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d the two rows of tabernae- large covered halls which provided shelter from sun and rain, in which courts of law sat, and business was transacted. For the aspect of the forum at this time, see HC 12. fig. 4, and cf. Plaut. Curc. iv. I. 15. Another epoch in its history came, when, in 145 B.C., the Comitia Tributa were transferred to the forum by the tribune C. Licinius Crassus, who, for the first time, addressed the people in the forum from the rostra, and turned his back on the comitium. In 121 B.C. the restorer of the temple of Concord, Opimius, built a basilica close to it (see BASILICA OPIMIA). The next level, which is in general 11.80 to 11.90 metres above sea, has been recently assigned to Sulla Cf. Fest. 317: Statae matris simulacrum in foro colebatur: postquam id collastravit, ne lapides igne corrumperentur, qui plurimis ibi fiebant nocturno tempore, magna pars populi in suos quisque vicos rettulerunt eius deae cultum. Most editors emend 'Cotta stravit'; but cf. Jord. i. I. 525
at of Domitian had stood. But the transfer of the imperial residence to Byzantium led to an inevitable decline ; and the forum became the scene of struggles between Paganism and Christianity. Monuments of the beginning of the fifth century may be found there (see ROSTRA AUGUSTI), but in 410 the fires which accompanied the plundering of Rome by Alaric destroyed many of the buildings of the forum, and notably the basilica Aemilia, which was never rebuilt. A terrible earthquake is recorded in 442 (Paul. Diac. Hist. Lang. xiii. 16); while in 455 the Vandals under Gaiseric pillaged Rome; and the inscription placed on the rostra in commemora- tion of the naval victory of 470 is the last monument of the western empire in the forum. Theodoric (483-526), on the other hand, must have repaired many of the buildings of the forum, where a considerable number of bricks bearing his name have been found (HC 26; all that are actually published are CIL xv. 1665a low down in the favissa of the temple
hristianity. Monuments of the beginning of the fifth century may be found there (see ROSTRA AUGUSTI), but in 410 the fires which accompanied the plundering of Rome by Alaric destroyed many of the buildings of the forum, and notably the basilica Aemilia, which was never rebuilt. A terrible earthquake is recorded in 442 (Paul. Diac. Hist. Lang. xiii. 16); while in 455 the Vandals under Gaiseric pillaged Rome; and the inscription placed on the rostra in commemora- tion of the naval victory of 470 is the last monument of the western empire in the forum. Theodoric (483-526), on the other hand, must have repaired many of the buildings of the forum, where a considerable number of bricks bearing his name have been found (HC 26; all that are actually published are CIL xv. 1665a low down in the favissa of the temple of Vesta, and the same stamp and ib. 1669 in the roof of the old church of S. Martina) ; and Theodohad's care for certain bronze statues of elephants (probably from an arch of tr
ass, was always maintained in the shrine of Iuturna, the regia and the temple of Vesta, in the comitium and rostra until the time of Julius Caesar, and in the atrium Vestae (which, strictly speaking, lies, like the temple, outside the forum) until that of Nero. On the other hand, the line of direction of the temples of Saturn and of Castor (the lacus Iuturnae, at first orientated with the precinct of Vesta, was afterwards made to conform with this temple), which date from the beginning of the fifth century B.C., already began at that period to exert an influence the other way, which finally triumphed in the main. The Tabernae Veteres, and the various basilicas which succeeded them, doubtless conformed to it; and so did the Tabernae Novae, and consequently the basilica Aemilia. Julius Caesar's transference of the rostra and reconstruction of the curia dealt (with the exceptions noted above) the final blow to the old orientation (Mem. L. 5. xvii. 506, 511). The first indubitable signs
sured and drew the remains of antiquity were most active in using them as quarries for their own build- ings. But we also have numerous sketches by artists, which cannot be enumerated here, but are of the highest value for our knowledge. A few notable finds of inscriptions and fragments of architecture were made; but nothing was attempted in the way of scientific excavation until the end of the eighteenth century, when a part of the basilica Iulia was laid bare, but incorrectly identified. In 1803 Fea began by clearing the arch of Severus, and the work was continued by the French, the temples of Saturn and Vespasian being isolated, and the column of Phocas cleared; the temples of Castor and Concord followed. The work was continued in 1827-36, and the isolated excavations connected; but very little more was done until after 1870, when the work was taken in hand seriously (though at first with too little regard to the late classical period, see LR 244-245), and the forum and Sacra via cl
ted in the way of scientific excavation until the end of the eighteenth century, when a part of the basilica Iulia was laid bare, but incorrectly identified. In 1803 Fea began by clearing the arch of Severus, and the work was continued by the French, the temples of Saturn and Vespasian being isolated, and the column of Phocas cleared; the temples of Castor and Concord followed. The work was continued in 1827-36, and the isolated excavations connected; but very little more was done until after 1870, when the work was taken in hand seriously (though at first with too little regard to the late classical period, see LR 244-245), and the forum and Sacra via cleared from the Tabularium to the arch of Titus. Work stopped again in 1885, and was not resumed again until 1898, when extensive excavations were begun by Boni and carried to the lowest strata at many points over the whole area. In this connection a passage in LR 240, written in 1897, just before Boni's excavations began, should be quo
connected; but very little more was done until after 1870, when the work was taken in hand seriously (though at first with too little regard to the late classical period, see LR 244-245), and the forum and Sacra via cleared from the Tabularium to the arch of Titus. Work stopped again in 1885, and was not resumed again until 1898, when extensive excavations were begun by Boni and carried to the lowest strata at many points over the whole area. In this connection a passage in LR 240, written in 1897, just before Boni's excavations began, should be quoted. ' It is necessary to remind the reader that the excavations of the Forum and of the Palatine have nowhere been carried to the proper depth. We have satisfied ourselves with laying bare the remains of the late empire, without taking care to explore the earlier and deeper strata.' At the same time came the addition of the site of the basilica Aemilia and of the comitium; and the demolition of the church of S. Maria Liberatrice rendered i
lt round a core of opus quadratum, we must suppose either that the nucleus was formed of this material, or that this belongs to similar bases for statues of an earlier period (Jord. i. 2. 179-184; ZA 85). The columns along the Sacra via are represented in the relief referred to on p. 452. Though the brickwork of the base of the column of Phocas is similar to that of the other bases, it is perhaps unlikely that it was erected as early as the time of Diocletian (though certainly long before 608 A.D.), as it would have obstructed the front of the rostra (Mitt. 1902, 59-60; 1905, 68). On the other hand, an equestrian statue of Constantine (EQUUS CONSTANTINI) was erected in the centre of the area, just to the south-east of the spot where that of Domitian had stood. But the transfer of the imperial residence to Byzantium led to an inevitable decline ; and the forum became the scene of struggles between Paganism and Christianity. Monuments of the beginning of the fifth century may be foun
arch of triumph) in 535-6 is testified to by Cassiodorus (Var. x. 30). The first church in the forum was SS. Cosmas and Damianus (526-530), while the origin of S. Maria Antiqua is probably even earlier; S. Hadrianus and S. Martina occupied the curia and the secretarium about 20 years after the dedication of the column of Phocas (608 A.D.); while the basilica Aemilia and the atrium Vestae became the dwellings of Byzantine or papal officials. It was the earthquake in the time of Pope Leo IV in 847 (LPD ii. 108:huius beati tempore praesulis terre motus in urbe Roma per indictionem factus est x, This indiction ended on Aug. 30. ita ut omnia elementa concussa viderentur ab omnibus´╝ë which led to the destruction not only of S. Maria Antiqua, but of the majority of the monuments of the forum; and probably the fire of Robert Guiscard in 1084 caused great damage also. Certainly about 1130 the centre of the forum was entirely impassable (cf. Liber Politicus Benedicti ap. Fabre, Liber Censuum,
imperial residence to Byzantium led to an inevitable decline ; and the forum became the scene of struggles between Paganism and Christianity. Monuments of the beginning of the fifth century may be found there (see ROSTRA AUGUSTI), but in 410 the fires which accompanied the plundering of Rome by Alaric destroyed many of the buildings of the forum, and notably the basilica Aemilia, which was never rebuilt. A terrible earthquake is recorded in 442 (Paul. Diac. Hist. Lang. xiii. 16); while in 455 the Vandals under Gaiseric pillaged Rome; and the inscription placed on the rostra in commemora- tion of the naval victory of 470 is the last monument of the western empire in the forum. Theodoric (483-526), on the other hand, must have repaired many of the buildings of the forum, where a considerable number of bricks bearing his name have been found (HC 26; all that are actually published are CIL xv. 1665a low down in the favissa of the temple of Vesta, and the same stamp and ib. 1669 in the
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