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Snake Island (South Carolina, United States) (search for this): chapter 2.10
hem to be properly fortified. A recommendation had even been made by my immediate predecessor that the outer defences of Charleston Harbor should be given up as untenable against the ironclads and monitors then known to be under construction at the North, and that the water-line of the immediate city of Charleston should be made the sole line of defence. This course, however, not having been authorized by the Richmond authorities, it was not attempted, except that the fortifications of Cole's Island — the key to the defence of the Stono river — was abandoned and the harbor in the mouth of the Stono left open to the enemy, who made it their base of operations. Immediately on my arrival I inspected the defences of Charleston and Savannah, and made a requisition on the War Department for additional troops and heavy guns deemed necessary; but neither could be furnished, owing, it was stated, to the pressing wants of the Confederacy at other points. Shortly afterward Florida was added
Charleston Harbor (South Carolina, United States) (search for this): chapter 2.10
t to be detached, I had designated them to be properly fortified. A recommendation had even been made by my immediate predecessor that the outer defences of Charleston Harbor should be given up as untenable against the ironclads and monitors then known to be under construction at the North, and that the water-line of the immediatearleston an exceedingly bad defensive condition against a determined attack. Excepting Fort Moultrie, on Sullivan's Island, the works and batteries covering Charleston Harbor, including Fort Sumter, were insufficiently armed and their barbette guns without the protection of heavy traverses. In all the harbor works there were onlyuously — a recognized factor in modern naval warfare. On all sides we see the greatest activity in improving it. I shall now refer briefly to the use in Charleston harbor of riflecannon and iron-clad floating and land batteries. In the attack on Fort Sumter, in 1861, these war appliances were first used in the United States.
Stono River (South Carolina, United States) (search for this): chapter 2.10
g defective location and arrangement of works, even at Charleston and Savannah. Several points-such as the mouths of the Stono and Edisto rivers, and the headwaters of Broad river at Port Royal — I found unprotected; though soon after the fall of Fond authorities, it was not attempted, except that the fortifications of Cole's Island — the key to the defence of the Stono river — was abandoned and the harbor in the mouth of the Stono left open to the enemy, who made it their base of operations.Stono left open to the enemy, who made it their base of operations. Immediately on my arrival I inspected the defences of Charleston and Savannah, and made a requisition on the War Department for additional troops and heavy guns deemed necessary; but neither could be furnished, owing, it was stated, to the pressinged for the captain and a sailor of the Federal steamer Isaac Smith, a heavily-armed gunboat which was captured in the Stono river, with its entire crew of one hundred and thirty officers and men, by a surprise I had prepared, with field artillery o<
Mobile, Ala. (Alabama, United States) (search for this): chapter 2.10
fire after the war. Nearly about the time of the attack upon the New Ironsides by the David, Mr. Horace L. Hunley, formerly of New Orleans, but then living in Mobile, offered me another torpedo-boat of a different description, which had been built with his private means. It was shaped like a fish, made of galvanized iron, wasto the water, which, rushing into the two openings, drowned two men then within the body of the boat. After the recovery of the sunken boat Mr. IHunley came from Mobile, bringing with him Lieutenant Dixon, of the Alabama volunteers, who had successfully experimented with the boat in the harbor of Mobile, and under him another navMobile, and under him another naval crew volunteered to work it. As originally designed, the torpedo was to be dragged astern upon the surface of the water; the boat, approaching the broadside of the vessel to be attacked, was to dive beneath it, and, rising to the surface beyond, continue its course, thus bringing the floating torpedo against the vessel's side,
Mobile Bay (Alabama, United States) (search for this): chapter 2.10
of several large steamers and a cessation of all annoyance on the part of the others. In the bay of Charleston and adjacent streams I had planted about one hundred and twenty-five torpedoes and some fifty more in other parts of my department. The first torpedoes used in the late war were placed in the James river, below Richmond, by General G. R. Raines, who became afterward chief of the Torpedo Bureau. Mr. Barbarin, of New Orleans, placed also successfully a large number of torpedoes in Mobile bay and its vicinity. To show the important results obtained by the use of torpedoes by the Confederates and the importance attached, now, at the North to that mode of warfare, I will quote here the following remarks from an able article in the last September number of the Galaxy, entitled, Has the day of great Navies past? The author says: The real application of submarine warfare dates from the efforts of the Confederates during the late war. In October, 1862, a torpedo bureau was e
Louisiana (Louisiana, United States) (search for this): chapter 2.10
. They were then rifled and banded, and thus turned into admirable guns, which were effectively employed against the Federal iron-clads. I am surprised that the new principle adapted to these guns has not been used for the heavy ordnance of the present day, as it would secure great economy in weight and cost. The injured Blakely gun was subsequently thoroughly repaired, and made as efficient as when first received. In the year 1854, while in charge as engineer of the fortifications of Louisiana, I attended a target practice with heavy guns by the garrison of Fort Jackson, on the Mississippi river, the object fired at being a hogshead floating with the current at the rate of about four and a half miles an hour. I was struck with the difficulties of trailing or traversing the guns-42-pounders and 8-inch columbiads-and with the consequent inaccuracy of the firing. Reflecting upon the matter, I devised soon afterward a simple method of overcoming the difficulty by the application o
Richmond (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 2.10
made the heroic defence of Charleston, has been delayed much longer than we had intended by circumstances over which we had no control.] Letter from General Beauregard. Rev. J. W. Jones, D. D., Secretary Southern Historical Society, Richmond, Virginia: Dear sir: During last summer several articles appeared in Northern papers, giving accounts of Russian torpedoes and torpedo-boats in the Danube, in which erroneous statements were made of the use of those engines of destruction at Charl the part of the others. In the bay of Charleston and adjacent streams I had planted about one hundred and twenty-five torpedoes and some fifty more in other parts of my department. The first torpedoes used in the late war were placed in the James river, below Richmond, by General G. R. Raines, who became afterward chief of the Torpedo Bureau. Mr. Barbarin, of New Orleans, placed also successfully a large number of torpedoes in Mobile bay and its vicinity. To show the important results obt
Savannah (Georgia, United States) (search for this): chapter 2.10
eorgia, I found the defences of those two States in a bad and incomplete condition, including defective location and arrangement of works, even at Charleston and Savannah. Several points-such as the mouths of the Stono and Edisto rivers, and the headwaters of Broad river at Port Royal — I found unprotected; though soon after the bor in the mouth of the Stono left open to the enemy, who made it their base of operations. Immediately on my arrival I inspected the defences of Charleston and Savannah, and made a requisition on the War Department for additional troops and heavy guns deemed necessary; but neither could be furnished, owing, it was stated, to therranged for any motive power, but was intended to be anchored in position. This hull was completed by me, and a second-hand and much worn engine was obtained in Savannah and placed in her. Notwithstanding her tub-like model and the inefficiency of her engine, Captain Carlin, commanding a blockade-runner5 took charge of her in an
Fort Jackson (Louisiana, United States) (search for this): chapter 2.10
ch were effectively employed against the Federal iron-clads. I am surprised that the new principle adapted to these guns has not been used for the heavy ordnance of the present day, as it would secure great economy in weight and cost. The injured Blakely gun was subsequently thoroughly repaired, and made as efficient as when first received. In the year 1854, while in charge as engineer of the fortifications of Louisiana, I attended a target practice with heavy guns by the garrison of Fort Jackson, on the Mississippi river, the object fired at being a hogshead floating with the current at the rate of about four and a half miles an hour. I was struck with the difficulties of trailing or traversing the guns-42-pounders and 8-inch columbiads-and with the consequent inaccuracy of the firing. Reflecting upon the matter, I devised soon afterward a simple method of overcoming the difficulty by the application of a rack and lever to the wheels of the chassis of the guns; and I sent drawi
St. Louis (Missouri, United States) (search for this): chapter 2.10
to avoid drifting on the torpedoes or ashore, and afterward had to be docked for the removal of the streamer before she could again use her propeller. The torpedoes, as anchored, floated a few feet below the surface of the water at low tide, and were loaded with one hundred pounds of powder arranged to explode by concussion — the automatic fuse employed being the invention of Capt. Francis D. Lee, an intelligent young engineer officer of my general staff, and now a prominent architect in St. Louis. The fuse or firing apparatus consisted of a cylindrical lead tube with a hemispherical head, the metal in the head being thinner than at the sides. The tube was open at the lower extremity, where it was surrounded by a flange; and, when in place, it was protected against leakage by means of brass couplings and rubber washers. It was charged as follows: In its centre was a glass tube filled with sulphuric acid and hermetrically sealed. This was guarded by another glass tube sealed in l
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