Patriot; born in Monok, Hungary
, April 27, 1802; was in the Hungarian Diet
in 1832-36; imprisoned for political reasons by the Austrian government in 1837-40; re-elected to the Diet in 1847; and became minister of finance in the independent Hungarian ministry which Emperor Ferdinand was forced to grant in 1848.
Later in that year the Hungarians rose in insurrection against Austria
; on April 14, 1849, the Diet declared Hungary
independent, and appointed Kossuth
governor; on Aug. 11 following Kossuth
resigned his functions to General Gorgei
; and, on the surrender of the latter two days afterwards, Kossuth
fled to Turkey
, where he remained in exile till 1851.
In 1851-52 he visited the United States
and received a hearty welcome in
all the principal cities.
Subsequently he resided in London
and in Turin
, where he died, March 20, 1894.
Under the title of Schriften aus der emigration
he published his memoirs in 1881-82.
After his flight to Turkey
the Austrian government demanded his extradition.
The United States
interfered, and he was allowed his freedom, with his family and friends.
The United States government sent the war-steamer Mississippi
to bring him to the United States
, and early in the autumn of 1851 he embarked for this country.
While in exile in Turkey
and in prison, he employed his time in studying living languages, and he was enabled to address the people of the West
in the English
, German, French, and Italian languages.
He arrived at New York, Dec. 5, 1851, accompanied by his wife.
There he addressed public meetings and deputations in various Northern cities, and in all his speeches he showed a most intimate knowledge of American history and institutions.
His theme was a plea for sympathy and substantial aid for his country, Hungary
He wished to obtain the acknowledgment of the claims of Hungary
to independence, and the interference of the United States
and Great Britain
, jointly, in behalf of the principle of non-intervention, which would allow the nations of Europe
fair play in their renewed struggle for liberty.
He constantly asserted that grand principle that one nation has no right to interfere with the domestic concerns of another, and that all nations are bound to use their efforts to prevent such interference.
The government of the United States
, to which he appealed, assuming its traditional attitude of neutrality in all quarrels in Europe
, declined to lend aid, excepting the moral power of expressed sympathy.
called for private contributions in aid of the struggle of his people for independence, and received more assurances of sympathy than dollars, for there seemed to be a reaction in Europe
, and the chance for Hungarian independence appeared more remote than ever.
He arrived in Washington
at the close of December, and was received by two United States Senators
and the marshal of the district.
The Secretary of State
(Daniel Webster) waited upon him; so also did many members of Congress.
On the 31st he was presented
to President Fillmore
by Mr. Webster
, who received him cordially.
On Jan. 5, 1852, he was introduced to the Senate.
He entered the Senate chamber
accompanied by Senators Cass
. General Shields
introduced him. The Senate adjourned, and the members all paid their personal respects to the distinguished exile.
He then visited the House of Representatives, where he was warmly received by the speaker and most of the members.
Then he was introduced to each member personally, and presented to an immense crowd of ladies and gentlemen who had assembled.
A congressional banquet was given him at the National Hotel
, at which W. R. King
, president of the Senate, presided, Kossuth
and Speaker Boyd
being on his right hand, and Secretary Webster
on his left.
On that occasion Kossuth
delivered one of his most effective speeches.
concluded his remarks with the following sentiment : “Hungarian independence, Hungarian control of her own destinies, and Hungary
as a distinct nationality among the nations of Europe
's departure there were debates in Congress on propositions for the United States
to lend material aid to the people of Hungary
, struggling for national independence; but the final determination was that the United States
should not change its uniform policy of neutrality in favor of Hungary
The cordial reception of Kossuth
everywhere, and the magnetic power of his eloquence over every audience, were gratifying and wonderful.
A contemporary wrote: “The circumstances attending the reception of Kossuth
constituted one of the most extraordinary spectacles the New World had ever yet beheld.”
He returned to Europe
Speech in Faneuil Hall.
The following is the first of three speeches made in Faneuil Hall, Boston
, in April and May, this occasion being a public meeting.
He had been welcomed to the State
by Gov. George S. Boutwell
, to the Senate by President Henry Wilson
, and to the House of Representatives by Speaker Nathaniel P. Banks
A legislative banquet followed the delivery of the speech here given: