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Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, AMPHITHEATRUM FLAVIUM (search)
ct the spectators from the attacks of the wild beasts, and behind it a narrow passage paved with marble. Above this passage was the podium, a platform raised about 4 metres above the arena, on which were placed the marble chairs of the most distinguished spectators. These chairs seem to have been assigned to corporations and officials, not to individuals as such, until the time of Constantine, when they began to be assigned to families an rarely to individuals. This continued until the fifth century, when possession by individuals became more common. The names of these various owners were cut in the pavement of the podium, on the seats themselves, and above the cornice, and many of these inscriptions have been preserved (CIL vi. 32099-32248; BC 1880, 211-282). When a seat passed from one owner to another, the old name was erased and a new one substituted. The front of the podium was protected by a bronze balustrade. From the podium It should be added that the wall with niches is
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, ARCO DI PORTOGALLO (search)
t palace, 2.36 metres below the level of the Corso. Extant drawings of this arch, dating from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (HJ 466; PBS ii. 35, and No. 52; LR 507), show a single archway flanked on each side with two columns, and surrounded with a cornice (Ill. 2). The architecture seems to belong to a period later than that of Hadrian, and it is quite possible that the arch itself is of considerably later date-being in fact sometimes assigned de- finitely to Marcus Aurelius-and that it was decorated with sculpture from earlier monuments, as was the case with the arch of Constantine. Indeed, Hulsen (DAP 2. xi. 174) believes it to belong to the fourth or fifth century, and to have been built with fragments of earlier buildings. One of the sides was demolished in the twelfth century, when a fragment of the cornice was removed to S. Maria in Trastevere (HJ 465-468; BC 1891, 18-23; 1896, 239-246; 1915, 333). This is against its having been a' mediaeval pasticcio ' (Cons. 36).
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, BASILICA AEMILIA BASILICA PAULI (search)
) was built at the foot of the steps, not far from the north-west end. The steps on the south-east side have recently been exposed at one point, which has rendered it possible to determine the length of the building. At the beginning of the fifth century A.D. the wooden roofs of the nave and aisles were set on fire (perhaps in 410, when Alaric captured Rome) and numerous coins, from the time of Constantine to the end of the fourth century, were found on the marble pavement. Above the stratum of sixteen columns of red granite (Ill. 11) which stood on high 'white marble pedestals (none of which were found in situ) may have belonged to its portico. Certainly, the attribution of them to a restoration of the facade of the basilica in the fifth century must be given up. Nor, on the other hand, can they belong to the mediaeval church of S. Iohannes in Campo (HCh 270), which must have lain at a much higher level, The final ruin of the whole, which caused the collapse of the brick wall at the
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, CAMPUS MARTIUS (search)
some doubt as to whether the murder of Valentinian III in 455 A.D. occurred in the Campus Martius proper, or in the campus Martius, or drill ground (the words are frequently used in this sense nowadays both in France and in Italy) attached to the imperial villa 'ad duas lauros,' beyond the third milestone of the via Labicana (Johannes Ant. fr. 85, p. 126; Chron. Min. i. 162, 303, 490; ii. 86, 157, 186; iii. 422). In the former case, we should have to suppose the existence in the fifth century A.D. of another locality in the campus Martius, bearing the same name 'ad duas lauros,' and the latter appears to be preferable (BCr 1879, 76; Studi e Documenti xvii. (1896), 47, 48; BC 1906, 74-77; T x. 390; Mem. AP i. 3 (1927) 158; contrast Bury, History of the Later Roman Empire, i. 300). With the decline of the city after the barbarian invasions, the rapidly dwindling population gradually abandoned the surrounding hills and was concentrated in the campus Martius, which contained th
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, CIRCUS GAI ET NERONIS: (search)
ac. Ann. xiv. 14 (?); Suet. Nero 53 (?)). On the spina Caligula erected an obelisk (OBELISCUS VATICANUS (q.v.) ) from Heliopolis (Plin. NH xvi. 201; xxxvi. 74; CIL vi. 882 =3 1911). In the fourth century the north side of the circus was destroyed to make room for the first basilica of St. Peter, and the south wall and the two southernmost rows of columns of the church were built on the three parallel north walls of the circus (see plan in Lanciani, Pagan and Christian Rome 129). In the fifth century two mausolea were erected on part of the spina, one of them being the tomb of the wife of the Emperor Honorius (see Lanciani, op. cit. 198-205; Mel. 1902,388). One of these was destroyed about 1520 (see SEPULCRUM MARIAE), but the other stood until the eighteenth century (DuP 38; Cerrati, cit.). For the mediaeval name Palatium Neronianum, see HCh 259 (S. Gregorii de Palatio). Some remains of the circus were visible in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and in the seventeenth, when the
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, CURIA IULIA (search)
alla and Diocletian) was covered with stucco in imitation of white marble blocks with heavily draughted joints. The travertine consoles and the brick cornice which they support (which are continued round the triangular pediment) were also coated with stucco. A flight of steps led up to the entrance door, to which belonged an epistyle bearing the inscription: [i]mperant[e... [n]eratius in... [c]uriam sen[atus]... The second line no doubt contained the name of an unknown praefectus urbi (fifth century). When the building became a church, a metrical (?) inscription was painted over it, of which only the first word, aspice, is preserved. Over the door were three large windows. A small portion of the pavement of the interior, of various coloured marbles, was recently exposed to view, but covered up again. The marble facing of the internal walls was destroyed in 1562 (LR 266; LS iii. 221 (for details, see Archivio Boccapaduli Arm. ii. Mazzo iv. 46. 10). There is a full list, with sizes,
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, FORUM (ROMANUM S. MAGNUM) (search)
ly long before 608 A.D.), as it would have obstructed the front of the rostra (Mitt. 1902, 59-60; 1905, 68). On the other hand, an equestrian statue of Constantine (EQUUS CONSTANTINI) was erected in the centre of the area, just to the south-east of the spot where that of Domitian had stood. But the transfer of the imperial residence to Byzantium led to an inevitable decline ; and the forum became the scene of struggles between Paganism and Christianity. Monuments of the beginning of the fifth century may be found there (see ROSTRA AUGUSTI), but in 410 the fires which accompanied the plundering of Rome by Alaric destroyed many of the buildings of the forum, and notably the basilica Aemilia, which was never rebuilt. A terrible earthquake is recorded in 442 (Paul. Diac. Hist. Lang. xiii. 16); while in 455 the Vandals under Gaiseric pillaged Rome; and the inscription placed on the rostra in commemora- tion of the naval victory of 470 is the last monument of the western empire in the f
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, IANUS GEMINUS (search)
is became the accepted signification of the temple, and after the reign of Numa its doors were closed in 235 after the first Punic war (Varro, Liv. locc. citt.), in 30 B.C. after the battle of Actium (Liv. loc. cit.; Hor. Carm. iv. 15.9), and twice besides by Augustus (Mon.Anc.ii. 42-46; Suet. Aug. 22; cf. Cohen, Aug. 385 = BM. Aug. 126); Mr. H. Mattingly informs me that Cohen,.Aug. 110, is best disregarded, as being probably false. and afterwards at more frequent intervals down to the fifth century (Hist. Aug. Comm. 16; Gord. 26; Claudian. de cons. Stil. ii. 287; Amm. Marc. xvi. 10, 1). There is no mention of any rebuilding of this temple, and therefore it was probably never moved from its original site, which, according to the practically unanimous testimony of all forms of the tradition, was near the point where the ARGILETUM (q.v.) entered the forum close to the curia (ad infimum Argiletum, Liv. i. 19; circa imum Argiletum Serv. Aen. vii. 607;pro\ tou= bouleuthri/ou o)li/gon u
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, IUPPITER OPTIMUS MAXIMUS CAPITOLINUS, AEDES (search)
in which the part showing the pediment is lost (PBS iv. 230, 240-244; cf. Ml6. 1889, 120-123; Mitt. 1888, 150 155; 1889, 250-252; and Jord. i. 2. 89-90; Rosch. ii. 718-719) and another in the Palazzo dei Conservatori (Cons. 23). See BC 1925, 81-191 ; and cf. Bernhart, Handbuch zur Miinzkunde der rom. Kaiserzeit, 125. This temple is referred to in glowing terms by Ammianus (xvi. 10. 14; xxii. 16. 12) and Ausonius (Clar. urb. xix. 17: aurea Capitoli culmina). Its destruction began in the fifth century when Stilicho carried off the gold plates of the doors (Zos. v. 38). The inscription said to have been found on this occasion was simply a graffito, carelessly read, which is restored by Reinach: Niger, Q. Regii ser(vus) (CRA 1914, 562). As Hillsen points out, however, Niger is not a slave's name, nor is Regius a gentilicium. Gaiseric removed half of the gilt tiles That Constans II removed the gilt bronze tiles in 665 A.D. is asserted by many modern authors; but there is nothing said
Samuel Ball Platner, Thomas Ashby, A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome, NYMPHAEUM FLAVI PHILIPPI (search)
NYMPHAEUM FLAVI PHILIPPI known from an inscription of the fifth century (CIL vi. 1728) in three copies, two of which have disappeared. The third was found in the Via Cavour near the church of S. Francesco di Paola, and some ruins beneath this church are thought to have belonged to the nymphaeum (BC 1887, 333-335; NS 1887, 445; HJ 332; CIL vi. 31912).
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