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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Van Cortlandt, Oliver Stevense 1600-1684 (search)
Van Cortlandt, Oliver Stevense 1600-1684 Military officer; born in Wijk, Holland, in 1600; received a fair education; arrived in New Netherland as an officer of the West India Company March 28, 1638; was made customs officer in 1639; had charge of the public stores of the company in 1643-48; then became a merchant and brewer. He was made colonel of the burgher guard in 1649; was appointed mayor (burgomaster) of New Amsterdam in 1654; and held that office almost without interruption till 1664, when New Amsterdam was surrendered to the British. He was then appointed by Governor Stuyvesant one of the commissioners to arrange a settlement with the British. In 1663 he took a prominent part in settling the Connecticut boundary dispute, and in 1664 in settling the claims of Capt. John Scott to Long Island, and also held trusts under the English governors Nicholls, Lovelace, and Dongan. He died in New York, April 4, 1684. His son, Jacob, born in New York City, July 7, 1658, was a m
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Van Rensselaer, Killian 1595-1674 (search)
Rensselaer, and Columbia. The tract, which was named Rensselaerswick, was colonized with immigrants from Holland. Van Rensselaer never visited the colony, but directed its affairs through a sheriff. To protect the colonists from the Indians, he ordered that they should all live near each other, except the tobaccoplanters and farmers. After his death, in 1644, the West India Company became jealous of the success of the colony, and Governor Stuyvesant, with a military escort, visited it in 1648, and gave orders that no buildings should be constructed within a certain distance of Fort Orange. Subsequently he endeavored to restrict the privileges of Van Rensselaer's sons. His son, Jeremias, colonist, born in Amsterdam, Holland, presumably about 1632, was in charge of Rensselaerswick, N. Y., for sixteen years. When the English threatened New Netherland he was appointed to preside over the convention in New Amsterdam to adopt measures of defence. In 1664, after the province was sur
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Vane, Sir Henry 1612- (search)
nson Winthrop whom he had superseded as governor of Massachussets, led a strong opposition to him, and the next year he was defeated as a candidate for re-election, but became a member of the General Court. Late in the summer of 1637 he sailed for England, was elected to Parliament, became one of the treasurers of the navy, and in 1640 was knighted. In the Long Parliament he was a member, and a strong opponent of royalty He was the principal mover of the solemn league and covenant, and in 1648 was a leader of the minority in Parliament which favored the rejection of terms of settlement offered by the King. In 1649 he was a member of the council of state, and had almost exclusive direction of the navy. He was then considered one of the foremost men Sir Henry Vane in the nation, and Milton wrote a fine sonnet in his praise. He and Cromwell were brought in conflict by the forcible dissolution of the Long Parliament by the latter. Vane was leader of the Rebellion Parliament in 1
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Welles, Thomas 1598- (search)
Welles, Thomas 1598- Colonial governor; born in England in 1598; came to the United States before 1636, and settled in Hartford, Conn., where he was magistrate from 1637 till his death in Wethersfield, Conn., Jan. 14, 1660. He was treasurer of the colony in 1639-51; secretary of state in 1640-48; commissioner of the United Colonies in 1649 and 1654; moderator of the General Court during the absence of Gov. Edward Hopkins in 1654; deputy-governor in the same year; governor in 1655 and 1658; and deputygovernor again in 1659.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), White, John 1575-1648 (search)
White, John 1575-1648 clergyman; born in Stanton, Oxfordshire, England, in 1575; educated at Oxford; was rector of Trinity Church, Dorchester, in 1606; and drew up the first charter of the Massachusetts colony. He died in Dorchester, England, July 21, 1648. Clergyman; born in Watertown, Mass., in 1677; graduated at Harvard in 1698; held a pastorate in Gloucester, Mass., in 1703-60. He was the author of New England's lamentation for the decay of godliness, and a Funeral sermon on John wise. He died in Gloucester, Mass., Jan. 17, 1760. Jurist; born in Kentucky in 1805; received an academic education; admitted to the bar and began practice in Richmond, Ky.; member of Congress in 1835-45 and was speaker in 1841-43; and was appointed judge of the 19th District of Kentucky in March, 1845. He died in Richmond, Ky., Sept. 22, 1845. Military officer; born in England; was a surgeon in the British army; settled in Philadelphia, and after the outbreak of the Revolutiona
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Witchcraft, Salem (search)
rrible delusion of belief in witchcraft accompanied the New England settlers, and they adopted English laws against it. For a long A witch. time it was simply an undemonstrative belief, but at length it assumed an active feature in society in Massachusetts, as it was encouraged by some of the clergy, whose influence was almost omnipotent. Before 1688 four persons accused of witchcraft had suffered death in the vicinity of Boston. The first was Margaret Jones, of Charlestown, hanged in 1648. In 1656, Ann Hibbens, sister of Governor Bellingham, of Massachusetts, was accused of being a witch, tried by a jury, and found guilty. The magistrates refused to accept the verdict, and the case was carried to the General Court, where a majority of that body declared her guilty, and she was hanged. In 1688 a young girl in Danvers (a part of Salem) accused a maid-servant of theft. The servant's mother, a wild Irishwoman and a Roman Catholic, declared with vehemence that the charge was fa
ve their swords, pens, etc., in their left hands in the impressions, instead of the right. Had they been engraved for the purpose of printing, the figures would have been reversed on the plate, so as to print right. Euclid was printed with diagrams on copper in 1482. The copperplate roller-press was invented in 1545. Etching on copper by means of aqua-fortis invented by F. Mazzuoli or Parmegiano, A. D. 1532. Mezzotinto engraving invented by De Siegen, 1643; improved by Prince Rupert, 1648; and by Sir Christopher Wren, 1662. Mr. Evelyn showed me most excellent painting in little [miniature]; in distemper, in Indian incke, water-colours : graveing; and, above all, the whole secret of mezzo-tinto, and the manner of it, which is very pretty, and good things done with it. — Pepys's Diary, Nov. 1, 1665. At Gresham College, the Royal Society meeting, Mr. Hooke explained to Mr. Pepys the art of drawing pictures by Prince Rupert's rule and machine and another of Dr. Wren's [Sir C
-blast ovens in 1837. The experiment at Mauch Chunk was repeated, with the addition of the hot blast, in 1838, 1839, and succeeded in producing about two tons per day. The Pioneer furnace at Pottsville was blown July, 1839. The first iron-works in America were established near Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619. In 1622, however, the works were destroyed, and the workmen, with their families, massacred by the Indians. The next attempt was at Lynn, Massachusetts, on the banks of the Saugus, in 1648. The ore used was the bog ore, still plentiful in that locality. At these works Joseph Jenks, a native of Hammersmith, England, in 1652, by order of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, coined silver shillings, sixpences, and threepences, known as the pine-tree coinage, from the device of a pine-tree on one face. Of the special processes for treating and purifying, a few may be cited:— Smelting by blast with charcoal, pit-coal, and coke, and with the addition of limestone or shells as
y of lead an tin was used. Pliny refers to the use of lead for ruling lines on papyrus. La Moine cites a document of 1387 ruled with graphite. Slips of graphite in wooden sticks (pencils) are mentioned by Gesner, Zurich, in 1565; he credits England with the production. They were doubtless the product of the Borrowdale mine, then lately discovered. In the early part of the seventeenth century, black-lead pencils are distinctly described by several writers. They are noticed by Ambrosinus, 1648; spoken of by Pettus, in 1683, as inclosed in fir or cedar. Red and black chalk pencils were used in Germany in 1450; in fact, fragments of chalk, charcoal, and shaped sticks of colored minerals had been in use since times previous to all historic mention. Painting of the body, face, and limbs is an accomplishment in all countries where clothing is scanty, and some tribes have ingeniously contrived to make it permanent by tattooing. This art is both ancient and modern, and has its prof
(Shoemaking.) A small slip of wood used to fasten the upper to the sole, and the soles to each other. See Fig. 3568, page 1648. Shoe-pegs are said to have been invented by Joseph Walker, of Massachusetts, about 1818. They are made by machinery in which the tool is securely clamped to a plate capable of motion in one or several directions by means of screws. In 1648, engravings published at Rome by Maignan show lathes for turning the surfaces of mirrors, in which the tool was guided by ith their families, massacred by the Indians. The next attempt was at Lynn, Massachusetts, on the banks of the Saugus, in 1648. The ore used was the bog ore, still plentiful in that locality. At these works Joseph Jenks, a native of Hammersmith, Eins unaffected by ordinary atmospheric changes. It was first observed by Von Helmont, in 1640, and was subsequently, in 1648, made by Glauber from potash and silica, and by him termed fluid silica. It is employed as a fire-proof coating for var
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