about the time when Messene was restored and Megalopolis was built. (B. C. 372-370.) Pausanias mentions the following works of Damophon: At Aegius in Achaia, a statue of Lucina, of wood, except the face, hands, and toes, which were of Pentelic marble, and were, no doubt, the only parts uncovered: also, statues of Hygeia and Asclepius in the shrine of Eileithyia and Asclepius, bearing the artist's name in an iambic line on the base: at Messene, a statue of the Mother of the Gods, in Parian marble, one of Artemis Laphria, and several marble statues in the temple of Asclepius: at Megalopolis, wooden statues of Hermes and A
of works, most of which were of an historical nature, but none of them has come down to us, and all we possess of his productions consists of a number of scattered fragments. His principal work was-- 1. A history of Greece A history of Greece, h( tw=n *(Ellhnikw=n i(stori/a (Diod. 15.60), or, as others simply call it, i(stori/ai. It commenced with the death of the three princes, Amyntas, the father of Philip of Macedonia, Agesipolis of Sparta, and Jason of Pherae, that is, with the year B. C. 370, and carried the history down at least to B. C. 281, so that it embraced a period of at least 89 years. The number of books of which it consisted is not known, though their number seems to have amounted to about 28. Some ancient writers speak of a work of Duris entitled *Makedonika/, and the question as to whether this was a distinct work, or merely a part of or identical with the i(stori/ai, has been much discussed in modern times. Grauert (Histor. Analect. p. 217) and Clinton maintain, t
he had but recently expressed his contempt. (Xen. Hell. 6.3. §§ 18-20, 4. §§ 1-15; Diod. 15.33, 51-56; Plut. Ages. 27, 28, Pelop. 20-23, Cam. 19, Reg. et Imp. Apoph. p. 58, ed. Tauchn., De seips. cit. inv. land. 16, De San. Tuend. Prace. 23; Paus. 8.27, 9.13; Polyaen. 2.2; C. Nep. Epam. 6; Cic. Tusc. Disp. 1.46, de Off. 1.24; Suid. s. v. *)Epaminw/ndas.) The project of Lycomedes for the founding of Megalopolis and the union of Arcadia was vigorously encouraged and forwarded by Epaminondas, B. C. 370, as a barrier against Spartan dominion, though we need not suppose with Pausanias that the plan originated with him. (Xen. Hell. 6.5.6, &c.; Paus. 8.27, 9.14; Diod. 15.59; Aristot. Pol. 2.2, ed. Bekk.) In the next year, B. C. 369, the first invasion of the Peloponnesus by the Thebans took place, and when the rest of their generals were anxious to return home, as the term of their command was drawing to a close, Epaminondas and Pelopidas persuaded them to remain and to advance against Spart
took Hyampolis and ravaged its land, leaving the rest of the country undisturbed. He also demolished the fortifications of the Lacedaemonian colony of Heracleia in Trachinia, which commanded the passage from Thessaly into southern Greece, evidently (says Xenophon) entertaining no fear of an attack on his own country, but wishing to keep open a way for himself should he find it expedient to march to the south. (Xen. Hell. 6.4.27; comp. Diod. 15.57, who refers the demolition of Heracleia to B. C. 370.) Jason was now in a position which held out to him every prospect of becoming master of Greece. The Pythian games were approaching, and he proposed to march to Delphi at the head of a body of Thessalian troops, and to preside at the festival. Magnificent preparations were made for this, and much alarm and suspicion appear to have been excited throughout Greece. The Delphians, fearing for the safety of the sacred treasures, consulted the oracle on the subject, and received for answer that
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