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State of Virginia,

The State constitution was framed in June, 1776. While the foremost citizen of Virginia was leading the army fighting for independence, and was the most earnest advocate for a national bond of all the States, the representatives of her people, in her legislature, always opposed the measures that would make the States one union. Her legislature separately ratified (June 2, 1779) the treaty with France, and asserted in its fullest degree the absolute sovereignty of the separate States, and when Congress received petitions concerning lands in the Ohio country, the Virginia Assembly remonstrated against any action in the premises by that body, because it would “be a dangerous precedent, which might hereafter subvert the sovereignty and government of any one or more of the United States, and establish in Congress a power which, in process of time, must degenerate into an intolerable despotism.” Patrick Henry, too, vehemently condemned the phraseology of the preamble to the national Constitution— “We, the people” —arguing that it should have been “We, the States.” So, also, did George Mason. So jealous of their “sovereignty” were the States in general that Congress, at the beginning of 1780, finding itself utterly helpless, threw everything upon the States. Washington deeply deplored this state of things. “Certain I am,” he wrote to Joseph Jones, a delegate from Virginia, in May, “unless Congress is vested with powers by the several States competent to the great purposes of war, or assume them as matter of right, and they and the States respectively act with more energy than they have hitherto done, our cause is lost. . . . I see one head gradually changing into thirteen. I see one army branching into thirteen, which, instead of looking up to Congress as the supreme controlling power of the United States, are considering themselves as dependent on their

George Mason.

several States.” Towards the end of June General Greene wrote: “The Congress have lost their influence. I have for a long time seen the necessity of some new plan of civil government. Unless there is some control over the States by the Congress, we shall soon be like a broken band.”

The marauding expedition of Arnold up the James River, early in 1781, was [90] followed by a more formidable invasion in the latter part of March. General Phillips, of Burgoyne's army, who had been exchanged for Lincoln, joined Arnold at Portsmouth, with 2,000 troops from New York, and took the chief command. They went up the James and Appomattox rivers, took Petersburg (April 25), and destroyed 4,000 hogsheads of tobacco, which had been collected there for


shipment to France on account of the Congress. There were virtually no troops in Virginia to oppose this invasion, for all that were really fit for service had been sent to the army of Greene, in the Carolinas. Steuben had about 500 halfstarved and naked troops, whom he was training for recruits. These were mostly without arms, and retreated before Phillips to Richmond. Lafayette, who had halted at Annapolis, now hurried forward, and, by a forced march of 200 miles, reached Richmond twelve hours before Phillips and Arnold appeared on the opposite side of the river. Joined by Steuben. the marquis here checked the invaders, who retired to City Point, at the junction of the James and Appomattox. After collecting an immense plunder in tobacco and slaves, besides destroying ships, mills, and every species of property that fell in his way, Phillips embarked his army and dropped some distance down the river.

When, soon afterwards, Cornwallis approached Virginia from the south, he ordered Phillips to meet him at Petersburg. Before the arrival of the earl (May 20), General Phillips died (May 13) at Petersburg. On May 24 Cornwallis crossed the James and pushed on towards Richmond. He seized all the fine horses he could find, with which he mounted about 600 cavalry, whom he sent after Lafayette, then not far distant from Richmond, with 3,000 men, waiting for the arrival of Wayne, who was approaching with Pennsylvania troops. The marquis fell slowly back, and at a ford on the North Anne he met Wayne with 800 men. Cornwallis had pursued him as far as Hanover Court-house, from which place the earl sent Lieutenant-Colonel Simcoe, with his loyalist corps, the “Queen's Rangers,” to capture or destroy stores in charge of Steuben at the junction of the Ravenna and Fluvanna rivers. In this he failed.

Tarleton had been detached, at the same time, to capture Governor Jefferson and the members of the Virginia legislature at Charlottesville, whither they had fled from Richmond. Only seven of them were made captives. Jefferson narrowly escaped by fleeing from his house (at Monticello) on horseback, accompanied by a single servant, and hiding in the mountains. He had left his dwelling only ten minutes before one of Tarleton's officers entered it. At Jefferson's plantation, near the Point of Forks, Cornwallis committed the most wanton destruction of property, cutting the throats of young horses not fit for service, slaughtering the cattle, and burning the barns with remains of previous crops, laying waste growing ones, burning all the fences on the plantation, and carrying away about thirty slaves. Lafayette now turned upon the earl, when the latter, supposing the forces of the marquis to be much greater than they were, retreated in haste down the Virginia peninsula to Williamsburg, blackening his pathway with fire. It is estimated that during the invasion — from Arnold's advent in January until Cornwallis reached Williamsburg late in June-property to the amount of $15,000,000 was destroyed and 30,000 slaves were carried away. The British, in their retreat, had been closely followed by [91] Lafayette, Wayne, and Steuben, and were not allowed a minute's rest until they reached Williamsburg, where they were protected by their shipping.

The convention to consider the Articles of Confederation, or to form a new constitution, having met on the invitation of Virginia, courtesy assigned to the delegates to that State the task of giving a start to the proceedings. Accordingly, Governor Randolph, after a speech on the defects of the confederation, on May 29, 1787, offered fifteen resolutions suggesting amendments to the federal system. They proposed a national legislature, to consist of two branches, the members of the first, or most numerous branch, to be chosen by the people, and to be apportioned to the States in the proportion of free population or taxes; those of the second branch to be chosen by the first, out of candidates to be nominated by the State legislatures. A separate national executive was proposed, to be chosen by the national legislature; a national judiciary and a council of revision, to consist of the executive and a part of the judiciary, with a qualified negative on every act of legislation, State as well as national. These were the principal features of the “Virginia plan,” as it was called. It was referred to a committee, together with a sketch of a plan by Charles Cotesworth P i n c kney, which, in its form and arrangement, furnished the outline of the constitution as adopted.

For many years the State of Virginia maintained a predominating influence in the affairs of the nation. During the War of 1812-15 its coasts were ravished by British marauders. In 1831 an insurrection occurred in Southampton county, led by a negro named Nat Turner, which alarmed the whole State, but it was speedily subdued. In 1859 an attempt was made by John Brown (q. v.) to free the slaves of Virginia. Early in 1861 the question of secession divided the people. The Confederate leaders of Virginia found it hard work to “carry out” the State, for there was a strong Union sentiment among the people, especially in the western or mountain districts. They finally procured the authorization of a convention, which assembled in Richmond, Feb. 13, 1861, with John Janney as chairman. It had a stormy session from February until April, for the Unionists were in the majority. Even as late as April 4 the convention refused, by a vote of 89 against 45, to pass an ordinance of secession. But the pressure of the Confederates had then become so

A Virginia landscape.

[92] hard that one weak Unionist after another gave way, converted by sophistry or threats. Commissioners were sent to President Lincoln, to ascertain his

State seal of Virginia.

determination about seceding States, who were told explicitly that he should defend the life of the republic to the best of his ability. Their report added fuel to the flame of passion then raging in Richmond. In the convention, the only question remaining on the evening of April 15 was, Shall Virginia secede at once, or wait for the co-operation of the border slavelabor States? In the midst of the excitement pending that question, the convention adjourned until the next morning.

The following day the convention assembled in secret session. For three days threats and persuasion had been brought to bear upon the faithful Union members, who were chiefly from the mountain districts of western Virginia, where slavery had a very light hold upon the people. On the adjournment, on the 15th, there was a clear majority of 153 in the convention against secession. Many of the Unionists gave way on the 16th. It was calculated that if ten Union members of the convention should be absent, there would be a majority for secession. That number of the weaker ones were waited upon on the evening of the 16th, and informed that they had the choice of doing one of three things—namely, to vote for a secession ordinance, to absent themselves, or be hanged.1 Resistance would be useless, and the ten members did not appear in the convention. Other Unionists who remained in the convention were awed by their violent proceedings, and on Monday, April 17, an ordinance was passed by a vote of 85 against 55 entitled, “An ordinance to repeal the ratification of the Constitution of the United States of America by the State of Virginia, and to reserve all the rights and powers granted under said Constitution.”

At the same time the convention passed an ordinance requiring the governor to call out as many volunteers as might be necessary to repel an invasion of the State. It was ordained that the secession ordinance should go into effect only when it should be ratified by the votes of a majority of the people. The day for the casting of such vote was fixed for May 23. Meanwhile the whole military force of Virginia had been placed under the control of the Confederate States of America. Nearly the whole State was under the control of the military authority. At the time appointed for the vote, Senator James M. Mason, author of the fugitive slave law, addressed a letter to the people. declaring that the ordinance of secession absolved them from all allegiance to the United States; that they were bound to support the “sacred pledge” made to the “Confederate States” by the treaty of annexation, etc.

The Virginia convention had appointed ex-President John Tyler, W. Ballard Preston, S. M. D. Moore, James P. Holcombe, James C. Bruce, and Levi E. Harvie, commissioners to treat with Alexander H. Stephens, Vice-President of the Confederate States of America, for the annexation of Virginia to the Southern Confederacy. Mr. Stephens was clothed with full power to make a treaty to that effect. It was then planned to seize the national capital; and at several places on his way towards Richmond, where he harangued the people, he raised the cry of “on to Washington!” (q. v.) Troops were pressing towards that goal from the South. He was received in Richmond, by the authorities of every [93] kind, with assurances that his mission would be successful. The leaders were eager for the consummation of the treaty before the people should vote on the ordinance of secession; and on Stephens's arrival he and the Virginia commissioners entered upon their prescribed duties. On April 24 they agreed to and signed a “convention between the commonwealth of Virginia and the Confederate States of America,” which provided that, until the union of Virginia with the latter should be perfected, “the whole military force and military operations, offensive and defensive, of said commonwealth in the impending conflict with the United States, should be under the chief control and direction of the President of the Confederate States.”

On the following day the convention passed an ordinance ratifying the treaty, and adopting and ratifying the “provisional constitution of the Confederate States of America.” On the same day John Tyler telegraphed to Governor Pickens, of South Carolina: “We are fellow-citizens once more. By an ordinance passed this day Virginia has adopted the provisional government of the Confederate States.” They also proceeded to appoint delegates to the Confederate Congress; authorized the banks of the State to suspend specie payment; made provision for the establishment of a navy for Virginia, and for enlistments for the State army, and adopted other preparations for war. They also invited the Confederate States government to make Richmond its headquarters. The proclamation of the annexation was immediately put forth by John Letcher, the governor of Virginia. All this was done almost a month before the people of Virginia were allowed to vote on secession.

The vote for secession was 125,950, and against secession 20,373. This did not include the vote of northwestern Virginia, where, in convention, ten days before the voting, they had planted the seeds of a

An old parish Church in Virginia.


Agricultural scene in Virginia.

new commonwealth (see State of West Virginia). The State authorities immediately afterwards took possession of national property within the limits of Virginia, and on April 25 action was taken for the annexation of the State to the Southern Confederacy, and surrendering the control of its military to the latter power. On May 7 the State was admitted to representation in the Confederate Congress, and large forces of Confederate troops were concentrated within its limits for the purpose of attempting to seize the national capital. From that time until the close of the Civil War Virginia suffered intensely from its ravages.

The Confederates assembled at Manassas Junction attempted to take a position near the capital. Early in May the family of Col. Robert E. Lee had left Arlington House, opposite Georgetown, with its most valuable contents, and joined him at Richmond. Under his guidance the Confederates were preparing to fortify Arlington Heights, where heavy siege guns would command the cities of Washington and Georgetown. This movement was discovered in time to defeat its [95] object. Already Confederate pickets were on Arlington Heights, and at the Virginia end of the Long Bridge across the Potomac. Orders were immediately given for National troops to occupy the shores of the Potomac River, opposite Washington, and the city of Alexandria, 9 miles below. Towards midnight, May 23, 13,000 troops in Washington, under the command of General Mansfield, were put in motion for the passage of the Potomac at three points—one column to cross the Aqueduct Bridge at Georgetown; another at the Long Bridge, at Washington, and a third to proceed in vessels to Alexandria. Gen. Irvin McDowell led the column across the Aqueduct Bridge, in the light of a full moon, and took possession of Arlington Heights. At the same time the second column was crossing the Long Bridge, 2 miles below, and soon joined McDowell's column on Arlington Heights and began casting up fortifications. The New York Fire Zouave Regiment, commanded by Col. Ephraim Elmore Ellsworth (q. v.), embarked in vessels and sailed for Alexandria, while another body of troops marched for the same destination by way of the Long Bridge. The two divisions reached Alexandria about the same time. The United States frigate Pawnee was lying in the river off Alexandria, and her commander had been in negotiation for the surrender of the city. Ignorant of this fact, Ellsworth marched to the centre of the town and took formal possession of it in the name of his government, the Virginia troops having fled. The Orange and Alexandria Railway station was seized with much rolling-stock, and very soon Alexandria was in the quiet possession of the National forces.

Governor Letcher had concentrated troops at Grafton, on the Baltimore and Ohio Railway, under Colonel Porterfield. A camp of Ohio volunteers had assem-

Signatures of the commissioners of Virginia and the Southern Confederacy.


An old Virginia mansion.

bled opposite Wheeling. General McClellan was assigned to the Department of the Ohio, which included western Virginia and Indiana. A regiment of loyal Virginians had been formed at Wheeling, and B. F. Kelley, a native of New Hampshire, and once a resident of Wheeling, was invited to be its leader. It rendezvoused at the camp of the volunteers. Having visited Indianapolis and assured the assembled troops there that they would soon be called upon to fight for their country, McClellan issued an address (May 26) to the Union citizens of western Virginia; and then, in obedience to orders, he proceeded with volunteers—Kelley's regiment and other Virginians—to attempt to drive the Confederate forces out of that region and advance on Harper's Ferry. He assured the people that the Ohio and Indiana troops under him should respect their rights. To his soldiers he said, “Your mission is to cross the frontier, to protect the majesty of the law, and secure our brethren from the grasp of armed traitors.” Immediately afterwards Kelley and his regiment crossed over to Wheeling and marched on Grafton. Porterfield fled in alarm, with about 1,500 followers (one-third cavalry), and took post at Philippi, about 16 miles distant. The Ohio and Indiana troops followed Kelley, and were nearly all near Grafton on June 2. There the whole Union force was divided into two columns—one under Kelley, the other under Col. E. Dumont, of Indiana. These marched upon Philippi by different routes, over rugged hills. Kelley and Porterfield had a severe skirmish at Philippi. The Confederates, attacked by the other column, were already flying in confusion. The Union troops captured Porterfield's official papers, baggage, and arms. Colonel Kelley was severely wounded, and Colonel Dumont [97] assumed the command of the combined columns. They retired to Grafton, where for a while the headquarters of the National troops in northwestern Virginia were established. So the Civil War was begun in western Virginia.

After the dispersion of Garnett's forces in western Virginia, events seemed to prophesy that the war was ended in that region. General Cox had been successful in driving ex-Governor Wise and his followers out of the Kanawha region. He had crossed the Ohio at the mouth of the Guyandotte River, captured Barboursville, and pushed on to the Kanawha Valley. Wise was there, below Charlestown. His outpost below was driven to his camp by 1,500 Ohio troops under Colonel Lowe. The fugitives gave such an account of Cox's numbers that the general and all the Confederates fled (July 20), and did not halt until they reached Lewisburg, the capital of Greenbrier county. The news of Garnett's disaster and Wise's incompetence so dispirited his troops that large numbers left him. He was reinforced and outranked by John B. Floyd (formerly United States Secretary of War), who took the chief command. McClellan regarded the war as over in western Virginia. “We have completely annihilated the enemy in western Virginia,” he said in an address to his troops. “Our loss is about thirteen killed, and not more than forty wounded; while the enemy's loss is not far from 200 killed, and the number of prisoners we have taken will amount to at least 1,000. We have captured seven of the enemy's guns.” Rosecrans succeeded Mc-

Troops on the March in Virginia.

[98] Clellan in the chief command in that region, the former having been called to the command of the Army of the Potomac. But the Confederates were not willing to surrender to the Nationals the granaries that would be needful to supply the troops in eastern Virginia without a struggle, and General Lee was placed in the chief command of the Confederate forces there, superseding the incompetents.

After Lee was recalled to Richmond, in 1861, Floyd and Rosecrans were competitors for the possession of the Kanawha Valley. The former, late in October, took post at a place where his cannon commanded the road over which supplies for the latter passed, and it was resolved to dislodge or capture him. General Schenck was sent to gain Floyd's rear, but he was hindered by a sudden flood in New River, though the Confederates were struck (Nov. 12) in front by Kentuckians under Major Leeper. Floyd fled precipitately, strewing the way with tents, tent-poles, working utensils, and ammunition in order to lighten his wagons. General Benham, pursuing, struck Floyd's rear-guard of 400 cavalry in the flight; but the pursuit was ended after a 30-mile race, and the fugitives escaped. Floyd soon afterwards took leave of his army. Meanwhile General Reynolds was moving vigorously. Lee had left Gen. H. R. Jackson, of Georgia, with about 3,000 men, on Greenbrier River, at the foot of Cheat Mountain, and a small force at Huntersville, to watch Reynolds. He was near a noted tavern on the Staunton pike called “Travellers' rest.” Reynolds moved about 5,000 men of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, and Virginia against Jackson at the beginning of October, 1861. On the morning of the 2d they attacked Jackson, and were repulsed, after an engagement of seven hours, with a loss of ten men killed and thirty-two wounded. Jackson lost in picket-firing and in the trenches about 200 men. Reynolds fell back to Elkwater. Meanwhile General Kelley, who was guarding the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, had struck (Oct. 26) the Confederates under McDonald at Romney, and, after a severe contest of two hours, routed them, capturing three cannon and a large number of prisoners. The blow given Jackson at “Travellers' rest” paralyzed the Confederate power in western Virginia. He left his troops (about 2,000 in number) with Col. Edward Johnson, of Georgia, and returned to that State. Reynolds had left his troops in charge of Gen. Robert H. Milroy, consisting of a single brigade, to hold the mountain passes. He scouted the hills vigorously, skirmishing here and there, and finally, on Dec. 12, moved to attack Johnson. He was at first unsuccessful, the Confederates became the aggressors, and, after losing nearly 200 men, he retired. The Confederate loss was about the same. Late in December Milroy sent some troops under Major Webster to look up a Confederate force at Huntersville. It was successful, after a weary march of 50 miles over ground covered with snow. The Confederates were dispersed, a large amount of stores burned, and their soldiers, disheartened, almost entirely disappeared from that region.

When McClellan's army went to the Virginia peninsula (April, 1862), there were three distinct Union armies in the vicinity of the Blue Ridge, acting independently, but in co-operation with the Army of the Potomac. One was in the Mountain Department, under General Fremont: a second in the Department of the Shenandoah, under General Banks; and a third in the newly created Department of the Rappahannock, under General McDowell. Fremont was at Franklin, in Pendleton county, early in April, with 15,000 men; Banks was at Strasburg, in the Shenandoah Valley, with about 16,000 men; and McDowell was at Fredericksburg, on the Rappahannock, with 30,000 men. When Washington was relieved by the departure of Johnson for the peninsula, McDowell was ordered forward to co-operate with McClellan, and Shields's division was added to his force, making it about 40,000.

Arrangements had been made for the service of auxiliary or co-operating troops in western Virginia, before the Army of the Potomac started for Richmond in May, 1864. In that region Confederate cavalry. guerilla bands, and bushwhackers had been mischievously active for some time. Moseby was an active marauder there, and, as early as January (1864), Gen. Fitzhugh Lee (q. v.), with his mounted men, had [99] made a fruitless raid on the Baltimore and Ohio Railway west of Cumberland. A little later Gen. Jubal A. Early, in command of the Confederates in the Shenandoah Valley, sent a foraging expedition under Rosser in the same direction, who was more successful, capturing 1,200 cattle and 500 sheep at one place, and a company of Union soldiers at another. General Averill struck him near Romney

After Appomattox.

and drove him entirely out of the new commonwealth (see State of West Virginia), with the loss of his prisoners and a large proportion of his own men and horses. General Sigel was put at the head of a large force in the Shenandoah Valley (April, 1864), who gave the command of the Kanawha Valley to General Crook. On his way up the valley from Staunton with 8,000 men, Sigel was met at New Market by an equal force under Breckinridge. After much manoeuvring and skirmishing, Breckinridge charged on Sigel, near New Market, and, after a sharp fight, drove him down the valley to the shelter of Cedar Creek, near Strasburg, with a loss [100] of 700 men, six guns, 1,000 small-arms, and a portion of his train. Sigel was immediately superseded by General Hunter, who was instructed to move swiftly

State Capitol and City Hall, Richmond, Va.

on Staunton, destroy the railway between that place and Charlottesville, and then move on Lynchburg. Crook, meanwhile, had met General McCausland and fought and defeated him at Dublin Station, on the Virginia and Tennessee Railway, and destroyed a few miles of that road. Crook lost 700 men, killed and wounded. Averill had, meanwhile, been unsuccessful in that region. Hunter advanced on Staunton, and, at Piedmont, not far from that place, he fought with Generals Jones and McCausland (Piedmont, battle of). At Staunton, Crook and Averill joined Hunter, when the National forces concentrated there, about 20,000 strong, moved towards Lynchburg by way of Lexington. That city was the focal point of a vast and fertile region, from which Lee drew supplies. Lee had given to Lynchburg such strength that when Hunter attacked it (June 18) he was unable to take it. Making a circuitous march, the Nationals entered the Kanawha Valley, where they expected to find 1,500,000 rations left by Crook and Averill under a guard. A guerilla band had swept away the rations and men, and the National army suffered dreadfully for want of food and forage.

Western Virginia had remained loyal to the Union, and in 1861 a new State was there organized (see State of West Virginia). After the war Virginia was under military control. A new constitution was prepared, and was ratified on July 6, 1869, by a majority of 197,044 votes out of a total of 215,422. The constitution was in accordance with the Fourteenth Amendment of the national Constitution. State officers and representatives in Congress were chosen at the same time: and in January, 1870, Virginia was admitted to representation in the Congress. On Jan. [101] 26, 1870, General Canby, in command of the department, formally transferred the government to the civil authorities. Population in 1890, 1,655,980; in 1900, 1,854,184. See United States, Virginia, in vol. IX.

governors under the colonial government.

Presidents of the council.

Edward Maria Wingfield1607
John Ratcliffe1607 to 1608
Capt. John Smith1608 to 1610
George Percy1610 to 1611


Lord Delaware1611
Sir Thomas Dale1611
Sir Thomas Gates1611 to 1614
Sir Thomas Dale1614 to 1616
George Yeardley1616 to 1617
Samuel Argall1617 to 1619
Sir George Yeardley1619 to 1621
Sir Francis Wyatt1621 to 1626
Sir George Yeardley1626 to 1627
Francis West1627 to 1629
John Potts1629
John Harvey1629 to 1635
John West1635 to 1636
John Harvey1636 to 1639
Sir Francis Wyatt1639 to 1641
Sir William Berkeley1641 to 1652
Richard Bennett1652 to 1655
Edward Digges1655 to 1656
Samuel Matthews1656 to 1660
Sir William Berkeley1660 to 1661
Col. Francis Moryson1661 to 1668
Sir William Berkeley1663 to 1677
Sir Herbert Jeffreys1677 to 1678
Sir Henry Chicheley1678 to 1680
Lord Culpeper1680 to 1684
Lord Howard of Effingham1684 to 1688
Nathaniel Bacon1688 to 1690
Francis Nicholson1690 to 1692
Sir Edmund Andros1692 to 1698
Francis Nicholson1698 to 1705
Edward Nott1705 to 1706
Edmund Jennings1706 to 1710
Alexander Spotswood1710 to1722
Hugh Drysdale1722 to 1726
William Gouch1726 to 1749
Thomas Lee and1749 to 1752
Lewis Burwell.1749 to 1752
Robert Dinwiddie1752 to 1758
Francis Fauquier1758 to 1768
Lord Boutetourt1768 to 1770
William Nelson1770 to 1772
Lord Dunmore1772 to 1775
Provisional conventionfrom July 17, 1775, to June 12, 1776

Governors under the Continental Congress and the Constitution.

Patrick Henry1776 to 1779
Thomas Jefferson1779 to 1781
Thomas Nelson1781
Benjamin Harrison1781 to 1784
Patrick Henry1784 to 1786
Edmund Randolph1786 to 1788
Beverly Randolph1788 to 1791
Henry Lee1791 to 1794
Robert Brooke1794 to 1796
James Wood1796 to 1799
James Monroe1799 to 1802
John Page1802 to 1805
William H. Cabell1805 to 1808
John Tyler1808 to 1811
James Monroe1811
George W. Smith1811 to 1812

Governors under the Continental Congress and the Constitution—Continued.

James Barbour1812 to 1814
Wilson C. Nicholas1814 to 1816
James P. Preston1816 to 1819
Thomas M. Randolph1819 to 1822
James Pleasants1822 to 1825
John Tyler1825 to 1826
William B. Giles1826 to 1829
John Floyd1829 to 1833
Littleton W. Tazewell1833 to 1836
Wyndham Robertson1836 to 1837
David Campbell1837 to 1840
Thomas W. Gilmer1840 to 1841
John Rutherford1841 to 1842
John M. Gregory1842 to 1843
James McDowell1843 to 1846
William Smith1846 to 1849
John B. Floyd1849 to 1851
John Johnson1851 to 1852
Joseph Johnson1852 to 1856
Henry A. Wise1856 to 1860
John Letcher1860 to 1864
William Smith1864 to 1865
Francis A. Pierpont1865 to 1867
Henry A. Wells1867 to 1869
Gilbert C. Walker1869 to 1874
James L. Kemper1874 to 1878
F. W. M. Holliday1878 to 1882
W. E. Cameron1882 to 1886
Fitz-Hugh Lee1886 to 1890
Philip W. McKinney1890 to 1894
Charles T. O'Ferrall1894 to 1898
J. Hoge Tyler1898 to 1902

United States Senators.

Name.No. of Congress.Term.
Richard Henry Lee1st to 2d1789 to 1792
William Grayson1st1789 to 1790
John Walker1st1790
James Monroe1st to 4th1790 to 1795
John Taylor2d to 3d1792 to 1794
Henry Tazewell3d to 5th1794 to 1799
Stevens Thomson Mason4th to 8th1795 to 1803
Wilson Cary Nicholas6th to 8th1800 to 1804
Andrew Moore8th to 11th1804 to 1809
William B. Giles8th to 14th1814 to 1815
John Taylor8th1808
Abraham B. Venable8th1803 to 1804
Richard Brent11th to 13th1809 to 1814
James Barbour13th to 19th1815 to 1825
Armistead T. Mason14th1816 to 1817
John W. Eppes15th1817 to 1819
James Pleasants16th to 17th1819 to 1822
John Taylor17th to 18th1822 to 1824
Littleton W. Tazewell18th to 22d1824 to 1832
John Randolph19th to 20th1825 to 1827
John Tyler20th to 24th1827 to 1836
William C. Rives22d to 23d1833 to 1834
Benjamin W. Leigh23d to 24th1834 to 1836
Richard E. Parker24th to 25th1836 to 1837
William C. Rives24th to 29th1836 to 1845
William H. Roane25th to 27th1837 to 1841
William S. Archer27th to 30th1841 to 1847
Isaac S. Pennybacker29th to 30th1845 to 1847
James M. Mason29th to 37th1847 to 1861
Robert M. T. Hunter30th to 37th1847 to 1861
John S. Carlile37th1861
Waiteman T. Willey37th1861 to 1863
John J. Bowden38th1863 to 1864
39th and 40th Congresses vacant.
John W. Johnston41st1870 to 1883
John F. Lewis41st to 44th1870 to 1875
Robert E. Withers44th to 47th1875 to 1881
William Mahone47th to 50th1881 to 1887
H. H. Riddleberger48th to 51st1883 to 1889
John W. Daniel50th to —1887 to —
John S. Barbour51st to 52d1889 to 1892
Eppa Hunton52d to 54th1892 to 1895
Thomas S. Martin54th to —1895 to —


1 Statement by a member of the convention, cited in the Annual Cyclopaedia. 1861, p. 735.

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Cedar Creek (Florida, United States) (1)
Barboursville (Virginia, United States) (1)
Annapolis (Maryland, United States) (1)
Alexandria (Virginia, United States) (1)

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