We have received files of New York and Washington papers through our regular agent, from which we extract the following intelligence:

The Herald's News Budget, Oct. 4.

The Fulton arrived at this port yesterday morning from Southampton, bringing European papers of the 18th of September. These journals contain some very important and significant articles relative to the hopes entertained in Europe of the effects of the recent proclamation of Gen. Fremont on the subject of the emancipation of negro slaves. The Morning Post, Lord Palmerston's official organ, repudiates the idea of a general emancipation, and dreads the horrors of a servile insurrection, while the organs of the Exeter Hall abolitionists contend that the destruction of slavery is the one and main issue of the present war in America. England's endeavors to obtain an independent supply of cotton are reported in a shape which must be very alarming to the rebel cotton interest of the Southern States. The comments of the London press on the fact of the tender of a Union commission to Garibaldi are very unfriendly towards the Cabinet at Washington.

Our correspondent at Kanagawa, Japan dating on the 3d of July, states that the news of the attack on and bombardment of Fort Sumter had been received there. The intelligence was conveyed in English papers, which had copied the reports of the New York Herald of the 14th of April last. This news produced great consternation and anxiety among the American residents, who feared that the power and prestige of the United States would be destroyed by the act, and that our Government would fall, both in Europe and Asia, from its rank as a first class Power by means of civil war. He adds: "The melancholy fact of the breaking up of the United States is fully understood by the Japanese. Master Tommy asked me the other day what would become of the United States?--if it would belong to England?--if there would be any more American Minister to Japan? and a score of similar questions." A Japanese Embassy was about to be dispatched to France, England, Russia, Prussia, and every other European Power having treaties with the Emperor. Trade had slightly improved in Japan."

Six American vessels entered the port of Havre on the 16th of September, with cargoes consisting altogether of 71,100 sacks of corn and 15,231 barrels of flour.

Our files by the Fulton contain very extended reports on the harvest prospects in Ireland. The main points are: The wheat crop has turned out thin and light, so that the yield will not equal an average; but its quality is good. Of barley and oats there are good accounts, but the green esculents are indifferent. With respect to potatoes we learn that the blight was still committing great ravages, especially among the earlier kinds, and it was feared that probably one-half of the crop would be destroyed.

By the arrival of the overland express we have news from San Francisco to the 25th ult., and later accounts from Oregon and British Columbia. The trouble in the Calvary Presbyterian Church, of that city, growing out of the position assumed by the pastor, Rev. Dr. Scott, respecting the rebellion, reached a climax on Sunday, the 22d ult., when a large crowd hissed and hooted at the Doctor as he passed to and from the church, and an effigy was suspended near by, labelled "Dr. Scott, the traitor." On the Monday following the Doctor resigned his pastorship, sold his house, and made arrangements to sail for Europe, via Cape Horn, by the first opportunity. No material change had occurred in commercial affairs in San Francisco. Heavy rains had fallen throughout Southern California.

The reports of the sick and wounded in the hospitals at Washington, Georgetown, and Alexandria, made up to the 27th ult., show as follows, compared with the reports of the week previous:

Sept. 20.Sept. 27.
New York troops199326
whole number767879
officers included1915

it will be recollected that some thirty thousand additional troops entered Washington between the 20th and 27th.

the quota of Indiana men for the war is thirty-four thousand. She has now in the field:


There are thirteen regiments of infantry and three of cavalry now raising in Kentucky for the Union cause.

The Cynthiana (Ky.) News has been closed up by the Union forces, and J. A. Morey, its editor and proprietor, has been arrested on a charge of recruiting for the rebel army. If any evidence is wanting to convict him, the authorities may turn to his paper of the 19th September and find the following paragraph? "Any young man in Ohio or Indiana desirous of joining the Confederate army, can do so on application at this office."

The State of Maine has received from the United States Government two hundred thousand dollars, in part payment of the expenses incurred in furnishing soldiers.

The Government has contracted with an establishment in Trenton, N. J., for the manufacture of seventy thousand musket barrels.

There are a number of Secession journals yet in existence in the North, which are every day "rendering aid and comfort to the enemy." Among the more violent are the Albany Argus, the Patterson (N. J.) Register, the Dubuque (Iowa) Herald, and the Hartford Times.

Two important accessions have been made to the rebel Navy at Mobile, in the shape of a couple of row-boats. They are each thirty-seven feet long, nine feet beam, and three and a half feet depth of hold. They carry twenty oarsmen and four officers, and are armed with a howitzer and twenty-four muskets.

The city of New Bedford, Mass., which, on the 6th of November last, contained half a dozen or more Wide-Awake Clubs, numbering three or four hundred men each, has not enlisted a single company for the war. New Bedford has twenty thousand inhabitants, and is one of the richest and strongest Republican towns in Massachusetts, but as yet she has furnished no men, nor given any money to sustain the Government it contributed so enthusiastically to establish.

Gen. M'Clellan's latest Orders.

Headq'rs Army of the Potomac, Washington, Sept. 30, 1861.

    General order no. 18.

  1. I. The attention of division and brigade commanders is called to the requirements of General Orders No. 2, from the headquarters of the Division of the Potomac, of July 30, 1861, which have of late been to a certain extent disregarded. No officer or soldier can absent himself from his camp and visit Washington except for the performance of some public duty, or for the transaction of important private business, for which purposes written permits will be given by brigade commanders. The permit will state the object of the visit. The number of passes granted at present is far too great. Brigade commanders will hereafter limit their approvals to those permits which are clearly within the restrictions of the order. Brigade commanders will observe that they can only give passes to the troops, or to other persons connected with the army. They are prohibited giving passes to citizens having no connection with the troops.
  2. II. The publication of orders is neglected in certain portions of this army. It is directed that henceforth every general order be read at the head of each regiment. Division and brigade commanders will see that the printed orders sent to them are distributed without delay. Care will also be taken at division and brigade headquarters to furnish copies of special orders, received from these or other superior headquarters, to the individuals concerned, through their immediate commanders, as soon as practicable. Orders for any body of troops will be addressed to the commander, and will be opened and executed by the commander present, and published or distributed by him when necessary.
  3. III. Division and brigade commanders will report weekly, through the chief ordnance officer, at these headquarters, the amount of ammunition on hand in their commands, and the amount in the cartridge boxes of the troops.
  4. IV. The light batteries assigned to each division of this army will be commanded by the senior battery officer present with them, who will report directly to the division commander. The divisional batteries will not be assigned to brigades, except for temporary service.
  5. V. The armament of the field batteries having been fixed by the Chief of Artillery, will not be altered, even in the slightest respect, except by his permission and order.
  6. VI. The commander of every field battery will send to the office of the Chief of Artillery, on the 1st and 15th of each month, a return of his battery, of the same form as usual.
  7. VII. Whenever a field battery is engaged with the enemy, a full report of the same in writing will be made, with as little delay as possible, by the battery commander to the Chief of Artillery, stating in detail, besides the ordinary matters of such reports, the loss or damage of material, as well as personal.
  8. VIII. All requisitions for ordnance and ordnance stores for the field batteries will be made direct to the Chief of Artillery.
  9. IX. Hereafter all subsistence stores condemned by a Board of Survey, or by other competent authority with this command, will be turned into the principal depot of supplies nearest the point of such condemned stores, to be disposed of by the depot commissary according to army regulations and orders on the subject. A copy of the proceedings of the Board of Survey, or inspection report, will be furnished the commissary receiving the condemned stores.
  10. X. Payment for the rations saved by companies, as directed in General Orders No. 82, September 23, 1861, from the War Department, will be made only by the officers or agents in charge of the principal subsistence depots within this command.

The Brooklyn Navy-yard.

Now that the Navy is performing such an active and effective part in the present war, the different Navy-Yards have become points of attraction, and all that occurs in them is as eagerly looked for as news from the grand army. The sailing of a man-of-war creates as much excitement now as the departure of a regiment used to do before the people begun to be accustomed to the sight. The engagement at Hatteras Inlet, and the late gallant exploit at the Pensacola Navy-Yard, have turned the people's attention to the Navy, and much is expected from the many expeditions that it is rumored are now fitting out for operations against the Southern coast. The greatest activity prevails at the Brooklyn yard, and within the last few days several new vessels have gone into commission and have left the yard, and are lying in the harbor awaiting orders to proceed to sea. Among these is the new gun-boat Unadilla. She deserves particular mention on account of the great expedition in which she has been prepared for service. Her builder, Mr. John Englis, of this city, signed the contract on the 29th of June, and in forty-nine days after — the 17th of August--she was launched; in two weeks after her engines were in and at work, and on the 19th of September she went on her trial trip, giving perfect satisfaction to all. Her armament, of which we have given a description, was at once put on board, and she went into commission on Monday. She left the Navy-Yard the same evening, and is now lying off the Battery awaiting orders.

The Ottawa the second of the gun-boats built in this city — is having her armament placed on board, and if they continue to work as hard as they are doing at present, she will be ready for sea in a day or two. She, like the Unadilla, will carry one eleven-inch Columbiad placed amidships, a Parrott rifled gun mounted on the forecastle, and six thirty-two pounders at her ports. It is rumored, though with what degree of truth we cannot say, that when she is completed she and the vessels named above will proceeed on a secret, expedition. A guard of marines has been placed on board the Alabama, the only vessel of the five thus honored.

The other work at the yard goes on as usual, and the immense number of men employed there enables the work to be pushed forward with an unexampled vigor. The new sloop-of-war Oneida will shortly be ready to launch. The men work like bees upon her. The other vessels are in a proportionate state of progress.

The United States steamer Rhode Island will sail about the 6th or 7th inst. to communicate with the blockading squadron south of Cape Hatteras, and also the Gulf blockading squadron, Key West, Fort Pickens, &c., which will afford an excellent opportunity to send letters and papers.

The gun-boats Mercury and O. M. Pettit went into commission yesterday, and will haul into the stream to-day. Probably they will lie off the Battery, with the other Government vessels now there. These boats are staunch little things and carry each two of the Parrot rifled guns, one on the bow, to carry a twenty-pound shot, and one all that will carry a thirty-pound one. Everything is on board to make the officers and men as comfortable as possible. They will carry about forty men each.

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