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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Acadia, or Acadie, (search)
Acadia, or Acadie, The ancient name of Nova Scotia (q. v.) and adjacent regions. It is supposed to have been visited by Sebastian Cabot in 1498, but the first a, after repeated struggles between the English and French for the possession of Acadia, it was ceded to Great Britain by the treaty of Utrecht in 1713. But for many t the point of the bayonet. Fully 2,000 were thus expelled from their homes in Acadia. The men and boys assembled at the church went first; the sisters, wives, and h dominion. Some families went to sea in open boats, to find their way back to Acadia; and. coasting along the shores of New England, were there met by orders from N who signed the petition, and who had been persons of wealth and distinction in Acadia, and sent them to England, with a request that, to prevent their being troublesms to have approved the measure; and the Lords of Trade, when the desolation of Acadia was made complete, congratulated the profligate monarch that the zeal of the g
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Alexander, Sir William, 1580-1640 (search)
es when he was fourteen years old, and was cherished by Scotchmen as a descendant of the Macdonalds. His Aurora contained more than one hundred sonnets, songs, and elegies which displayed the effects of ill-requited love. When the Council for New England perceived the intention of the French beyond the St. Croix to push their settlements westward, they granted to Sir William (who had been knighted in 1614) all of the territory now known as New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, excepting a part of Acadia proper; and the King confirmed it, and issued a patent Sept. 10, 1621. The territory granted was called Nova Scotia--New Scotland — and it was given to Sir William and his heirs in fee without conditions. It was erected into a royal palatinate, the proprietor being invested with the rights and powers of a count-palatine. It was designed to settle the territory with Scotch emigrants, who should form a barrier against French encroachments. A colony was accordingly planted, and Sir William
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Anne, Queen, (search)
ted for common defence. This state of things became insupportable, and in the spring of 1707 Massachusetts. Rhode Island, and New Hampshire prepared to chastise the Indians in the east. Rhode Island had not suffered, for Massachusetts sheltered that colony, but the inhabitants humanely helped their afflicted neighbors. Connecticut, though threatened from the north, refused to join in the enterprise. Early in June (1707), 1,000 men under Colonel Marsh sailed from Nantucket for Port Royal, Acadia, convoyed by an English man-of-war. The French were prepared for them, and only the destruction of property outside the fort there was accomplished. The war continued, with occasional distressing episodes. In September. 1710, an armament of ships and troops left Boston and sailed for Port Royal, in connection with a fleet from England with troops under Colonel Nicholson. They captured Port Royal and altered the name to Annapolis, in compliment to the Queen. Acadia (q. v.) was annexed t
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Argall, Sir Samuel, 1572-1626 (search)
respect as a princess. There she became the object of a young Englishman's affections; and the crime of Argall led to peace and happiness. The next year (1613) Argall went, with the sanction of the governor of Virginia, to expel the French from Acadia as intruders upon the domain of the North and South Virginia Company. He stopped on his way at Mount Desert Island, and broke up the Jesuit settlement there. The priests, it is said, feeling an enmity towards the authorities at Port Royal, in AAcadia, willingly accompanied Argall as pilots thither in order to be revenged. Argall plundered the settlement, and laid the village in ashes, driving the people to the woods, and breaking up the colony. In 1617 Argall became deputy governor of Virginia. On going to Jamestown he found it fallen into decay, the storehouse used as a church; the market-place, streets, and other spots in the town planted with tobacco; the people dispersed according to every man's convenience for planting; and the
or Kirk, a Huguenot refugee, received a royal commission from King Charles I. to seize the French forts in Acadia (q. v.), and on the river St. Lawrence. With a dozen ships he overcame the small French force at Port Royal, and took possession of Acadia in 1629. Later in the summer he entered the St. Lawrence, burned the hamlet of Tadousac, at the mouth of the Saguenay, and sent a summons for the surrender of Quebec. It was refused, and Kirk resolved to starve out the garrison. He cruised in occurred between the civil and ecclesiastical authorities. Until the treaty of Utrecht (1713), Canada included all of present British America, and more. At that time Hudson Bay and vicinity was restored to England by Louis XIV. Newfoundland and Acadia (Nova Scotia) were ceded to the English, and all right to the Iroquois country (New York) was renounced, reserving to France only the valleys of the St. Lawrence and the Mississippi. The easy conquest of Louisburg revived a hope that Canada mi
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Colonial settlements. (search)
they had begun to provide themselves with comforts, they were attacked by Samuel Argall (q. v.), of Virginia. The French made some resistance, but were compelled to surrender to superior numbers. One of the Jesuits was killed, several were wounded, and the remainder made prisoners. Argall took fifteen of the Frenchmen, besides the Jesuits, to Virginia; the remainder sailed for France. This success induced the governor of Virginia to send an expedition to crush the power of the French in Acadia, under the pretext that they were encroaching upon the rights of the English. Argall sailed with three ships for the purpose. On his arrival he broke in pieces, at St. Saviour, a cross which the Jesuits had set up, and raised another, on which he inscribed the name of King James. He sailed to St. Croix and destroyed the remains of De Mont's settlement there; and then he went to Port Royal and laid that deserted town in ashes. The English government did not approve the act, nor did the Fr
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cozzens, Frederick Swartwout 1818-1869 (search)
Cozzens, Frederick Swartwout 1818-1869 Author; born in New York City, March 5, 1818; entered mercantile life; and contributed to the Knickerbocker magazine a series of humorous articles called the Sparrowgrass papers. His other publications include Acadia: a sojourn among the Blue-noses; True history of New Plymouth; Memorial of Col. Peter A. Porter; and Memorial of Fitz-Greene Halleck. He died in Brooklyn, N. Y., Dec. 23, 1869.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), De Monts, Sieur (Pierre De Gast) (search)
and existence at Port Royal for a few years. Poutrincourt returned to France for recruits for his colony. Jesuit priests who accompanied him on his return to Acadia (Nova Scotia) claimed the right to supreme rule by virtue of their holy office. Poutrincourt resisted their claim stoutly, saying, It is my part to rule you on eovereignty. They were there in 1613, when Samuel Argall, a freebooter of the seas, went, under the sanction of the governor of Virginia, to drive the French from Acadia as intruders on the soil of a powerful English company. The Jesuits at Mount Desert, it is said, thirsting for vengeance, piloted Argall to Port Royal. He plundered and burned the town, drove the inhabitants to the woods, and broke up the settlement. Unable to contend with the English company, De Monts abandoned Acadia and proposed to plant a colony on the St. Lawrence River, under the direction of Champlain and Pont-Greve. But his monopoly was partially revoked in 1608. Under the aus
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Hundred associates, (search)
guenots, and in pursuance of his plans for the suppression of these Protestants and the aggrandizement of his monarch, organized a company under the name of the Hundred Associates, to whom he gave the absolute sovereignty of the whole of New France, then claimed to include the American territory from Florida to Hudson Bay. They were given complete monopoly of the trade in that region, excepting in the whale and cod fisheries. The charter required the company to settle 4,000 Roman Catholics there within fifteen years, to maintain and permanently endow the Roman Catholic Church in New France, and to banish all Huguenots (q. v.) or Protestants from the colony. Circumstances frustrated this scheme of temporal and spiritual dominion in America. Canada was conquered by the British in 1629, but was restored by the treaty of St. Germain-en-Laye, March 27, 1632, the whole of Canada, Cape Breton, and Acadia being restored to the French. The scheme of the Hundred Associates was not revived.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Jesuit missions. (search)
to the Mississippi River, carrying the cross as the emblem of their religion, and the lilies of France as tokens of political dominion. In these labors they were assisted by the votaries of commerce. Seeds of civilization were planted here and there, until harvests were beginning to blossom all along the Lakes and the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico. The discoveries of these priests and traders gave to France a claim to that magnificent domain of millions of square miles, extending from Acadia along the St. Lawrence and the Lakes, and the establishment of French dominion in Louisiana, on the borders of the Gulf of Mexico. It has been truthfully said, The history of these [Jesuit] labors is connected with the origin of every celebrated town in the annals of French America; not a cape was turned or a river entered but a Jesuit led the way. There were twenty-four different Jesuit missionaries among the Six Nations between 1657 and 1769. Their names and places of service were as
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