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Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 34 (ed. Evan T. Sage, Ph.D. Professor of Latin and Head of the Department of Classics in the University of Pittsburgh), chapter 9 (search)
o towns separated by a wall. One was inhabited by Greeks from Phocaea, whence came the Massilienses also, the other by the Spaniards; but the Greek town, being entirely open to the sea, had only a small extent of wall, of less than four hundred paces in length, while the Spaniards, who were farther back from the sea, had a wall three miles around. A third class of inhabitants, Roman colonists, was added by the deified CaesarSince one of Pompey's sons fell in the battle of Munda (45 B.C.), the establishment of the colony was probably the work of Caesar (the other son of Pompey survived to contend with Augustus). after the final defeat of the sons of Pompey, and at present all are fused into one mass, the Spaniards first, and later the Greeks, having been received into Roman citizenship. One who saw them at that time would wonder what secured the safety of the Greeks, with the open sea on one side and the Spaniards, so fierce and warlike a people, their neighbours on t
J. B. Greenough, Benjamin L. D'Ooge, M. Grant Daniell, Commentary on Caesar's Gallic War, The Life of Caius Julius Caesar. (search)
igns. The first of these was in Asia Minor, where he conquered so easily that he reported it to the senate in the words that have since become famous: "Veni, vidi, vici." By the battle of Thapsus in Africa (B. C. 46) and that of Munda in Spain (B. C. 45), the Pompeian party was finally crushed. Caesar now returned to Rome, where he was made imperator — possessing the entire imperium, or military dominion of Rome, not of a single colony or province merely — and perpetual dictator 60Forms the First Triumvirate. 59Consul. 58-49Proconsul in Gaul. 56Meeting of the Triumvirate at Luca. 50The Trouble with Pompey begins. 49Crosses the Rubicon. Civil War begun. 48The Battle of Pharsalia. 46The Battle of Thapsus. Declared Dictator for ten years. 45The Battle of Munda. Appointed Imperator for life. 44The Conspiracy. Assassinated in the Senate House on the Ides of March.
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition., Life of Cicero. (search)
ing the murder of Caesar. The chief literary fruits of this period of leisure were three works on oratory (De Claris Oratoribus, Orator, and De Partitione Oratoria), and several philosophic works (De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum, Academica, Tuscalanae Quaestiones, De Natura Deorum, De Senectute): Meantime his domestic relations were far from happy. In B.C. 46 he had divorced his wife Terentia and married his rich young ward Publilia, from whom, however, he separated in the following year. In B.C. 45 his daughter Tullia died suddenly. Cicero was tenderly attached to her, and it was in part as a distraction from his grief that he wrote some of the works just mentioned. He now seemed to be thoroughly given over to a life of dignified literary retirement, when the murder of Caesar (March 15, B.C. 44) once more plunged the state into a condition of anarchy. From the Murder of Caesar to the Death of Cicero (B.C. 44-43) Though Cicero had no share in the conspiracy against Caesar, his sympat
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero , Allen and Greenough's Edition., The Roman Constitution. (search)
the equestrian census (see p. lxii, above). From this time the Senators and the Equites contended for the control of the courts. Sulla restored to the Senators the exclusive privilege of sitting as judices (B.C. 80), but the Aurelian Law (B.C. 70) provided that the jurors should be taken, one-third from the Senators and two-thirds from the Equestrian Order, and that one-half of the Equites chosen (i.e. one-third of the whole number of judices) should have held the office of Tribunus Aerarius (i.e. president of one of the thirty-five local tribes, see p. liv, above). This regulation remained in force until the dictatorship of Caesar, B.C. 45, when this decuria of Tribuni Aerarii was abolished. A majority of the jurors decided the verdict. The president had no vote, nor did he decide the law of the case: he had merely charge of the proceedings as a presiding magistrate. (Cf. Verr. 1. 32, for a hint at his powers.) For the method of voting, see note on Defence of Milo, p. 177, l. 19.
J. B. Greenough, G. L. Kittredge, Select Orations of Cicero, Allen and Greenough's Edition., section 7 (search)
imperator: after the news of Pompey's death (B.C. 48) Caesar was made dictator rei publicae constituendae, at the same time receiving certain other special grants of power, and retaining the imperium, which he had now held uninterruptedly for twelve years. Hence the exaggerated expression imperator unus; for in the original sense of this title (see note on p. 252, l. 6) it could be borne by as many officers as was necessary. It was not until the spring of B.C. 45, some months after the delivery of this oration, that Imperator became the title of a new magistrate in whom the imperium was vested for his life, to be transmitted to his descendants. This was the commencement of the Empire, though the office was suspended from the death of Caesar till it was revived by Augustus. From this time the old use of this title was rare. alterum, second. Cicero was imperator by virtue of his provincial government in Cilicia. fascis laureatos: the fasces were wreathed with laurel when the c
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, CURIA HOSTILIA (search)
d the Carthaginians in 263 B.C. (Plin. NH xxxv. 22; see TABULA VALERIA (2)). It was restored by Sulla in 80 B.C. and somewhat enlarged, the statues of Pythagoras and Alcibiades, which had stood at the corners of the Comitium, being removed (Plin. xxxiv. 26; cf. Dio xl. 49). In 52 B.C. it was burnt down by the partisans of Clodius and rebuilt by Sulla's son Faustus (Cic. pro Mil. 90, and Ascon. in loc. ; Pp. 29, 40, ed. Kiessling and Schoell. Dio, loc. cit.; Cic. de fin. v. 2 (written in 45 B.C.): Curiam nostram, Hostiliam dico, non hanc novam, quae minor mihi videtur postquam est maior, must also refer to this curia, and not to that of the elder Sulla, as Richter, 94, thinks). In 44 B.C. it was decided to build a new curia (Dio xliv. 5: e)peidh\ to\ *osti/lion kai/per a)noikodomhqe\n kaqh|re/qh). Part of its site was occupied by the temple of FELICITAS (q.v.). The curia was, like the comitium, inaugurated as a templum (Varro ap. Gell. xiv. 7. 7). According to what we know of the
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, ROSTRA (search)
re above the floor of the Comitium.' It has a fine pavement of Monte Verde tufa, along the front of which runs a raised kerb. According to one view these monuments are attributable to the period of Sulla (JRS 1922, 21-25 ; Mitt. 1905, 32-39; TF 61-66). Whether the 'Tomb of Romulus ' was hidden from view at this period or later, is uncertain. The curved front of the rostra, as represented by the canalis with the beaks of ships with which it was adorned, is held to be represented in a coin of 45 B.C. of Lollius Palikanus (HC p. 69, fig. 26; BM. Rep. i. 517, 4011-3). The arcade at the back of the rostra Augusti, which Boni (NS 1900, 627-634) has called the rostra Caesaris, belongs to the time of Sulla, and is simply a low viaduct to support the CLIVUS CAPITOLINUS (q.v.) and a street branching off from it (P1. 227-228; CR 1901, 87-89; HC cit., Mitt. 1902, 13-16; 1905, 14-15, 25; JRS 1922, 15-16). On the rostra, see Jord. i. 2. 353-355; Petersen, Comitium, Rostra, Grab des Romulus (Rome 19
Frank Frost Abbott, Commentary on Selected Letters of Cicero, Cicero's Public Life and Contemporary Politics. (search)
purpose to retain the supreme power in his own hands, especially when, at the close of the year 46, Caesar, on departing for Spain, left the city in charge of eight praefecti, who were directly responsible to his personal representatives, Cornelius Balbus and C. Oppius. Suet. Iul. 76; Dio Cass. 43.28; Cic. Fam. 6.8.2; Tac. Ann. 12.60. 35. Caesar defeated the last of the Pompeians, who had rallied under the leadership of Labienus and the two sons of Pompey, at Munda,Bell. Hisp. 31. Mar. 17, 45 B.C., and returned to Rome in September to continue the reforms which he had already begun, and to make preparations for his great campaign against the Parthians in the following year. In the meantime a conspiracy was forming against him, led by a few disappointed office-seekers and fanatics, and fostered by the traditional Roman prejudice against the title of rex and the regal insignia. The indiscreet act of Antony and of some other personal friend (or enemy?), in offering a diadem to Cae
Frank Frost Abbott, Commentary on Selected Letters of Cicero, The Private Life of Cicero. (search)
et in ista luce vive: omnis peregrinatio — quad ego ab adulescentia iudicavi — obscura et sordidast. Fam. 2.12.2. 51. No sketch, however brief, of Cicero's private life would be complete without some reference to the connection between it and his philosophical work. In the early part of the year 46 B.C. he was divorced from Terentia,Plut. Cic. 41. in November his son Marcus left Rome to pursue his studies in Athens, Att. 12.8 (written Nov.11, 46 B.C.). and, hardest of all to bear, in Feb., 45 B.C., his beloved daughter Tullia died.Schmidt, Briefw. p.271. Cicero was overwhelmed with grief, and at his lonely villa upon a little island in the river Astura, gave himself up to the perusal of such books as he thought would help him to bear his loss 5; and as he gradually gained some control over his feelings, he began the composition of works in a similar vein. His purpose gradually widened until it included the development of a complete philosophical system, and for twelve months he
Frank Frost Abbott, Commentary on Selected Letters of Cicero, Cicero's Family and Friends. (search)
during the year of Cicero's exile. pro Sest. 68. In 56 B.C. Tullia married Furius Crassipes. Q. fr. 2.4.2. The match was regarded as a good one, but for reasons unknown to us Crassipes and Tullia were soon divorced. Her next matrimonial venture was with P. Cornelius Dolabella, Att. 6.6.1; Fam. 8.6.1. the Caesarian politician. Their married life proved to be a most unhappy one, and they were probably divorced towards the close of the year 46 B.C. Fam. 6.18.5. Tullia herself died in Feb., 45 B.C.,Schmidt, Briefw. p.271. and her father was plunged in the deepest grief, in which his friends Caesar, Lucceius, Sulpicius, and others sought to comfort him by letters of condolence. Att. 13.20.1; Fam. 4.5; 5.13; 5.14; Att. 12.13.1. Marcus Tullius Cicero filius. 54. Cicero's only son Marcus was born in 65 B.C. The father gave his personal attention for some time to the young man's education, and sent him later to Athens to pursue his studies, in the hope that he would take up the l
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