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etoric. He met with the greatest applause, and the number of his pupils soon increased to 100, every one of whom paid him 1000 drachmae. In addition to this, he made a large income by writing orations ; thus Plutarch (l.c. p. 838) relates that Nicocles, king of Cyprus, gave Isocrates twenty talents for the oration pro\s *Nikokle/a. In this manner he gradually acquired a considerable property, and he was several times called upon to undertake the expensive trierarchy; this happened first in B. C. 355, but being ill, he excused himself through his son Aphareus. In 352 he was called upon again, and in order to silence the calumnies of his enemies, he performed it in the most splendid manner. The oration peri\ a)ntido/sews pro\s *Lusi/maxon refers to that event, though it was written after it. In his earlier years Isocrates lived in the company of Athenian hetaerae (Plut. l.c. p. 839; Athen. 13.592), but at a later period he married Plathane, the widow of the sophist Hippias, whose younge
terwards shed lustre on their country as Isocrates. If we set aside the question as to whether the political views he entertained were practicable or wise, it must be owned that he was a sincere lover of his native land, and that the greatness and glory of Athens were the great objects for which he was labouring; and hence, when the battle of Chaeroneia had destroyed the last hopes of freedom and independence, Isocrates made away with himself, unable to survive the downfal of his country, B. C. 338. (Plut. p. 837; Dionys. Photius, ll. cc.; Philostr. Vit. Soph. 1.17.) The Alexandrian critics assigned to Isocrates the fourth place in the canon of Greek orators, and the great esteem in which his orations were held by the ancient grammarians is attested by the numerous commentaries that were written upon them by Philonicus, Hieronymus of Rhodes, Cleochares, Didymus, and others. Hermippus even treated in a separate work on the pupils of Isocrates; but all these works are lost, with the
Iso'crates (*)Isokra/ths). 1. A celebrated Attic orator and rhetorician, was the son of Theodorus, and born at Athens in B. C. 436. Theodorus was a man of considerable wealth, and had a manufacture of flutes or musical instruments, for which the son was often ridiculed by the comic poets of the time; but the father made good use of his property, in procuring for the young Isocrates the best education that could be obtained : the most celebrated sophists are mentioned among his teachers, such as Tisias, Gorgias, Prodicus, and also Socrates and Theramenes. (Dionys. Isocrat. 1; Plut. Vit. X. Orat. p. 836; Suidas, s. v. *)Isokra/ths; Anonym. *Bi/os *)Isokra/tous, in Westermann's *Biogra/foi, p. 253; Phot. Bibl. Cod. 260.) Isocrates was naturally timid, and of a weakly constitution, for which reasons he abstained from taking any direct part in the political affairs of his country, and resolved to contribute towards the development of eloquence by teaching and writing, and thus to guide