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D. Williamson (search for this): chapter 5
a body of atmospheric air to be tested; one third the amount of condensation may be ascribed to the removal of oxygen, whose proportions for combining with hydrogen to form water are, oxygen 1, hydrogen 2, by bulk. The space between the thumb and the surface of the water in the open leg forms an air-cushion when the gases explode. Dobereiner's is founded upon the power of spongy platinum to cause the combination of oxygen and hydrogen gas. The labors of Bunsen, Regnault, and Reiset, Williamson and Russell, Franklin and Ward, have brought the instrument to the present efficient form. Eu′phroe. A long slat of wood, perforated for the passage of the awning-cords which suspend the ridge of an awning. The euphroe (or uphroe) and its pendent cords from a crow-foot Eu′style. (Architecture.) That style of intercolumniation in which the space between the columns was 2 1/2 times their diameter; so called from being considered the most beautiful style. E-vap′o-rating-co
Semiramis (search for this): chapter 5
lted wax was then evenly spread over all, and, when it was quite cold, was polished. The art was revived by Count Caylus in 1753. The wood or canvas is coated with wax, which is warmed at the fire. The colors are mixed with white wax and powdered mastic, which are rubbed smooth with gum-water and applied with a brush. The surface is coated with white wax and polished. En-caustic-brick. Diodorus Siculus relates that the bricks of the walls of Babylon, erected under the orders of Semiramis, had all sorts of living creatures portrayed in various colors upon the bricks before they were burnt. En-caus′tic-tile. An ornamental tile having several colors. A mold is prepared which has a raised device on its face so as to leave an impression in the face of the tile east therein. This intaglio recess is then filled by a trowel with clay compounds, in the liquid or slip state, and which retain or acquire the required colors in baking. The tile is then scraped, smoothed, baked
George W. Gregory (search for this): chapter 5
ompletely enveloping the object. When cold, the clay wall is removed, and the mold delivered by cutting it into as many pieces as are required, either with a sharp knife or by threads previously placed in proper situations about the object. The pieces are then placed in their proper positions, and bound together. The mold is designed particularly for taking casts in plaster-of-paris, but molten wax, if not too hot, may also be employed. E-las′tic Pis′ton-pump. A pump described in Dr. Gregory's Mechanics consists of an elastic bag provided with a valved board on top, and operating over a valved diaphragm. The trunk in which it operates is a square box, and the piston moves without friction against the trunk in which it works. The bag is of water-proof canvas or leather, with occasional rings. A somewhat similar pump, recommended for a bilge-water pump, and for pumping out leak-water, is known as Cracknell's, and was somewhat famous in England forty years since. It had a
Jupiter Capitolinus (search for this): chapter 5
and Remus. From Egypt or Phoenicia the Greeks received the art of engraving, where it had considerably advanced in the time of Homer. Among other uses which are allied to chasing and inlaying, it was employed in delineating maps on metallic plates. Specimens of Etrurian art are also of great antiquity, and we prudently do not enter the arena to settle the questions of precedence so lately revived by the wonderful discoveries of General Di Cesnola, in Cyprus. In the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus were stored 3,000 brass plates on which the laws of Rome were engraved. The ancient engraving was much of it complete enough for printing, but was generally intended for impressions in plastic material, clay, wax, and what not. (See seal.) It is, however, believed that parchment, linen, silk, and papyrus were sometimes impressed by the surface of the seal, previously blackened by ink or pigment. Other than this, the first we know of engraving as a means of delivering an impression
Wheatstone (search for this): chapter 5
net. The first known clock of this kind was invented by Wheatstone and exhibited by him in 1840. Appold, Bain, Shepherd, a instruments and codes of the no less illustrious Morse, Wheatstone, and others. See voltaic pile ; galvanic battery ; elective-power is derived from electric action. Invented by Wheatstone. Those which are operated by the usual means, but ares of electro-magnetic engines have also been invented by Wheatstone, Talbot, Hearder, Hjorth, and others. Professor Jacobi of wire which was thought requisite. The attention of Wheatstone, in England, appears to have been drawn to the subject o from that of Bain. See electro-chemical telegraph. Wheatstone's first telegraph comprised five pointing needles and astaic battery. The single-needle telegraph of Cook and Wheatstone is caused to indicate the letters and figures by means o lettered disk, operated in much the same way as that of Wheatstone, from keys arranged like those of a piano, and a receivi
plated while going. When applied to depositing a coat of silver or gold upon an article, it is placed in a solution of the required metal, the acid set free in the reaction being such as will act upon the piece of metal whose function it is to keep the metallic solution to its normal strength. Copper and its alloys and German silver are the metals upon which gold or silver are most readily deposited. Electro-plating with iron has been done in Russia by a process invented by Jacobi and Klein; it is much more durable than copper, and is said to afford good results, having been used by the Russian government for printing bank-notes. A United States patent was granted for this process in 1868. See also Garnier's process, Photographic journal, Vol. VI., p. 31 et seq. An important improvement in electro-plating is that of M. Oudry of Auteuil, near Paris, for coating large objects made of iron with a thick layer of copper. In the old process it was customary to clean the pieces
C. M. Spencer (search for this): chapter 5
d and gradually corroded, while at the same time a beautiful arborescent precipitation of metallic silver took place on the lower wire. Acetite of lead and sulphat of copper were similarly decomposed and precipitated on the lower wire. — Monthly Magazine, August, 1800. In 1801, Wallaston demonstrated that a piece of silver in connection with a more positive metal placed in a bath of sulphate of copper became covered with copper and would stand burnishing. It was not until 1838 that Mr. Spencer gave it a practical bearing by making casts of coin and casts in intaglio from the matrices thus formed. Professor Jacobi of Dorpat, in Russia, had been an independent inventor, and in the same year brought forward specimens which were much admired and caused him to be put in charge of gilding the iron dome of the Cathedral of St. Isaac at St. Petersburg. This dome weighs about 448,000 pounds, and was electro-gilded with 274 pounds of ducat gold. The process, briefly described, is
ne′. See Eyeletingmachine. Eye-piece. (Optics.) An eye-piece, or power, as it is sometimes called, is the lens or combination of lenses used in microscopes or telescopes to examine the aerial image formed at the focus of the objectglass. — Brande. Eye-pieces may be, — 1. Positive (Ramsdens). 2. Negative (Huyghenian). 3. Diagonal. 4. Solar (Dawes). 5. Terrestrial or erecting. Eye-piece mi-crom′e-ter. A graduated slip of glass introduced through slits in the eye-piece tube, so as to occupy the center of the field. Adapted by Jackson. Eye-rim. A circular single eye-glass, adapted to be held to its place by the contraction of the orbital muscles. Eye-speculum. Eye-spec′u-lum. (Surgical.) An instrument for dilating the eyelids, to expose the exterior portions of the eye and its adjuncts. Eye-splice. (Nautical.) A splice made by turning the end of a rope back on itself and splicing the end to the standing part,
Jacob Perkins (search for this): chapter 5
easure, by an oyled paper. This I bought of him, giveing him a crowne for it; and so, well satisfied, he went away. — Ibid., Oct. 5, 1664. Aquatint engraving invented by St. Non of France, 1662. Engraving in steel introduced into England by Perkins of Philadelphia, 1819. The earliest application of the wood-engraver's art in Europe was in cutting blocks for playingcards. The French writers ascribe it to the time of Charles V., but the Germans show cards of the date 1300. The Italians glio impression is delivered upon a plate or cylinder for bank-note printing, or calico-printing, by the rotation under contact with the said object of a hardened steel roller (mill) bearing the design in cameo. This system was invented by Jacob Perkins, and was first adopted in bank-note engraving. (See transferring-machine.) The process for obtaining in the design in cameo on the mill, by rotation in contact with an intaglio die, is effected in a transfer press. See also Clamming-machine
Joshua Reynolds (search for this): chapter 5
shing cylinders. En-caustic. A mode of painting in which the colors are laid on or fixed by heat. The ancient Greek encaustics were executed in wax-colors, which were burned in by a hot iron, and covered with a wax or encaustic varnish. Pictures in this style were common in Greece and Rome. (See Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. ) The credit to Gausias, of Sicyon, 33 B. C., as the inventor, is rather to be taken as an indication that he was an improver. Sir Joshua Reynolds, in his attempts to fix his colors durably, mixed wax with them as a vehicle. On one occasion he placed his painting before a fire to mellow the tints by warming the wax. On returning, he found the lady's face had slipped down over her bosom. The term encaustic at the present day is mostly confined to colors burnt in on vitreous or ceramic ware. By the ancient method, according to Pliny, the colors were made up into crayons with wax, and, the subject being traced on the ground
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