This priesthood is not mentioned by Plutarch, and may be a personal observation
of Diodorus himself. To this, the first priest elected was Callimenes, the son of
Alcadas, and henceforth the Syracusans continued to designate the years by these officials down
to the time of my writing this history and of the change in their form of government. For when
the Romans shared their citizenship with the Greeks of Sicily, the office of these priests
became insignificant, after having been important for over three hundred years.This humbling of the amphipolate probably consisted in making it
no longer eponymous; instead of a local priesthood, the Syracusans thereafter dated by the
Roman consuls. The reference may be to the grant of jus Latii to the Sicilians by
Caesar (by 44 B.C.: Cicero Ad Atticum
14.12.1), or to later grants by Augustus (A. N. Sherwin-White, The Roman
Citizenship (1939), 175).Such was the condition of affairs in Sicily.
in the war against the Romans, which Critolaus, when appointed general of the Achaeans, brought about by persuading to revolt both the Achaeans and the majority of the Greeks outside the Peloponnesus. When the Romans won the war, they carried out a general disarmament of the Greeks146 B.C. and dismantled the walls of such cities as were fortified. Corinth was laid waste by Mummius, who at that time commanded the Romans in the field, and it is said that it was afterwards refounded by Caesar,44 B.C. who was the author of the present constitution of Rome. Carthage, too, they say, was refounded in his reign.
In the Corinthian territory is also the place called Cromyon from Cromus the son of Poseidon. Here they say that Phaea was bred; overcoming this sow was one of the traditional achievements of Theseus. Farther on the pine still grew by the shore at the time of my visit, and there was an altar of Melicertes. At this place, they say, the boy was brought ashore by a dolphin; Sisyphus fou
rians, they did not retire from Peloponnesus, but they cast out the Ionians and occupied the land called of old Aegialus, but now called Achaea from these Achaeans. The Arcadians, on the other hand, have from the beginning to to the present time continued in possession of their own country.
The rest of Peloponnesus belongs to immigrants. The modern Corinthians are the latest inhabitants of Peloponnesus, and from my time174 A.D. to the time when they received their land from the Roman Emperor44 B.C. is two hundred and seventeen years. The Dryopians reached the Peloponnesus from Parnassus, the Dorians from Oeta.
The Eleans we know crossed over from Calydon and Aetolia generally. Their earlier history I found to be as follows. The first to rule in this land, they say, was Aethlius, who was the son of Zeus and of Protogeneia, the daughter of Deucalion, and the father of Endymion.
The Moon, they say, fell in love with this Endymion and bore him fifty daughters. Others with greater probabil
od Fortune and a portico, he asked Mummius for the use of the statues which he had, saying that he would adorn the temple with them until the dedication and then give them back. However, he did not give them back, but dedicated them to the goddess, and then bade Mummius to take them away if he wished. But Mummius took it lightly, for he cared nothing about them, so that he gained more repute than the man who dedicated them. Now after Corinth had remained deserted for a long time,From 146 to 44 B.C. it was restored again, because of its favorable position, by the deified Caesar, who colonized it with people that belonged for the most part to the freedmen class. And when these were removing the ruins and at the same time digging open the graves, they found numbers of terra-cotta reliefs, and also many bronze vessels. And since they admired the workmanship they left no grave unransacked; so that, well supplied with such things and disposing of them at a high price, they filled Rome
survive even to this day in the little cities Paleis, Pronesus, and Cranii. And in our time Gaius Antonius, the uncle of Marcus Antonius, founded still another city, when, after his consulship, which he held with Cicero the orator, he went into exile,59 B.C. sojourned in Cephallenia, and held the whole island in subjection as though it were his private estate. However, before he could complete the settlement he obtained permission to return home,Probably from Caesar. He was back in Rome in 44 B.C. and ended his days amid other affairs of greater importance.
Some, however, have not hesitated to identify Cephallenia with Dulichium, and others with Taphos, calling the Cephallenians Taphians, and likewise Teleboans, and to say that Amphitryon made an expedition thither with Cephalus, the son of Deïoneus, whom, an exile from Athens, he had taken along with him, and that when Amphitryon seized the island he gave it over to Cephalus, and that the island was named after Cephalus and the c
his preparations B.C. 45 against the Parthians; nevertheless, he gave them the dignified answer that he could not make friends of those who had done what they had, but that he would grant them pardon if they would subject themselves to tribute and give him hostages. They promised to do both, and accordingly he sent Vatinius thither with three legions and a large cavalry force to impose a light tribute on them and receive the Y.R. 710 hostages. When Cæsar was slain the Dalmatians, thinking B.C. 44 that the Roman power resided in him and had perished with him, would not listen to Vatinius on the subject of the tribute or anything else. When he attempted to use force they attacked and destroyed five of his cohorts, including their commanding officer, Bæbius, a man of senatorial rank. Vatinius took refuge with the remainder of his force in Epidamnus. The Roman Senate transferred this army, together with the province of Macedonia and Roman Illyria, to Brutus Cæpio, one of Cæsar's murderers,
military exploits, he now ruled without disguise, nobody daring any longer
to dispute him about anything, and was chosen, next after Sulla, dictator
for life. Again all civil dissensions ceased until Brutus and Cassius,
envious of his great power and desiring to restore the government of their
fathers, slew in the Senate this most popular man, who was also the one most
experienced in the art Y.R.
710 of government. The people mourned for him greatly. B.C. 44 They scoured the city in pursuit of his murderers.
They buried him in the middle of the forum and built a temple on the place
of his funeral pile, and offered sacrifice to him as a god. Y.R. 711
And now civil discord broke out again worse than B.C. 43 ever and
increased enormously. Massacres, banishments, and proscriptions of both
senators and the so-called knights took place straightway, including great
numbers of both classes, the chief of facti
him in prison, pretending to gratify Cæsar in this way, as he had
threatened any who should talk about making him king. Cæsar was
well satisfied with their action. Some others who met him at the city gates
as he was returning from some place greeted him as king, and when the people
groaned, he said with happy readiness to those who had thus saluted him, "I
am no king, I am Cæsar," as though they had mistaken his name. The
attendants of Marullus B.C.
44 found out which man began the
shouting and ordered the officers to bring him to trial before his tribunal.
Cæsar was at last vexed and accused the faction of Marullus before
the Senate of conspiring to make him odious by artfully accusing him of
aiming at royalty. He added that they were deserving of death, but that it
would be sufficient if they were deprived of their office and expelled from
the Senate. Thus he confirmed the suspicion that he desired the t
Strabo, Geography (ed. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A.), BOOK VI., CHAPTER II. (search)
of the Peloponnesus that it was named Messana, having been originally called Zanole, on account of the great inequality of the
coast (for anything irregular was termed ca/gklion.Thucydides says ca/gklion is a Sicilian word. It
was originally founded by the people of Naxos near Catana.
Afterwards the Mamertini, a tribe of Campanians, took possession of it.B. C. 289. The Romans, in the war in Sicily against
the Carthaginians, used it as an arsenal.B. C. 264 to 243. Still more recently,B. C. 44. Sextus Pompeius assembled his fleet in it, to contend against Augustus Cæsar; and when he relinquished the
island, he took ship from thence.B. C. 36. CharybdisNow called Garafalo. is pointed out
at a short distance from the city in the Strait, an immense
gulf, into which the back currents of the Strait frequently impel ships, carrying them down with a whirl and the violence
of the eddy. When they are swallowed down and shattered,
the wrecks are cast by the stream on the shore of Tauromen
Strabo, Geography (ed. H.C. Hamilton, Esq., W. Falconer, M.A.), BOOK VI., CHAPTER IV. (search)
-Cybiosactes, who had an
hereditary right to the throne; the latter however died about 54 B. C., and in him terminated the race of the Seleucidæ. the Paphlagonians,The race of the kings of Paphlagonia became extinct about 7 B. C.
See M. l' Abbé Belley, Diss. sur l' ère de Germanicopolis, &c.
Inscr. et Belles-Lettres, vol. xxx. Mém. p. 331.
Cappadocians,The royal race of Cappadocia failed about 91 B. C. and Egyptians,The race of the Lagidæ terminated with Ptolemy Auletes, who died
44 B. C., leaving two daughters, Cleopatra and Arsinoë. Ptolemy Apion
died 96 B. C.; he left Cyrene, whereof he was king, to the Roman people [or] when they revolted and
were subsequently deposed, as it happened in the case of
Mithridates Eupator, and Cleopatra of Egypt, the whole of
their territories within the PhasisNow the Fasz or Rion. and the Euphrates,The Forat, Ferat, or Frat. with the exception of some tribes of Arabs, were brought completely under the dominion of the Romans and the d<