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New Jersey,

Was one of the thirteen original colonies. Its territory was claimed to be a part of New Netherland. A few Dutch traders from New Amsterdam seem to have settled at Bergen about 1620, and in 1623 a company led by Capt. Jacobus May built Fort Nassau, at the mouth of the Timmer Kill, near Gloucester. There four young married couples, with a few others, began a settlement the same year. In 1634, Sir Edward Plowden obtained a grant of land on the New Jersey side of the Delaware from the English monarch, and called it New Albion, and four years later some Swedes and Fins bought land from the Indians in the vicinity and began some settlements. These and the Dutch drove off the English, and in 1665 Stuyvesant dispossessed the Swedes. After the grant of New Netherland (1664) to the Duke of York by his brother, Charles II., the former sent Col. Richard Nicolls with a land and naval force to take possession of the domain. Nicolls was made the first English governor of the territory now named New York, and he proceeded to give patents for lands to emigrants from Long Island and New England, four families of whom at once seated themselves at Elizabethtown. But while Nicolls with the armament was still on the ocean, the duke granted that portion of his terri- [383]

A bit of Trenton, capital of New Jersey.

tory lying between the Hudson and Delaware rivers to two of his favorites, Lord Berkeley, brother of the governor of Virginia (see Berkeley, Sir William), and Sir George Carteret, who, as governor of the island of Jersey, had defended it against the parliamentary troops.

Settlements under Nicolls's grants had already been begun at Newark, Middletown, and Shrewsbury, when news of the grant reached New York. Nicolls was amazed at the folly of the duke in parting with such a splendid domain, which lay between the two great rivers and extended north from Cape May to lat. 40° 40′. The tract was named New Jersey in compliment to Carteret. The new proprietors formed a constitution for the colonists. Philip Carteret, cousin of Sir George, was sent over as governor of New Jersey, and emigrants began to flock in, for the terms to settlers were generous, and the constitution was satisfactory. The governor gave the hamlet of four houses where he fixed his seat of government the name of Elizabethtown, in compliment to the wife of Sir George, and there he built a house for himself. A conflict soon arose between the settlers who had patents from Nicolls and the new proprietors, and for some years there were frequent quarrels. Other settlers were rapidly coming in, and in 1668 the first legislative assembly met at Elizabethtown, and was largely made up of representatives of New England Puritanism.

When, in 1670, quit-rents were demanded of the people, discontent instantly appeared, and disputes about land-titles suddenly produced much excitement. Some of the settlers had bought of the Indians, some derived their titles from original Dutch owners, others received grants from Nicolls, and some from Berkeley and Carteret, the proprietors. Those who settled there before the domain came under the jurisdiction of the English united in resisting the claim for quit-rent by the proprietary government. The people were on the verge of open insurrection, and only needed a leader, when James, the second son of Sir George Carteret, arrived in New Jersey. He was on his way to South Carolina. He was ambitious, but dissolute and unscrupulous, and was ready to undertake anything that promised him fame and emolument. He put himself at the head of the malcontents who opposed his cousin Philip, the governor, who held a commission from Sir George. The insurgents called an assembly at Elizabethtown in the spring of 1672, formally deposed Philip Carteret, and elected James their governor. Philip, in the early summer, sailed for England and laid the matter before his superiors. He knew the administration of his cousin would be a chastisement of the people, as it proved to be, for he was utterly incompetent, and his conduct disgusted them. Before orders came from England the insurgents were ready to submit to Philip Carteret's deputy, Captain Berry (May, 1673), and James Carteret immediately sailed for Virginia. Philip Carteret returned next year as governor, made liberal concessions in the name of Sir George, and was quietly accepted by the people.

Among the purchasers of a portion of New Jersey were John Fenwick and [384] Edward Billinge, both of the Society of Friends. These men quarrelled with regard to their respective rights. The tenets of their sect would not allow them to go to law, so they referred the matter to William Penn, whose decision satisfied both parties. Fenwick sailed for America to found a colony, but Billinge was too much in debt to come, and made an assignment for the benefit of his creditors. The greater part of his right and title in New Jersey fell into the hands of Penn, Gawen Lawrie, and Nicholas Lucas. The matter was now complicated. Berkeley had disposed of his undivided half of the colony Finally, on July 1, 1676 (O. S.), after much preliminary negotiation, a deed was completed and signed by Carteret on the one side, and Penn, Lawrie, Lucas, and Billinge on the other, which divided the province of New Jersey into two great portions—east Jersey, including all that part lying northeast of a line drawn from Little Egg Harbor to a point on the most northerly branch of the Delaware River, in lat. 41° 40′ N.; and west Jersey, comprehending all the rest of the province originally granted by the Duke of York East Jersey was the property of Sir George Carteret; west Jersey passed into the hands of the associates of the Society of Friends. West Jersey was now divided

Quakers on their way to Church in colonial times.

[385] into 100 parts, the proprietors setting aside ten for Fenwick, who had made the first settlement, at Salem, on the Delaware, and arranging to dispose of the remainder for the benefit of Billinge's creditors.

Meanwhile, a large immigration of Quakers from England had occurred, and these settled below the Raritan, under a liberal government. Andros required them to acknowledge his authority as the representative of the duke, but they refused, because the territory had passed out of the possession of James. The case was referred to Sir William Jones, the eminent jurist and Oriental scholar, who decided in favor of the colonists. The first popular Assembly in west Jersey met at Salem in November, 1681, and adopted a code of laws for the government of the people. Late in 1679 Carteret died; and in 1682 William Penn and others bought from his heirs east Jersey, and appointed Robert Barclay governor. He was a young Scotch Quaker and one of the purchasers, who afterwards became one of the most eminent writers of that denomination. Quakers from England and Scotland and others from Long Island flocked into east Jersey, but they were compelled to endure the tyranny of Andros until James was driven from his throne and the viceroy from America, when east and west Jersey were left without a regular civil government, and so remained several years. Finally, wearied with contentions and subjected to losses, the proprietors surrendered the domain of the Jerseys to the crown (1702), and the dissolute Sir Edward Hyde (Lord Cornbury), governor of New York, ruled over the province. Politically, the people were made slaves. It remained a dependency of New York until 1738, when it was made an independent colony, and so remained until the Revolutionary War. Lewis Morris, who was the chief-justice of New Jersey, was commissioned its governor, and was the first who ruled over the free colony (see Morris, Lewis). William Franklin, son of Benjamin Franklin, was the last of the royal governors of New Jersey (see Franklin, William). A conditional State constitution was adopted in the Provincial Congress at Burlington, July 2, 1776, and a State government was organized with William Livingston as governor.

After the battle of Princeton and the retreat of the British to New Brunswick, detachments of American militia were very active in the Jerseys. Four days after that event nearly fifty Waldeckers (Germans) were killed, wounded, or made prisoners at Springfield. General Maxwell surprised Elizabethtown and took nearly 100 prisoners. General Dickinson, with 400 New Jersey militia and fifty Pennsylvania riflemen, crossed Millstone River near Somerset Court-house (June 20, 1777), and attacked a large British foraging party, nine of whom were taken prisoners; the rest escaped, but forty wagons, with much booty, fell into the general's hands. About a month later, Colonel Nelson, of New Brunswick, with a detachment of 150 militiamen, surprised and captured at Lawrence's Neck a major and fifty-nine privates of a Tory corps in the pay of the British.

The national Constitution was adopted by unanimous vote in December, 1787, and the State capital was established at Trenton in 1790. The present constitution was ratified Aug. 13, 1844, and has been

Seal of the State of New Jersey.

amended several times since. During the Civil War New Jersey furnished the National army with 79,511 troops. In 1870 the legislature refused to ratify the Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution, claiming for each State the right to regulate its own suffrage laws. Population in 1890, 1,444,933; in 1900, 1,883,669. See United States, New Jersey, in vol. IX. [386]


Peter Minuit, governor of New Netherlandassumes office 1624
Wouter Van Twiller, governor of New Netherlandassumes office1633
William Keift, governor of New Netherlandassumes office1638
John Printz, governor of New Sweden assumes office 1642
Peter Stuyvesant, governor of New Netherlandassumes office 1646
Philip Carteret, first English governorassumes office 1664
Edmund Andros, under Duke of Yorkassumes office 1674

East Jersey. West Jersey.
Philip Carteret 1676 Board of Commissioners 1676
Robert Barclay 1682 Edward Billinge 1679
Thomas Rudyard, deputy 1682 Samuel Jennings, deputy1679
Gawen Lawrie, deputy 1683 Thomas Olive, deputy1684
Lord Neill Campbell, deputy1686 John Skeine, deputy1685
Andrew Hamilton, deputy 1687 Daniel Coxe1687
Edmund Andros 1688 Edward Hunloke, deputy 1690
John Tatham 1690 West Jersey Proprietors 1691
Col. Joseph Dudley 1691 Andrew Hamilton 1692
Andrew Hamilton 1692 Jeremiah Basse 1697
Jeremiah Basse1698 Andrew Hamilton 1699
Andrew Bowne, deputy 1699
Andrew Hamilton 1699

Royal governors.

Assumes office.
Edward Hyde, Lord Cornbury 1702
Lord Lovelace 1708
Richard Ingoldsby, lieutenant-governor 1709
Robert Hunter 1710
William Burnett1720
John Montgomery1728
Lewis Morris, president of council1731
William Crosby 1732
John Anderson, president of council1736
John Hamilton, president of council 1736
Lewis Morris1738
John Hamilton, president,1746
John Reading, president1746
Jonathan Belcher1747
John Reading, president 1757
Francis Bernard1758
Thomas Boone 1760
Josiah Hardy1761
William Franklin1763

State governors.

Assumes office.
William Livingston 1776
William Patterson 1790
Richard Howell1794
Joseph Bloomfield 1801
John Lambert, acting 1802
Joseph Bloomfield1803
Aaron Ogden1812
William S. Pennington 1813
Mahlon Dickerson1815
Isaac H. Williamson1817
Peter D. Vroom1829
Samuel Lewis Southard1832
Elias P. Seeley 1833
Peter D. Vroom1833
Philemon Dickerson1836
William Pennington1837
Daniel Haines1843
Charles C. Stratton1844
Daniel Haines 1848
George F. Fort 1851
Rodman M. Price 1854
William A. Newell1857
Charles S. Olden l860
Joel Parker1863
Marcus L. Ward1866
Theodore F. Randolph 1869
Joel Parker 1872
Joseph D. Bedle 1875
George B. McClellan 1878
George C. Ludlow1881
Leon Abbett 1884
Robert S. Green 1887
Leon Abbett 1890
George T. Werts1893
John W. Griggs 1896
David O. WatkinsFeb. 1, 1898
Foster M. Voorhees 1899

United States Senators.

Name. No. of Congress. Term.
Jonathan Elmer 1st to 2d 1789 to 1791
William Patterson1st 1789 to 1790
Philemon Dickerson 1st to 3d 1790 to 1791
John Rutherford 2d to 5th 1791 to 1798
Frederick Frelinghuysen. 3d to 4th 1793 to 1796
Richard Stockton 4th to 6th 1796 to 1799
Franklin Davenport 5th to 6th 1798 to 1799
James Schureman 6th1799 to 1801
Aaron Ogden 6th to 8th 1801 to 1803
Jonathan Dayton 6thto 9th 1799 to 1805
John Condit 8th to 15th 1803 to 1817
Aaron Kitchel9th to 11th 1805 to 1809
John Lambert11th to 14th 1809 to 1815
James J. Wilson 14th to 16th 1815 to 1821
Mahlon Dickerson 15th to 23d 1817 to 1833
Samuel L. Southard 16th to 18th 1821 to 1823
Joseph Mcllvaine18th to 19th 1823 to 1826
Ephraim Bateman 19th to 20th 1826 to 1829
Theodore Frelinghuysen. 21st to 23d 1829 to 1833
Samuel L. Southard 23d to 27th 1833 to 1842
Garrett D. Wall 24th to 27th 1835 to 1842
William L. Dayton 27th to 32d 1842 to 1851
Jacob W. Miller 27th to 33d 1841 to 1853
Robert F. Stockton 32d 1851 to 1853
John R. Thomson 33d to 37th 1853 to 1862
William Wright 33d to 36th 1853 to 1859
John C. Ten Eyck36th 1859
Richard S. Field 37th 1862
John W. Wall37th 1863
William Wright 38th to 39th 1863 to 1866
Fred'k T. Frelinghuysen 39th to 41st 1866 to 1869
John P. Stockton 39th 1865 to 1866
Alexander G. Cattell 39th to 42d 1866 to 1871
John P. Stockton 41st to 44th 1869 to 1875
Fred'k T. Frelinghuysen 42d to 45th 1871 to 1875
Theodore F. Randolph 44th to 47th 1875 to 1881
John R. McPherson 45th to 54th 1877 to 1895
William J. Sewell 47h to 50th 1881 to 1887
Rufus Blodgett 50th to 52d 1888 to 1893
James Smith, Jr. 53d to 56th 1893 to 1899
William J. Sewell 54th to — 1895 to —
John Kean 56th to —1899 to

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