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s used pigeons for communicating with the inhabitants of Modena, during its siege by Mare Antony. When Ptolemais in Syria was invested by the French and Venetians, and was about to surrender, a carrierpigeon, bearing a message from the Sultan, was captured; the missive containing promises of assistance was removed, and one substituted in which the Sultan expressed no hope of being able to assist them. The surrender was immediate. Pigeons were of great use to the Dutch during the siege of Leyden, so bravely resisted by the Prince of Orange. The air-car is a proposed form of balloon, inflated with gas to secure lightness, and traveling upon wires stretched from pillars upon a definite route. Two pairs of wires are needed, — one pair for each side of the car, — and the upper and under wires of the respective pair run in the grooved peripheries of the car-wheels, which are rotated by a steam-engine on board. The car is cigar-shaped, and has sails to be used with favoring winds. T
g is estimated by the rising or falling of the float in the fluid, and consequent motion of the index c, as shown by the graduated are. Electric-balance. When the attractive force of the two bodies is to be estimated, the line passing over the wheel d must be formed of two parts, the lower part being of silver thread and the remainder of silk; when their repulsive force is to be estimated, the whole is of silk. See electrometer ; galvanometer. E-lec′tric Bat′ter-y. A series of Leyden jars having all their interior and exterior coated surfaces connected with each other by means of conductors, so that the accumulated electricity of the whole may be made to act together, resembling the effects of lightning itself. A large battery of this kind is capable of polarizing bars of iron or steel, and instantaneously melting iron or tin wire into globules, which are dispersed in all directions, the fusion of the latter metal being accompanied by a cloud of blue smoke, a dazzling
and the outer coating with the earth, the former acquires a positive and the latter a negative charge. On connecting them together, by means of a metallic discharger with nonconducting handles, as shown at b, a spark is obtained. c is a battery formed by connecting together in series all the outer and all the inner surfaces of several jars, so that the united force of the whole is concentrated in the act of discharging. The principle of the Leyden-jar was discovered by Muschenbroeck at Leyden in 1745, hence its name. Von Kleist in Germany made the same discovery in the same year. Gralath in Germany, 1746, contrived the electric battery by combining a series of jars; and finally Drs. Watson and Bevis, by covering the outside of the jar with tinfoil, brought it to the complete state in which we now have it. The Leyden-jar is a condenser, its two coatings of tinfoil performing the parts of a collecting plate and a condensing plate. Li-bel′la. 1. A small balance. 2. A
2 cubic inches of gas per second, the amount of zinc consumed in each cell being .513 grain. U′nit–jar. (Electricity.) An instrument devised by Sir W. Snow Harris for measuring definite quantities of electricity. It consists of a small Leyden jar a insulated by being mounted upon a glass rod b. Attached to the brass wire which connects the inner coating of the jar with an electrical machine is a sliding brass-ball c. The electricity repelled from the exterior coating is conveyed to the jar, which is again recharged by the machine; by counting the number of sparks and noting the distance between the balls, the number of equal but arbitrary units which have been repelled from the outer coating on to a larger surface, as a large Leyden jar or battery, may be ascertained. Unit-jar. U-ni-versal Bor′ing–ma-chine. (Wood-working.) A machine adapted to a great variety of work with tools of varying sizes, and the work presented in numerous positions. In the machine