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Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Bull Run, battles of. (search)
ate left. This movement, when attempted, revealed a state of affairs fearful to the National army. The latter, as their advance moved forward, were opened upon by a fierce fire of cannon, shot, shell, and bullets, and at the same moment a large number of Lee's troops were making a flank movement that might imperil the whole of Pope's army. A very severe battle soon occurred. Porter's corps, which had recoiled at the unexpected blow, was rallied, and performed specially good service; and Jackson's advanced line was steadily pushed back until five o'clock in the afternoon, when Longstreet turned the tide of battle by pouring a destructive artillery fire upon the Nationals. Line after line was swept away, and very soon the whole left was put to flight. Jackson advanced, and Longstreet pushed his heavy columns against Pope's centre, while the Confederate artillery was doing fearful execution. The left of the Nationals, though pushed back, was unbroken, and held the Warrenton pike,
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Cedar Mountain, battle of (search)
n August. Jackson, reinforced, had thrown his army across the Rapidan River on the morning of the 8th, and driven the National cavalry back on Culpeper Court-house. Gen. S. W. Crawford was sent with his brigade to assist the latter in retarding Jackson's march, and to ascertain his real intentions, if possible. The movements of the Confederates were so mysterious that it was difficult to guess where they intended to strike. On the morning of Aug. 9, Pope sent General Banks forward with aboutoad. The Confederates planted batteries, and opened fire upon Crawford's batteries. Before Crawford and Banks were about 20,000 veteran soldiers in line of battle. Against these Banks moved towards evening, and almost simultaneously fell upon Jackson's right and left. The attacking force was composed of the division of General Auger (the advance led by General Geary) and the division of General Williams, of which Crawford's brigade was a part. The battle now became general, and raged for
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Chancellorsville, battle of (search)
itre. A part of these encountered the Confederate cavalry, under Stuart, and were defeated. Lee had called Stonewall Jackson's large force to come up when he perceived Sedgwick's movements. Lee left General 20, 1870. Early with 9,000 men and t to hold his fortified position at Fredericksburg against Sedgwick, and, at a little past midnight (May 1, 1863), he put Jackson's column in motion towards Chancelorsville. It joined another force under General Anderson at eight o'clock in the morn secret flank movement with his entire corps, so as to fall on Hooker's rear. Lee hesitated, but so much did he lean on Jackson as adviser and executor that he consented. With 25,000 men Jackson made the perilous movement, marching swiftly and stebeyond the National lines, of the disaster to the 11th Corps and his own peril. He was directed to fall back and attack Jackson's left flank. He was in a critical situation, but Pleasonton saved him by a quick and skilful movement, greatly assisti
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Chantilly, battle of (search)
not disposed to make a direct attack upon the Nationals, sent Jackson on another flanking movement, the latter taking with him his own and Ewell's division. With instructions to assail and turn Pope's right, he crossed Bull Run at Sudley Ford, and,. after a while, turning to the right, turned down the Little River pike, and marched towards Fairfax Court-house. Pope had prepared to meet this movement. Heintzelman and Hooker were ordered to different points, and just before sunset Reno met Jackson's advance (Ewell and Hill) near Chantilly. A cold and drenching rain was falling, but it did not prevent an immediate engagement. Very soon McDowell, Hooker, and Kearny came to Reno's assistance. A very severe battle raged for some time, when Gen. Isaac J. Stevens, leading Reno's second division in person, was shot dead. His command fell back in disorder. Seeing this, Gen. Philip Kearny advanced with his division and renewed the action, sending Birney's brigade to the front. A furiou
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Fredericksburg, battle at. (search)
de a simultaneous assault all along the line. The Confederates, with 300 cannon, were well posted on the heights and ready for action. The battle was begun by a part of Franklin's corps, Meade's division, supported by Gibbon's, with Doubleday's in reserve. Meade soon silenced a Confederate battery, but very soon a terrible The attack on Fredericksburg. storm of shells and canister-shot, at near range, fell upon him. He pressed on, and three of the assailing batteries were withdrawn. Jackson's advance line, under A. P. Hill, was driven back, and 200 men made prisoners, with several battleflags as trophies. Meade still pressed on, when a fierce assault by Early compelled him to fall back. Gibbon, who came up, was repulsed, and the shattered forces fled in confusion; but the pursuers were checked by General Birney's division of Stoneman's corps. The Nationals could not advance, for Stuart's cavalry, on Lee's right, strongly menaced the Union left. Finally, Reynolds, with rein
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Groveton, battle of. (search)
street, then approaching through Thoroughfare Gap. Some of Pope's troops failed to execute orders. The latter arrived at the Junction just after Jackson had left, and pushed all of his available forces upon Centreville in pursuit. Kearny drew Jackson's rear-guard out of Centreville late in the afternoon (Aug. 28), and the forces of the Confederates were turned towards Thoroughfare Gap, from which was coming their help. Towards evening the troops under Ewell and Taliaferro encamped near the near. He ordered Heintzelman, with the divisions of Hooker and Kearny, towards Gainesville, to be followed by Reno, while Porter, with his own corps and King's division, was to move upon the road to Gainesville from Manassas, for the turning of Jackson's flank on the Warrenton pike, and to fall heavily on his rear. Lee was then approaching along that pike, and Jackson determined to hold his advantageous position, at all hazards, until the main army should arrive. At five o'clock in the mor
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Logan, John Alexander 1826-1886 (search)
ming west of the old Manassas Railroad, on Pageland Lane, to the right rear of Jackson's forces, fronting the forces under Pope, on Pope's left flank, that were thetacking Pope's left in front of Jackson. Add the 25,000, men of Longstreet to Jackson's 22,000, and it would make the Confederate army 47,000 strong. Adding Porterthe 4.30 order ordering Porter to attack at once contemplated the attacking of Jackson's forces on the right flank, and that no doubt this was in the mind of the coumation, as a general he knew that the force coming down the road was coming to Jackson's right and rear so as to attack him on the left flank; and when he issued theight flank of Longstreet? General Grant makes a plan, draws lines, and puts Jackson's 22,000 men facing Pope's 33,000, and places on this line Porter squarely frong in the direction of Porter. General Grant says: He was 3 miles away from Jackson's flank. If so, then why not attack Longstreet, whose flank was sticking out
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), McDowell, battle of. (search)
not far off. Jackson was closely watching Banks. when he was startled by news that General Milroy was approaching from Fremont's department, to join Banks or fall upon Staunton. Leaving Ewell to watch the latter, he turned rapidly towards Staunton, and sent Johnson with five brigades to strike Milroy. The latter, outnumbered, fell back to McDowell, 36 miles west of Staunton, whither General Schenck hastened with a part of his brigade, to assist him. Jackson also hurried to the Stonewall Jackson's letter to Ewell. assistance of Johnson, and on May 8 a severe engagement occurred, lasting about five hours, when darkness put an end to it. Schenck (who ranked Milroy), finding the position untenable, withdrew during the night to Franklin, and the next day Jackson wrote to Ewell: Yesterday God gave us the victory at McDowell. The Nationals lost 256 men, of whom only nine were killed. Jackson reported a loss of 461, of whom seventy were killed. Among the latter was General Johnson.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Manassas Junction. (search)
o meet the flank movement, Porter's key-point had been uncovered, but the place of Reynolds had been quickly supplied by 1,000 men under Warren. The battle became very severe, and for a while victory seemed to incline towards the Nationals, for Jackson's advanced line was steadily pushed back until 5 P. M. Then Longstreet turned the tide. With four batteries, he poured a most destructive fire from Jackson's right, and line after line of Nationals was swept away. Very soon the whole of Pope'sJackson's right, and line after line of Nationals was swept away. Very soon the whole of Pope's left was put to flight, when Jackson advanced, and Longstreet pushed his heavy columns against Pope's centre. At the same time Lee's artillery was doing fearful execution upon Pope's disordered infantry. Darkness alone put an end to the fearful struggle. Although pushed back some distance, the National left was still unbroken, and held the Warrenton turnpike, by which alone the Nationals might safely retreat. Pope had no other safe alternative than to fall back towards the defences of Wash
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Battle of Mechanicsville, or Ellison's Mill, (search)
rike McClellan a fatal blow or to raise the siege of Richmond. He had quietly withdrawn Jackson and his troops from the Shenandoah Valley, to have him Mechanicsville, 1862. suddenly strike the right flank of McClellan's army at Mechanicsville and uncover the passage of that stream, when a heavy force would join him, sweep down the left side of the Chickahominy towards the York River, and seize the communications of the Army of the Potomac with the White House. McClellan did not discover Jackson's movement until he had reached Hanover Court-house. He had already made provision for a defeat by arrangements for a change of base from the Pamunkey to the James River; and when, on the morning of June 25, 1862, he heard of the advance of Jackson on his right, he abandoned all thought of moving on Richmond, took a defensive position, and prepared for a retreat to the James River. On the right side of the Chickahominy General Porter was posted with 27,000 men and ten heavy guns in batter
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