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The southernmost and youngest of the thirteen original States of the United States, is bounded on the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, east by the Savannah River (which separates it from South Carolina), and by the Atlantic Ocean, which forms a coast-line of about 128 miles; Florida bounds it on the south, and Alabama and a small part of Florida on the west. It lies between lat. 30° 20′ and 35° N., and long. 80° 40′ and 85° 38′ W. Area, 59,475 square miles, in 137 counties. Population, 1890, 1,837,353; 1900, 2,216,331; capital, Atlanta.

De Soto enters the State from Florida; travels northeast through the pine barrens, erects a cross of wood near the Ocmulgee; hears from Indians on the Etowah of gold to the north, and proceeds westward to the Mississippi, entering Alabama by the Coosa......1540

Tristan de Luna, with 300 Spaniards, spends the summer in what is now Habersham county, searching for gold......1560

Jean Ribault, of Dieppe, with two ships fitted out by Gaspard de Coligni, high admiral of France and leader of Huguenots, anchors off mouth of Satilla, discovers Altamaha River, Ossabaw Sound, and the Savannah River......May, 1562

Second expedition, sent out by Coligni, three ships under Rene de Laudonnier. anchor in St. Andrew's Sound......June, 1564

Land between lat. 31° and 36° N., and westward to the ocean, granted by first charter of Charles II. to the lords proprietors of Carolina......March 24, 1663

A three years grant of lands between Savannah and Altamaha rivers obtained from lords proprietors of Carolina by Sir Robert Montgomery, Bart., who issues proposals for settlement of his province, the “Margravate of Azilia” ......1717

Montgomery fails to colonize and forfeits grant......1720

Lords proprietors of Carolina sell seveneighths of their grant to Parliament, and all south of Savannah River is reserved by British crown......1729

Lord Carteret, owner of one-eighth, sells it to trustees for establishing the colony of Georgia in America......Feb. 28, 1732

Trustees receive their charter granting “all those lands between Savannah and Altamaha, and westerly from heads of said rivers in a direct line to the South [307] seas, including islands within 20 leagues of the coast.” The trustees, serving without pay, offer to all “indigent persons who would be willing to seek a livelihood in the colony if provided with a passage thither and means of getting settled,” free citizenship and free exercise of religion (Papists excluded). Charter granted......June 9, 1732

Ship Ann, Capt. John Thomas, with Gen. James Oglethorpe, Rev. Henry Herbert, P. D., and thirty-five families, anchors in Rebellion Roads, S. C.......Jan. 13, 1733

Obtaining consent of Creek Indians through Mary Musgrave, interpreter, Rev. Thomas Bosomworth, Oglethorpe, and colonists land at Yamacraw bluff, on south side of Savannah River, the present site of Savannah......Feb. 12, 1733

First clapboard house in Georgia begun in Savannah......Feb. 19, 1733

Two thousand religious books received by trustees from unknown persons in England for use in colony......April 18, 1733

Ship James, Captain Yoakly, first ship to sail up the Savannah and unload at the town......May, 1733

Treaty of Oglethorpe with lower Creek, Uchee, and Yamacraw Indians, who agree ever to protect the English and restore runaway negroes, receiving for each four blankets and two guns, or an equivalent......May 21, 1733

Ten families sent from Savannah to Fort Argyle on Ogeechee River, previously garrisoned by rangers......June, 1733

Public designation of town and wards with religious exercises; town court of record established, first session of magistrates held, and first jury in Georgia impanelled......July 7, 1733

Forty Jews arrive at Savannah, sent by the committee appointed by the trustees......July, 1733

Trustees prohibit rum in Georgia......Aug. 11, 1733

Forty-two families of Salzburgers, sent from Augsburg, Bavaria, by the Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge, settle at Ebenezer......March 17, 1734

Oglethorpe sails for England, leaving Thomas Causton in authority......April 7, 1734

Ten persons, under Rev. Gottlieb Spanzenberg, sent over from Saxony to begin a Moravian settlement in America, locate on north side of the Ogeechee River, near Fort Argyle......January, 1735

Fifty-nine Salzburgers under Mr. Vat, twenty-two British emigrants, and some Indian chiefs whom Oglethorpe had taken to England, arrive at Savannah early in......1735

Small quantity of Georgia silk taken to England and court dress made, worn by Queen Caroline at levee on King's birthday......April 2, 1735

Augusta laid out and garrisoned at trustees' expense; Roger de Lacy, an Indian agent, one of its first settlers......1735

First issue of £ 4,000 of Sola bills, or bills of exchange of various denominations, made by trustees' agents in Georgia......July 24, 1735

About 100 Highlanders, sent from Scotland by trustees, settle on north side of the Altamaha River, calling it New Inverness......January, 1736

Two ships, convoyed by British sloop Hawk, bringing Oglethorpe, John and Charles Wesley, twenty-five Moravians, and a number of Salzburgers, anchor near Tybee Island......Feb. 5, 1736

Fort on St. Simon's Island at Frederica, as marked out by Oglethorpe, begun......Feb. 19, 1736

John Wesley first preaches at Savannah......March 7, 1736

Fort St. Andrews erected on Cumberland Island by Highlanders, and Fort William planned......1736

Treaty ending hostilities between Spanish and English colonies, and referring all disputes as to boundaries between Georgia and Florida to the home governments......Oct. 27, 1736

Oglethorpe appointed general of forces in South Carolina and Georgia......June, 1737

John Wesley sails for England......Dec. 24, 1737

Uprising of negroes, incited by the Spanish at Stono, quelled......1738

Arrival of ship bringing Rev. George Whitefield and a regiment recruited by Oglethorpe in England; the regiment, under Colonel Cochran, locating at Frederica......May 3, 1738

Many Moravian emigrants remove to Pennsylvania (the rest follow two years later)......1738

Attempted assassination of General [308] Oglethorpe while inspecting Fort St. Andrews on Cumberland Island......November, 1738

Articles of convention between the British and Spanish governments; disputed territories to be retained by present possessors......Jan. 14, 1739

Treaty of peace at Coweta Town between chiefs of Creek Indians and Oglethorpe......Aug. 21, 1739

George Whitefield lays first brick of central building of orphan house “Bethesda,” 9 miles from Savannah......March 25, 1740

Spanish Fort St. Diego, near St. Augustine, defended by fifty-seven men, taken by Oglethorpe......May 10, 1740

Being joined at St. John's by Carolina troops, Oglethorpe marches upon Fort Moosa, which Spaniards evacuate and retreat to St. Augustine......May 15, 1740

Fort Moosa recaptured by 300 Spaniards under Don Antonio Salgrado after a bloody conflict......June 26, 1740

After an ineffectual siege of three weeks Oglethorpe retires from before St. Augustine and reaches Frederica about......July 20, 1740

Georgia divided into two counties: Savannah, comprising all territory north of Darien; and Frederica, covering the settlements on St. Simon's Island and the Altamaha; and Col. William Stephens chosen president of Savannah......April 15, 1741

Nine Spanish vessels, attempting to enter Amelia Sound, are repulsed by cannon of Fort William, on Cumberland Island, aided by armed schooner of fourteen guns and eighty men......June 21, 1742

Spanish squadron of thirty-six vessels enters St. Simon's harbor in spite of battery of fort and a few English ships, lands about 500 men within 4 miles of Frederica......July 5, 1742

English having abandoned Fort St. Simon, the Spanish occupy it; march against Frederica, and are driven back to an open marsh bordering on a forest, where they stack arms and are surprised and completely routed by a platoon and company of rangers under Lieutenants Sutherland and Mackay in a battle known as “Bloody Marsh” ......July 7, 1742

Rum act repealed in Georgia by order of House of Commons......July 14, 1742

Gen. Don Manuel de Montiano, alarmed by a decoy letter sent by Oglethorpe, with his fleet, fearful of being hemmed in by sea and land, hastens to sea......about July 20, 1742

Oglethorpe returns with detachment of Highlanders from a fruitless incursion into Florida......March 9, 1743

Magazine at Frederica blown up......March 22, 1743

Trustees abrogate part of constitution appointing board for Frederica, and counties are consolidated; Col. William Stephens elected first president of colony of Georgia, under government established at solicitation of people, by the King......April 18, 1743

Charles Harris and James Habersham in partnership establish first commercial house in Georgia......1744

Thomas Bosomworth obtains deed from Indian chief and emperor, Malatchee, to islands of Ossabaw, Sapelo, and St. Catharine......Dec. 14, 1747

Small ship (the first) chartered in England by Harris and Habersham to bring Georgia products......May, 1749

In response to petitions the act of 1735, prohibiting importation and use of negro slaves, was repealed by trustees......Oct. 26, 1749

Trustees abolish tail-male tenure of grants and make them absolute......May 25, 1750

Henry Parker commissioned vice-president of Georgia......June 26, 1750

Christ Church (Anglican), Savannah, dedicated......July 7, 1750

Provincial assembly of delegates to propose, debate, and refer matters to the trustees, first meets at Savannah......Jan. 15, 1751

Henry Parker chosen president of colony......April 8, 1751

First general muster of militia in lower districts at Savannah......June 13, 1751

Trustees hold last meeting, surrender charters, and the government passes to the board of trade and plantations......June 23, 1752

Community of Anglican Church people, after preliminary examination of lands in 1752-53 and procuring grant of about 32.000 acres of land between Ogeechee and Altamaha, settle at Midway, Ga.......March, 1754 [309]

Patrick Graham elected president of colony......1754

Silver seal made for colony under King's direction......June 21, 1754

Capt. John Reynolds, of the British navy, appointed governor of Georgia in August, arrives at Savannah......Oct. 29, 1754

Reynolds dissolves board and forms a royal council under letters patent from the crown......Oct. 30, 1754

First General Assembly of freeholders of estates of not less than 500 acres, meets at Savannah......Jan. 7, 1755

Governor assents to twelve acts of Assembly; the second was for issuing £ 3,000 in paper bills of credit......March 7, 1755

Two transports arrive at Savannah with about 400 Acadians, banished from Nova Scotia. As Papists could not remain in Georgia under charter, they were sent to South Carolina the next spring......December, 1755

By machinations of his secretary, William Little, Governor Reynolds is charged with maladministration and resigns office to Henry Ellis, elected lieutenant-governor......Feb. 16, 1757

Treaty of peace with council of upper and lower Creeks by Lieutenant-Governor Ellis......Nov. 3, 1757

Georgia divided into eight parishes, and Church of England worship established......March 17, 1758

Islands of Ossabaw, St. Catharine, and Sapelo formally ceded to England by Creek nation......April 22, 1758

Ellis appointed governor-in-chief by lords of trade......May 17, 1758

Grant of 300 acres for site of Sunbury by Mark Carr, part of his 500-acre grant from the King in 1757......June 20, 1758

Claims of Thomas and Mary Bosomworth settled by order of the King......Feb. 9, 1759

First wharf built in Savannah......1759

Act for issuing £ 7,410 in paper bills of credit......May 1, 1760

Lieut.-Gov. James Wright succeeds Governor Ellis......Nov. 2, 1760

George III. proclaimed King with civil and military pomp; the only event of the kind ever witnessed in Georgia......Feb. 10, 1761

Commission creating James Wright captain-general and governor-in-chief of Georgia reaches Savannah......Jan. 28, 1762

William Grover, first chief-justice of Georgia, removed from office for maladministration......March, 1763

Protest and caveat issued by Governor Wright against grants of land south of the Altamaha by South Carolina......March 30, 1763

First newspaper in Georgia, the Georgia Gazette, issued at Savannah by James Johnson......April 17, 1763

By royal proclamation, southern boundary of Georgia is made the St. Mary's River, including lands between this and the Altamaha claimed by South Carolina......Oct. 7, 1763

Congress of Creeks, Cherokees, Catawbas, Chickasaws, and Chocktaws, meet governors of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia at Augusta, and conclude treaty and cede additional land to Georgia......Nov. 5, 1763

New commission granted Governor Wright for the new Mississippi territory of Georgia......Jan. 20, 1764

Four additional parishes laid off between Altamaha and St. Mary's rivers......1765

Sixteen members of Assembly at Savannah consider a circular from Massachusetts Assembly, proposing a General Congress at New York on the Stamp Act......Sept. 2, 1765

Letter sent General Congress in New York announces hearty co-operation of Georgia Assembly, but opposition of Governor Wright prevents attendance of delegates......October, 1765

British ship Speedwell arrives in Savannah River with stamps, which are secretly transferred to Fort Halifax to avoid destruction threatened by Liberty Boys......Dec. 5, 1765

South Carolina aroused because Georgia accepts stamps to clear sixty or seventy vessels waiting in Savannah......December, 1765

Two hundred Liberty Boys threatening to break open fort and destroy stamps, the governor removes them under military escort to the guard-house......Jan. 2, 1766

Mr. Agnus, stamp distributer, arrives at Tybee, is secretly conveyed to the governor's house, takes the oath, but in a few [310] days leaves town convinced of his insecurity......Jan. 3, 1766

A body of 600 men threatening Fort George and the governor's house, the stamps are placed on the Speedwell......Feb. 3, 1766

Effigy of Governor Wright, with offensive circular of Secretary Conway in his hand, burned on the commons in Savannah......Feb. 4, 1766

Official announcement of repeal of Stamp Act received by governor......July 6, 1766

Assembly refuses governor's call for supplies for British troops in Georgia, and General Gage withdraws all troops from province soon after......Jan. 20, 1767

One hundred and seven Irish Protestants settle at forks of Lambert Creek and Great Ogeechee......March, 1768

Benjamin Franklin appointed agent for Georgia in Great Britain......April 11, 1768

King rejects, as irregular and disrespectful, a petition of the Assembly presented by Franklin, protesting against acts of Parliament taxing America, under date of......Dec. 24, 1768

Merchants and traders of Savannah meet and resolve that importers of articles subject to parliamentary duties are enemies to the country......Sept. 16, 1769

Unanimous election of Dr. Wimberly Jones as speaker of Assembly; vetoed by governor, who dissolves the Assembly......Feb. 22, 1770

James Habersham, president of the council, assumes executive duties on Wright's departure for England, and twice vetoes election of Dr. Jones as speaker of Assembly......July, 1771

Works for filature in Savannah, erected 1751, discontinued; end of silk industry in Georgia......1772

Governor Wright returns from England with the title of baronet......February, 1773

Creeks and Cherokees convene at Augusta and cede to King over 2,100,000 acres in Georgia, to liquidate indebtedness to traders of over $200,000......June 1, 1773

Meeting in Savannah; resolves to concur with sister colonies in every constitutional measure to obtain redress of American grievances. This meeting was afterwards pronounced illegal and punishable by Governor Wright......Aug. 10, 1774

Resolutions of fealty to Continental Congress drawn up by representatives of Darien in district congress......Jan. 12, 1775

Provincial Congress in Savannah elects Dr. Jones, Archibald Bullock, and John Houstoun, delegates to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia......Jan. 18, 1775

Delegates send patriotic letter, but cannot attend during struggle in Georgia with royal power......April 8, 1775

General Assembly convenes; no quorum; royal government in Georgia suspended......May 9, 1775

Noble Wimberly Jones, Joseph Habersham, Edward Tel-fair, and a few others appropriate to colonial use 500 lbs. of powder from King's magazine......May 11, 1775

Lyman Hall, delegate from parish of St. John to Continental Congress, arrives at Philadelphia with present for patriots in Massachusetts of 160 barrels of rice and £ 50......May 13, 1775

Other delegates from the State not taking their seats in Congress, Georgia, except parish of St. John, is placed under ban of colonial intercourse by Continental Congress......May 17, 1775

Ship Juliana leaves Savannah with gift of sixty-three barrels of rice and £ 120 in specie for Massachusetts......June 1, 1775

Governor Wright having issued orders for celebration of King's birthday, Liberty people spike the cannon on the bay, dismount them, and roll them to the bottom of bluff......June 2, 1775

First liberty-pole in Georgia erected at Savannah, on King's birthday......June 5, 1775

Claim of George Galphin, a prominent and liberal trader, audited before governor and approved, for £ 9,791......June 6, 1775

Provincial Congress at Tondee's Long Room, Savannah, elect Archibald Bullock president, adopt the “American Declaration or bill of rights” of Continental Congress, and resolve in non-importation of British merchandise......July 4, 1775

First provincial vessel commissioned for naval warfare in the Revolution, is sent out by Georgia under command of Captain Bowen and Joseph Habersham. Discovering an English vessel bringing powder for Indians and royalists, they board her and secure the powder......July 10, 1775 [311]

Continental Congress officially notified that Georgia acceded to general association; it is thenceforth one of the United Colonies......July 20, 1775

Messrs. Zubley, Bullock, and Houstoun take seats as delegates from Georgia to Continental Congress......Sept. 13, 1775

English ship with 250 barrels of gunpowder seized off Tybee Island by the Liberty people......Sept. 17, 1775

Provincial Congress takes under supervision all courts of law......Dec. 1, 1775

Council of safety fully organized; George Walton, president......Dec. 11, 1775

Battalion of troops ordered raised at Continental expense for protection of Georgia, organized......Jan. 7, 1776

Governor Wright arrested by Maj. Joseph Habersham and put under parole......Jan. 18, 1776

Provincial Congress organize; elect Hon. Archibald Bullock president, issue bills of credit for military stores, and draw up temporary constitution for Georgia......Jan. 22, 1776

Governor Wright escapes to English ship Scarborough, and writes a letter to people, offering peace, but is not heeded......Feb. 11, 1776

Captain Rice, charged by the council of safety to dismantle shipping at Savannah to prevent capture by the British, is surprised and imprisoned on a vessel which the British had boarded. To accomplish his release the council of safety fired several vessels, arrested all members of royal council in Savannah, and menaced officers of ships at Tybee......March 2, 1776

Lord North's bill prohibiting trade with the colonies in rebellion is announced in Georgia......March, 1776

Temporary constitution ratified by Provincial Congress......April 15, 1776

Declaration of Independence signed by Lyman Hall, Button Gwinnett, and George Walton, members from Georgia......July 3, 1776

Declaration of Independence received in Savannah; read by Archibald Bullock at liberty-pole, and acknowledged by national salute......Aug. 8, 1776

First constitution of Georgia ratified in convention; parishes abolished and counties erected instead......Feb. 5, 1777

Fort McIntosh on St. Illa River surrendered to British......Feb. 17, 1777

President Bullock invested with the executive power, with assistance of five persons of his own choosing......Feb. 22, 1777

Mr. Bullock dying within a month, is succeeded by Button Gwinnett, who was soon after killed in a duel with General McIntosh......March 4, 1777

Act of attainder of enemies of American liberty as traitors, and confiscating their estates, passes the Assembly......March 1, 1778

Executive council invests the governor with sole executive power independent of council......April 16, 1778

British under Colonel Prevost advance north into Georgia to join Lieutenant-Colonel Campbell, who sailed from New York......Nov. 27, 1778

Campbell anchors off Tybee......Dec. 27, 1778

Campbell lands, attacks rear of Americans under General Howe, who retreats across the Savannah, abandoning the city. American loss, nearly 100 killed and wounded, thirty drowned in swamps, seven officers, 416 non-commissioned officers and privates taken prisoners. British loss, two captains and five privates killed, eight privates wounded......Dec. 29, 1778

Colonel Campbell takes possession of Cherokee Hill and Ebenezer......Jan. 1-2, 1779

Major Lane surrenders garrison at Sunbury to Prevost......Jan. 9, 1779

Augusta surrendered to British under Campbell......January, 1779

Americans under Pickens, Dooly, and Clarke repulse British at battle of Kettle Creek, Wilkes county......Feb. 14, 1779

Prevost surprises and defeats Americans under General Ashe at Briar Creek. Loss, American, 340 killed, wounded, and prisoners; British, sixteen killed and wounded......March 3, 1779

Civil government renewed by British under Colonel Prevost......March 4, 1779

Governor Wright returns to Georgia......July 13, 1779

As British invasion prevented carrying the constitution into effect, the supreme executive council is clothed with plenary power and elects John Wereat president......Aug. 6, 1779

Count d'estaing, with fleet of thirty-three war-vessels, surprises and captures [312] part of British fleet under Sir James Wallace, commanding Tybee station......Sept. 3, 1779

Armies of Lincoln and D'Estaing besiege Savannah......Sept. 23, 1779

Captain French with 111 British, and five vessels with crews and ammunition, frightened by bonfires and voices, surrender to Col. John White of Georgia line and six Americans......Oct. 1, 1779

Americans and French attack Savannah; lose 1,100 killed and wounded out of 4,000 and abandon siege, bearing away Count Pulaski, mortally wounded......Oct. 9, 1779

A dissatisfied faction elects George Walton governor, appoints executive councillors, and elects delegates to Congress, producing great confusion......Nov. 4, 1779

Assembly at Augusta elects Richard Howley governor and George Wells president of executive council......Jan. 4, 1780

Governor Howley by proclamation calls on people to support and defend the government......Feb. 2. 1780

Assembly adjourns to Heard's Fort, Wilkes county, which becomes temporary capital of the State......Feb. 5, 1780

Governor Howley leaves for Continental Congress; President Wells dying soon after, Stephen Heard becomes executive......Feb. 18, 1780

House of Assembly of only fifteen members (eighteen being a quorum) passes acts attainting rebels of high treason......May 9, 1780

Augusta taken by Colonel Clarke, Sept. 14; retaken by British......Sept. 17, 1780

Fort Grierson, one of the defences of Augusta, taken by Clarke, Pickens, and Lee......May 24, 1781

Colonel Brown, who with British forces stands a protracted siege of Augusta by Americans, capitulates......June 5, 1781

Assembly convenes at Augusta and elects Nathan Brownson governor......Aug. 16, 1781

John Martin elected governor at Augusta......Jan. 1, 1782

Legislature consults with General Wayne at Sister's Ferry on the Savannah, and by proclamation invites desertion from British army and return of citizens to Georgia......Jan. 12, 1782

Governor Martin, in destitution, is supplied by legislature by sale of forfeited negroes and supplies......May 4, 1782

British forces, advancing 7 miles from Savannah to escort Creek Indian allies into camp, are routed by Wayne......May 21, 1782

Orders received by Sir James Wright at Savannah for evacuation of the province......June 14, 1782

Seat of provincial government removed to Ebenezer, headquarters of General Wayne, where Assembly meets......July 1, 1782

Savannah evacuated by British; Col. James Jackson selected to receive the keys......July 11, 1782

Executive council establish themselves in Savannah, and legislature convenes......July 14, 1782

Last blood of Revolution shed in Georgia, Col. John Laurens, killed in a skirmish at Combahee Ferry......Aug. 27, 1782

General Pickens and Colonel Clarke drive a party of marauding Tories from settlement on Etowah into Florida......Oct. 17, 1782

General McIntosh, John Houstoun, and Edward Telfair appointed agents to adjust the northern boundaries......Feb. 15, 1783

Treaty ratified at Augusta; Creeks cede country west of Tugaloo, including headwaters of Oconee River......May 31, 1783

Legislature convenes at Augusta......July 8, 1783

Franklin and Washington counties laid out on land ceded by the Creek Indians......February, 1784

Executive council notified of ratification by Congress of treaty of peace with Great Britain......March 1, 1784

Land court opened at Augusta to issue warrants, “citizens' rights,” “refugee certificates,” “Continental certificates,” “minute-men certificates,” and “marine certificates” ......April, 1784

University of Georgia receives charter and 40,000 acres of wild land......1785

Legislature grants Count d'estaing 20,000 acres of land and free citizenship of Georgia......1785

Hostile Creeks subjected by Colonel Clarke, and treaty concluded at Galphington......Nov. 12, 1785 [313]

Chatham artillery of Savannah organized......May 1, 1786

Colonel Gunn breaks up camp of runaway negroes, trained to arms by the British and ravaging country......May 6, 1786

Gen. Nathanael Greene dies at “Mulberry Grove,” 14 miles from Savannah, the home presented him by the legislature......June 19, 1786

Assembly directs paper bills of credit not to exceed £ 30,000 struck off under direction of governor......Aug. 14, 1786

Abram Baldwin and Hon. William Frew, delegates from Georgia, sign draught of constitution proposed for ratification......Sept. 17, 1787

Legislature at Augusta ratifies the federal Constitution, the fourth State......Jan. 2, 1788

George Handly elected governor to succeed Gen. James Jackson (age thirty), elected Jan. 9, who resigned on account of his youth......Jan. 25, 1788

Differences between South Carolina and Georgia settled; northern boundary of Georgia fixed in line west from head of most northern branch of Tugaloo River to the Mississippi River......February, 1788

First bag of cotton exported from Georgia, raised by Alexander Bissel of St. Simon's Island......1788

New constitution, to take effect in following October, formally accepted by governor......May 6, 1789

First General Assembly under new constitution meets......Nov. 3, 1789

General Assembly meets for public worship in St. Paul's church, Augusta, on the first national Thanksgiving under the constitution......Nov. 26, 1789

Colonel Willet gains the confidence of Creek Indians, and Alexander McGillivray, son of a Scotchman by a half-breed Creek, an enemy to the Americans and acknowledged head of the Creeks; McGillivray with eight warriors accompanies Willet to Philadelphia and New York, when a treaty is concluded, ceding land south of Oconee and Ocmulgee rivers......Aug. 13, 1790

Two brass cannon, taken at Yorktown, are presented to the Chatham artillery of Savannah, by General Washington, in appreciation of their part in his reception in Savannah; one bears the inscription, “Surrendered by the capitulation of York Town, Oct. 19, 1781. Honi soit qui mal y pense—G. R.” with the imperial crown......1791

General Washington, on a Presidential tour, arrives at Savannah and is received with enthusiasm......May 13, 1791

Eli Whitney, of Connecticut, while residing in Georgia, invents the cotton-gin......May 27, 1793

General Clarke, claiming that by the treaty of 1790 certain lands on the south side of the Oconee River had been improperly ceded to the Creeks by the United States, takes possession, defying Georgia and United States, but is driven out......Oct. 12, 1794

Seat of government removed from Augusta to Louisville, now county seat of Jefferson county......May 16, 1795

Rescinding act signed by Governor Irwin, who was elected the previous month......Feb. 13, 1796

United States grants to Georgia preemption rights to lands obtained by joint treaty made with the Creek Indians by United States and Georgia in previous. year......March, 1797

Mississippi Territory set off from Georgia by act of Congress......April 7, 1798

Revised constitution signed by delegates at Louisville, proclaimed by sixteen rounds of artillery......May 30, 1798

“ Senatus Academicus” of University of Georgia first meets at Louisville......November, 1799

Moravian mission among the Cherokees begun at Spring Place, Murray county......1801

First building erected for university of Georgia......1801

James Jackson resigns to take seat in United States Senate; David Emanuel acting governor......Dec. 7, 1801

Georgia cedes her western territory to the United States for $1,250,000 and stipulation that the Indian title to lands in Georgia should be extinguished by United States, but no time for completion of contract is specified......April 24, 1802

Treaty at Washington; Creek Indians cede land between Oconee and Ocmulgee to the United States......Nov. 14, 1805

First session of legislature at Milledgeville, the new capital......1807

Battle between Georgia volunteers under [314] Col. Daniel Newman and Lotchaway and Alligator Indians in east Florida......Oct. 5, 1812

Attack and destruction of Auttose towns by 950 Georgia militia under General Floyd, and battle with Creeks on Tallapoosa River; Indian loss, .200 killed; Americans, eleven killed, fifty-four wounded......Nov. 29, 1813

General Floyd repulses a large body of Creek Indians at Camp Defiance, 48 miles west of the Chattahoochee, after a loss of seventeen killed and 132 wounded......Jan. 27, 1814

Treaty ceding territory to United States between Creek Indians and General Jackson, at Fort Jackson......Aug. 9, 1814

Point Petrie, near St. Mary's, defended by about ninety men under Captain Massias, is surrendered to 1,000 British......Jan. 13, 1815

William H. Crawford appointed Secretary of War......March 3, 1815

Frederic Tudor, of Boston, ships first load of ice to Savannah......1817

First mission of American board of commissioners among the Cherokees commenced at Spring Place, Murray county......1817

William H. Crawford appointed Secretary of the Treasury......Oct. 22, 1817

David B. Mitchell resigns governorship and is succeeded by William Rabun, president of the Senate......Nov. 4, 1817

Three hundred Georgia infantry under Lieutenant-Colonel Arbuckle repulse Fowltown Indians 12 miles from Fort Scott on Flint River......Nov. 23, 1817

Ex-Governor Mitchell, United States agent to the Creek Indians, concludes treaty, ceding lands in northwest Georgia to the United States to be annexed to Georgia......Jan. 22, 1818

First transatlantic steamship Savannah sails from Savannah for Liverpool (passage took twenty-six days)......May 26, 1819

Governor Rabun dying, is succeeded by Matthew Talbot, president of the Senate......Oct. 24, 1819

Macon laid out, and first court held......March 20, 1823

Wilson Lumpkin appointed by President commissioner of boundary between Georgia and Florida......1823

By amendment to the constitution, the election of governor is transferred from the legislature to the people......Nov. 17, 1824

Treaty at Indian Springs with Creeks— represented by Gen. William McIntosh and fifty others. They cede to United States all the Creek country in Georgia and several millions of acres in Alabama......Feb. 12, 1825

Savannah and Ogeechee Canal begun, the State subscribing for $40,000 of stock......1825

Governor orders a survey of Indian lands in Georgia......1825

United States government sends General Gaines to Georgia to protect the Indians......1825

Treaty with Creek Indians at Washington annuls treaty of 1825 and cedes only lands in Georgia, the Creeks agreeing to emigrate......Jan. 24, 1826

Threatening correspondence between Governor Troup and the United States on jurisdiction in Indian matters within the State......1826-27

State extends criminal jurisdiction over part of Georgia claimed by the Cherokees......Dec. 20, 1828

John M. Berrien appointed Attorney-General......March 9, 1829

Legislation annuls all laws and ordinances made by Cherokees......Dec. 19, 1829

First gold from Georgia mines received at the United States mint......1830

Law forbidding any white person to enter the Cherokee country without license and oath of allegiance to Georgia......Dec. 22, 1830

Cherokee Georgia surveyed by order of governor, laid out in small sections, and distributed by lottery to the people of Georgia......April, 1831

Rev. Samuel A. Worcester and Elizur Butler, M. D., missionaries to Cherokees, refusing oath of allegiance to Georgia, are imprisoned in State penitentiary......Sept. 16, 1831

Supreme Court of the United States pronounces authority assumed by Georgia unconstitutional, declares void laws depriving Indians of their rights, and orders release of missionaries......March, 1832

Gospel of Matthew printed at New Echota in Cherokee language......1832

Altamaha and Brunswick Railroad, 12 miles long, commenced......1832 [315]

Anti-tariff convention meets at Milledgeville......Nov. 12, 1832

Imprisoned missionaries pardoned by Governor Lumpkin......Jan. 14, 1833

John Forsyth appointed Secretary of State......June 27, 1834

William Schley elected governor, recommends a State lunatic asylum at Milledgeville and geological survey......November, 1835

Treaty at New Echota between United States and Cherokee nation fixes May 24, 1838, for Georgia to take possession of territory ceded by Cherokees......Dec. 29, 1835

Battle of Chickasawhachee in Baker county between Creek Indians on their way to join the Seminoles, and Georgia militia......July 3, 1836

Wesleyan Female College, the oldest for women in the United States, chartered......1837

United States branch mint opened at Dahlonega, Lumpkin county......1837

Southern convention, 180 delegates from five States, at Augusta for establishing direct trade with Europe......April 2, 1838

Cherokee Indians, 1,560 in number, escorted out of Georgia to Ross Landing, Tenn., by Georgia militia......June 3, 1838

Bonds for $1,579,875 issued by State for the Western and Atlantic Railroad......1839

Georgia Historical Society incorporated......1839

First settlement on site of Atlanta......1839

Governor McDonald advocates the Missouri Compromise......1839

Great flood in Georgia, the Savannah River the highest in a century; boats pass through the streets of Augusta......May 28, 1840

Law reducing State tax 20 per cent......1841

After much opposition bill passes, adding 25 per cent. to State tax of previous year ......1842

Suspension from office of Bishop Andrews of Methodist Episcopal Church, for marrying a slave-holder, results in the formation of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, organized at Louisville, Ky......May 1, 1845

Settlement previously known as Marthasville and Terminus is named Atlanta......1847

Macon and Atlanta telegraph line in operation......1849

George W. Crawford appointed Secretary of War......March 6, 1849

Wallace, Iverson, and Lumpkin, of Georgia, issue a manifesto to people of the United States, declaring emancipation certain unless prevented by the slave States, and calling upon the latter for union and concert in self-defence......1849

Gen. Narciso Lopez, having fled from Cuba to New York under charges of conspiracy, organizes an expedition against Cuba, lands at Savannah, is arrested, but discharged amid the cheers of the people and allowed to proceed......May 27, 1850

State convention of delegates called by the executive at Milledgeville adopts the “platform of 1850.” “Resolved, that the State of Georgia, even to the disruption of every tie that binds her to the Union, will resist any act of Congress abolishing slavery” ......Dec. 10, 1850

Extension of slavery into California and New Mexico being advocated by the Southern extremists, the Union party nominate and elect Howell Cobb governor......October, 1851

By joint resolution the governor is requested to withdraw the block of marble bearing the inscription, “The Constitution as it is, the Union as it was,” contributed to the Washington monument, and substitute one bearing the State arms......Dec. 31, 1851

Formation of the “Know-nothing” or American party in Georgia......1852

Southern convention meets in Savannah......Dec. 12, 1856

Appropriation of $200,000 made by Congress for purchase of site for a naval depot at Brunswick on Blythe Island......Jan. 28, 1857

Howell Cobb appointed Secretary of the Treasury......March 6, 1857

Governor Brown vetoes bill suspending forfeiture proceedings against banks for one year; the banks in Augusta and elsewhere resume specie payment......May 1, 1858

Georgia schooner-yacht Wanderer seized in New York on suspicion of being a slavetrader, but released.......June 16, 1858

Governor Brown seizes forts Pulaski and Jackson sixteen days before Georgia secedes......Jan. 3, 1861

Ordinance of secession passed (yeas, 208; nays, 89)......Jan. 19, 1861 [316]

[Alexander H. Stephens and Herschel V. Johnson vote nay.]

Members of Congress from Georgia withdraw......Jan. 23, 1861

Iverson withdraws from the Senate......Jan. 28, 1861

Mint at Dahlonega seized by Confederate authorities of Georgia......Feb. 28, 1861

Georgia adopts Confederate constitution......March 16, 1861

Georgia adopts a State constitution......March 23, 1861

Governor Brown by proclamation forbids the people of Georgia to pay Northern creditors......April 26, 1861

Admiral Dupont, U. S. N., takes Tybee Island......November, 1861

Draft of troops made in Savannah, at call of President Davis for 1,200 volunteers from Georgia......March 4, 1862

Fort Pulaski bombarded by Federals and taken......April 10, 1862

Conscript act, annulling previous contracts by volunteers and making all men over eighteen years and under thirty-five soldiers for the war, sustained by Supreme Court of Georgia......Nov. 11, 1862

First general council of the Protestant Episcopal Church of the Confederate States assembles at Augusta......Nov. 19, 1862

Federals under Colonel Montgomery capture and burn Darien......June 11, 1863

Confederate war-vessel Atlanta leaves Savannah to attack the blockading fleet; meets Federal monitor Weehawken, and in fifteen minutes is disabled and captured......June 17, 1863

Battle of Chickamauga. Sept. 19-20, 1863 Battle of Ringgold......Nov. 27, 1863

First detachment of Federal prisoners received at Andersonville prison......Feb. 15, 1864

Battle of Tunnel Hill......Feb. 22-25, 1864

Resolutions passed by legislature recommending the tender of peace to the United States after every victory......March, 1864

Confederates under General Johnston evacuate Resaca and cross the Oostenaula, speedily followed by Federals under General Sherman......May 15, 1864

Sherman attacks Johnston at bluffs of Kenesaw Mountain and is repulsed......June 27, 1864

Johnston evacuates Marietta......July 1, 1864

Johnston succeeded by Hood in defence of Atlanta......July 17, 1864

First battle (Peach-tree Creek) near Atlanta......July 20, 1864

Second battle (Decatur) near Atlanta......July 22, 1864

Third battle near Atlanta......July 28, 1864

Battle of Jonesboro......Aug. 31, 1864

Hood evacuates Atlanta after burning all machinery, supplies, and munitions of war not portable......Sept. 1, 1864

President Jefferson Davis, on a tour of inspection, delivers an address on the crisis, at Macon......Sept. 23, 1864

Battle of Allatoona Pass......Oct. 6, 1864

Sherman begins his march to the sea with two corps of the Army of the Tennessee under Howard, and two corps of the Army of the Cumberland under Slocum......Nov. 14, 1864

[City of Atlanta burned at the same time.]

Governor Brown and Georgia legislature, in session at Milledgeville, leave hurriedly for Augusta......Nov. 18, 1864

Fort McAllister captured by the Federals under Hazen......Dec. 13, 1864

Confederates evacuate Savannah......Dec. 20, 1864

Legislature assembles at Macon......Feb. 11, 1865.

James Johnson appointed provisional governor by President Johnson......June 17, 1865

Convention of State Delegates at Milledgeville repeal ordinance of secession......Oct. 30, 1865

War debt declared void by convention, and revised constitution adopted......Nov. 7, 1865

Legislature assembled at Milledgeville adopts amendment to federal Constitution abolishing slavery......Dec. 5, 1865

Charles J. Jenkins inaugurated governor of Georgia......Dec. 14, 1865

Legislature appropriates $200,000 to buy corn for indigent poor of the State, and distributes it to 45,000 people......March 12, 1866

Legislature passes over the governor's veto a stay-law forbidding levy or sale under execution upon any contract or liability made or incurred prior to Jan. 1, 1865, or any subsequent renewal, except for one-third of the principal and interest, [317] after Jan. 1, 1868, and one-third after each subsequent year ......1866

New constitution set aside by Congress......March, 1867

Maj.-Gen. John Pope assumes command of 3d Military District......April 1, 1867

Use of “chain gang” as a legal mode of punishment except in penitentiary discontinued......May 1, 1867

Republican State mass convention held at Atlanta adopts the name “Union Republican party of Georgia,” and pledges hearty support of reconstruction measures......July 4, 1867

Convention of native white citizens of Georgia, at Macon, under name of “Conservative party of Georgia” ......Dec. 5, 1867

Constitutional convention, called by order of General Pope, meets at Atlanta......Dec. 9, 1867

Convention makes Atlanta the capital......Jan. 8, 1868

Governor Jenkins, refusing warrant for expenses of constitutional convention, is removed by General Meade, military governor; Maj.-Gen. Thomas H. Ruger made provisional governor......Jan. 13, 1868

State central committee of conservative party meets at Macon and adopts the title “The central executive committee of the national Democratic party of Georgia” ......Feb. 13, 1868

New constitution ratified......March 11, 1868

Rufus B. Bullock, Republican, elected governor......April 20, 1868

“ Farming out” of penitentiary convicts begun by General Ruger......May 11, 1868

Governor Bullock inaugurated, to serve four years......July 22, 1868

Convention of negroes held at Macon......Oct. 6, 1868

Right of negroes to hold office settled by the Supreme Court......June 22, 1869

Act of Congress completes reconstruction of Georgia......Dec. 22, 1869

Georgia Senate refuses to ratify the Fifteenth Amendment......1869

Gen. A. H. Terry assigned to military command of District of Georgia......Dec. 24, 1869

Legislature elected 1868 assemble in Atlanta by Governor Bullock's proclamation, to perfect organization of State......Jan. 10, 1870

Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments ratified in legislature......February, 1870

Georgia readmitted to the Union......July 15, 1870

System of public instruction established by law......Oct. 13, 1870

Governor Bullock, accused of fraudulent negotiation of bonds endorsed by the State, resigns and leaves the State; Benjamin Conley, president of the Senate, succeeds......Oct. 30, 1871

James M. Smith elected governor by special election......Dec. 19, 1871

Macon and Brunswick Railroad seized by the State for non-payment of interest......July 2, 1873

Amendment to bonding law prohibits payment of $8,000,000 bonds endorsed by Governor Bullock and pronounced fraudulent. (Being ambiguously worded, it failed of its purpose.) Passed......February, 1874

Commissioner of agriculture authorized by law......February, 1874

State board of health organized......June 9, 1875

New constitution adopted......July 25, 1877

Confederate monument unveiled at Augusta......Oct. 31, 1878

Legislature votes bounties to soldiers who had lost limbs in the Confederate service; appoints a commission to regulate railroad charges, and adopts a State flag......July-October, 1879

Macon and Brunswick Railroad sold at auction by the State for $1,125,000......Jan. 13, 1880

Nugget of gold weighing over a pound found in Nacoochee Valley......spring of 1880

Revision of State code regulating time for voting by the electoral college......1880

International cotton exposition held at Atlanta......Oct. 5–Dec. 31, 1881

One hundred and fiftieth anniversary of settlement of Savannah celebrated......Feb. 13, 1883

Governor Stephens dying, is succeeded by James S. Boynton, president of the Senate......March 5, 1883

Legislature prohibits Sunday excursion trains......1883

General local option law passed by legislature......1885

First election under local option law in Fulton county; majority of 225 for prohibition in vote of about 7,000......Nov. 25, 1885 [318]

Inter-State farmers' convention held at Atlanta......August, 1887

Legislature increases Supreme Court from three judges to five......1887

Opening of the Technological School at Atlanta, a branch of the State university......October, 1888

New capitol at Atlanta finished and accepted by State; cost, $1,000,000......March 20, 1890

National Military Park established at Chickamauga battle-field by Congress......Aug. 19, 1890

Direct-trade convention, delegates from six cotton-producing States, organizes at Atlanta......Sept. 10, 1890

William J. Northen, president of State Agricultural Society, nominated by Farmers' State Alliance in June, and by Democratic State Convention in August, is elected governor......Oct. 1, 1890

Ex-Governor Gordon elected United States Senator......Nov. 19, 1890

Ex-Gov. James Milton Smith dies at Columbus......Nov. 25, 1890

Monument to Henry W. Grady unveiled at Atlanta......Oct. 21, 1891

Southern States exposition opens at Augusta......Nov. 2, 1891

Charles F. Crisp elected speaker United States Congress......Dec. 8, 1891

First State convention of People's party at Atlanta nominates W. L. Peck for governor and a full State ticket......July 20, 1892

L. Q. C. Lamar, of United States Supreme Court, dies at Macon......Jan. 23, 1893

Statue of Alexander H. Stephens unveiled at Crawfordsville......May 24, 1893

Cyclone on the coast of Georgia and South Carolina, 1,000 lives lost......Aug. 28, 1893

Yellow-fever epidemic at Brunswick......Sept. 17, 1893

Cotton-spinners' Southern Association meets at Augusta......Dec. 13, 1893

The cotton States and international exposition at Atlanta opened......Sept. 18, 1895

Ex-Speaker C. F. Crisp dies at Atlanta......Oct. 23, 1896

Tornado at Arlington, eight killed......March 22, 1897

Roman Catholic cathedral at Savannah burned......Feb. 6, 1898

President and cabinet attend peace jubilee at Atlanta......Dec. 13-19, 1898

Ex-Gov. W. Y. Atkinson dies at Newnan......Aug. 8, 1899

Railroad wreck near McDonough; thirty-five lives lost......June 24, 1900


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