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irley, already for seven years governor of Massachusetts; an English lawyer, artful, needy, and amb. He had once been in England as agent of Massachusetts at the time when the taxing America by par been exchanged; when the commissioners of Massachusetts, acting in harmony with Clinton and Shirlerepresented to them in a memorial, that as Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and New-York were the barrtish treasury. While the General Court of Massachusetts, Instructions to Massachusetts Agent, 2olonies; thus abrogating for the people of Massachusetts their common rights as Englishmen, not lestself ceased to exist. At the same time Massachusetts was removing every motive to interfere witster, declared that the grant was a boon. Massachusetts had already, in January, 1749 by the urgenredeemed by a Spanish milled dollar. Thus Massachusetts became the hard-money colony of the North.pondence. Hutchinson's Hist. II. Felt's Massachusetts Currency. The plan for enforcing all r[6 more...]
ite successful with the more reasonable Pelham, chap. III.} 1749. became the eulogist and principal adviser of Cumberland, of Bedford, and of Halifax. Should Massachusetts reduce his emoluments, he openly threatened to appeal to an episcopal interest, and make himself independent of the Assembly for any future support. Shirley to Secretary Willard, 29 Nov., 1749. The menace to Massachusetts was unseasonable. The public mind in that province, and most of all in Boston, was earnestly inquiring into the active powers of man, to deduce from them the right to uncontrolled inquiry, as the only security against religious and civil bondage. Of that cause . . . . .It is an attack on the rights of the king's subjects in America. Douglas: Historical and Political Summary, II., 109. William Bollan, the agent of Massachusetts, pleaded its inconsistency with the natural rights of the colonists. W. Bollan to the Speaker of the Massachusetts Assembly, 5 April, 1750. But while Englan
nt of the king, continued to emit paper currency, Potter's Rhode Island Currency, 12. and the more freely, because Massachusetts had withdrawn its notes and returned to hard money. J. B. Felt's Massachusetts Currency, 133, 134. In 1742, twentyMassachusetts Currency, 133, 134. In 1742, twenty-eight shillings of Rhode Island currency would have purchased an ounce of silver; seven years afterwards, it required sixty shillings; compared with sterling money, the depreciation was as ten and a half or eleven to one. This was pleaded as the jthe Commons, XXVI. 65, 119, 120, 187, 206, 265. In the dan- chap. IV.} 1751. gerous precedent, Bollan, the agent for Massachusetts, discerned the latent purpose of introducing by degrees the same authority to control other articles. He argued, mor 16, and Clinton to Lords of Trade, same date. for the first time, to join in council with New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts,—its earliest movement towards confederation. From the Catawbas, also, hereditary foes to the Six Nations, deputies
2 May, 1754. Same to C. Calvert 29 Nov. 1753. 3 May, 1754. Massachusetts saw the French taking post on its eastern frontier, and holdingneteenth day of June, 1754, assembled the memorable congress Massachusetts Historical Collections, XXX. New York Documentary History, II.ill from an unratified covenant, the experienced Hutchinson, of Massachusetts, proud of having rescued that colony from thraldom to paper monad brought the heads of it with him. Hutchinson's History of Massachusetts, III. 21. The representatives of the Six Nations assembled under French auspices. Even Mohawks went to the delegates from Massachusetts to complain of fraudulent transfers of their soil,—that the gro Connecticut rejected it; even New York showed it little favor; Massachusetts charged her agent to oppose it. Massachusetts to Bollan, DeMassachusetts to Bollan, December, 1754. The Board of Trade, on receiving the chap. V.} 1754. minutes of the congress, were astonished at a plan of general government
n ancestry, perhaps fifty thousand dwelt in New Hampshire, two hundred and seven thousand in Massachusetts, thirty-five thousand in Rhode Island, and one hundred and thirty-three thousand in Connecti Of persons of African lineage the home was chiefly determined by climate. New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Maine may have had three thousand negroes; Rhode Island, four thousand five hundred; Cothe hereditary warfare of the Six Nations with the Southern Indians, that South Carolina and Massachusetts first met at Albany; it was to confirm friendship with them and their allies, that New Englao towns; and the institution of towns was its glory and its strength. The inhabited part of Massachusetts was recognised as divided into little territories, each of which, for its internal purposes,ade, January, 1755. New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Maine, which was a part of Massachusetts, had similar regulations; so that all New England was an aggregate of organized democracies.
de, and defended all their acts, in particular the instructions to Sir Danvers Osborne. The petition of the agent of Massachusetts was not allowed to be brought up. That to the House of Lords no one would offer; Letter of W. Bollan to Secretary d the bill, with the clause for America, was hurried through parliament. It is confidently stated, by the agent of Massachusetts, that a noble lord had then a bill in his pocket, ready to be brought in, to ascertain and regulate the colonial quote treated as Swiss ready to sell their services, desiring to be paid for protecting themselves. The reimbursement of Massachusetts for taking Louisburg was now condemned, as a subsidy to subjects who had only done their duty. You must fight for yovince objected to a stamp-tax as oppressive, though not to a moderate impost on West India products; and the voice of Massachusetts was unheeded, when, in November, it began to be thoroughly alarmed, and instructed its agent to oppose every thing th
nd Sharpe. Lt. Gov. Sharpe to Shirley, 24 August, 1755. The months that followed were months of sorrow. Happily, the Catawbas at the South remained faithful; and in July, at a council of five hundred Cherokees assembled under a tree in the highlands of Western Carolina, Glen renewed the covenant of peace, obtained a cession of lands, and was invited to erect Fort Prince George near the villages of Conasatchee and Keowee. At the North, New England was extending British dominion. Massachusetts cheerfully levied about seven thousand nine hundred men, or nearly one-fifth of the able-bodied men in the colony. Of these, a detachment took part in establishing the sovereignty of England in Acadia. That peninsular region—abounding in harbors and in forests; rich in its ocean fisheries and in the product of its rivers; near to a continent that invited to the chase and the fur-trade; having, in its interior, large tracts of alluvial soil—had become dear to its inhabitants, who beheld
The army with which Johnson was to reduce Crown Point consisted of New England militia, chiefly from Connecticut and Massachusetts. A regiment of five hundred foresters of New Hampshire were raising a fort in Coos, on the Connecticut; but, under asiasm of the New England men. Our all, they cried, depends on the success of this expedition. Come, said Pomeroy, of Massachusetts, to his friends at home, come to the help of the Lord against the mighty; you that value our holy religion and our li thousand pounds were granted to them in proportion to their efforts. Of this sum fifty-four thousand pounds fell to Massachusetts, twenty-six thousand to Connecticut, fifteen thousand to New York. Lords of Trade to Lords of the Treasury, 12 Feb c. XXVI.; 31 Geo. II., c. XXXVI., § 8; 1 Geo. III., c. IV. which manifest the settled purpose Letter of Bollan to Massachusetts, in May, 1756. of raising a revenue out of the traffic between the American continent and the West India Islands, sho
to represent in England the unhappy situation of the province, that all occasion of dispute hereafter might be removed by an act of the British legislature. Massachusetts had already given the example of an appeal to the House of Commons in favor of popular power against prerogative; and its complaint had, in 1733, been rebuked place which he deemed secure; and wished to retreat to the highlands on the Hudson. For God's sake, wrote the officer in command at Albany, to the governor of Massachusetts, exert yourselves to save a province; New York itself may fall; Montcalm to Loudoun, 14 August, 1757. Journal de l'expedition, &c., &c. save a country; pre, Long Island, and Connecticut; and if more are wanted, I have two in the Jerseys at hand, besides three in Pennsylvania. Yet Loudoun yielded to the view of Massachusetts; and the Assembly and Council, won by the condescension, allowed Thomas Hutchinson, then of the Council, to draft for them a memorable message, in which he rec
hem, especially in New England, their contributions exceeded a just estimate of their ability. The thrifty people of Massachusetts disliked a funded debt, and avoided it by taxation. In addition to the sums expected from England, their tax, in onew Amherst to Lake George. The summons of Pitt had called into being a numerous and well equipped provincial army. Massachusetts, which had entered upon its alarm list more than forty-five thousand men, of whom more than thirty-seven thousand wer expiring immediately. The grief of his fellow-soldiers and the confusion that followed his death, spoke his eulogy; Massachusetts soon after raised his monument in Westminster Abbey; America long cherished his memory. The English passed the folmand twenty-seven hundred men, all Americans, more than eleven hundred of them New Yorkers, nearly seven hundred from Massachusetts. There, too, were assembled one hundred and fifty warriors of the Six Nations; among them Red Head, the renowned war
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