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Nineveh (Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 5
graver's art; copper vessels, beautifully engraved, were among the number. Carving in stone is closely allied to the above, and may be be termed engraving in stone. Egypt is one triumphant vindication of the skill and industry of that nation in this particular. The warlike Osymandyas, nearly 200 years before Abraham, perpetuated upon granite the memory of his exploits, which reached as far as and included Bactria. The temples, tombs, and obelisks of Egypt, the sculptured palaces of Nineveh, and the gorgeous rilievos of Persepolis, attest the skill and fancy of the artists of the times Ere Romulus and Remus. From Egypt or Phoenicia the Greeks received the art of engraving, where it had considerably advanced in the time of Homer. Among other uses which are allied to chasing and inlaying, it was employed in delineating maps on metallic plates. Specimens of Etrurian art are also of great antiquity, and we prudently do not enter the arena to settle the questions of preced
Geneva, N. Y. (New York, United States) (search for this): chapter 5
900 toises in length; Watson, the learned Bishop of Llandaff, in 1745, sent a shock through 12,000 feet of wire, and proved that it was practically instantaneous throughout its length. He signaled an observer by this means. A writer in the Scots' magazine, in 1753, proposed a series of wires from the ends of which were to be suspended light balls marked with the letters of the alphabet, or bells which were to be moved by an electric current directed to the appropriate wire. Lesage, at Geneva, in 1774, actually constructed a telegraph arranged in this manner, the end of each wire having a pith-ball electroscope attached. Lamond, in 1787, employed a single wire, employing an electrical machine and electroscope in each of two rooms, and thus talking with Madame Lamond by the peculiar movements of the pith-balls according to an agreed code; and Reusser, in 1794, proposed the employment of letters formed by spaces cut out of parallel strips of tin-foil pasted on sheets of glass, w
Lucca (Italy) (search for this): chapter 5
fire, was practiced by the Egyptians and Etruscans on pottery, and passed from them to the Greeks and Romans. Enameling was also practiced among the Chinese. Specimens of enameled work are yet extant of early British, Saxon, and Norman manufacture. An enameled jewel, made by order of Alfred the Great, A. D. 887, was discovered in Somersetshire, England, and is preserved at Oxford. An enameled gold cup was presented by King John to the corporation of Lynn, Norfolk, and is yet preserved. Luca della Robbia, born about 1410, applied tin enamel to pottery, and excelled in the art. Bernard Palissy, the Huguenot potter, born about 1500, devoted many years to the discovery and application of enamels of various colors to pottery. He was remarkably successful in true copies of natural objects. His method died with him. He died in 1589, in prison, for consciencea sake. John Petitot, of Geneva (1607 – 91), is regarded as one of the first to excel in portraits. He worked for Charles
Israel (Israel) (search for this): chapter 5
64 ems to a foot. Pica, 71 ems to a foot. En-graving. Engraving is very ancient. The oldest records are cut in stone, some in relief, some in intaglio. The hieroglyphics of Egypt are cut in the granite monoliths, and on the walls of the tombs and chambers. In Exodus XXVIII. we read that two onyx stones were to be engraved like a signet with the names of the tribes, 1491 B. C. The two kinds of stones of the high-priest's breastplate were engraved with the names of the tribes of Israel. Seals and signet-rings with the cartouches of the Pharaohs are in many museums; those of London, Berlin, Paris, and the New York Historical Society, for instance. The graving with an iron pen and lead, referred to by Job (chap. XIX.), consisted probably of an etching or scratching process, that of a sharp stylus upon a piece of sheet-lead; Hesiod's poems were thus preserved. The date is not quite determined at which this patriarch of Uz lived; but assuming him to be coeval with Moses,
George Davidson (search for this): chapter 5
earder, Hjorth, and others. Professor Jacobi of St. Petersburg, in 1838-39, succeeded in propelling a boat upon the Neva at the rate of four miles an hour, by means of a machine on this principle. The boat was 28 feet long, about 7 feet wide, drew about 3 feet water. The battery used consisted of sixty-four pairs of plates, and propelled the boat by paddlewheels. He also applied his engine to working machinery, but without decided success. Page's electro-magnetic engine. In 1842, Davidson constructed an electro-magnetic locomotive-engine which attained a speed of about four miles an hour on the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway. E-lec′tro-mag-net′ic ma-chine′. See electro-magnetic engine. E-lec′tro-mag-net′ic Reg′u-la-tor. A device for maintaining an even heat in an apartment, a bath, or a furnace. See thermostat. E-lec′tro-mag-net′ic Tel′e-graph. A signaling, writing, printing, or recording apparatus in which the impulses proceed from a magnetic
imore. Professor Morse deserves high honor for the ingenious manner in which he availed himself of scientific discoveries previously made by others, for many important discoveries of his own, and for the courage and perseverance which he manifested, in endeavoring to render his system of practical utility to mankind by bringing it prominently to the notice of the public; and he lived to see it adopted in its essential features throughout the civilized world. In the mean while Gauss and Weber, and after them Steinheil, in Germany, were at work, and constructed a short line between the Royal Academy at Munich and the observatory; this, by means of right and left hand deflection-needles, was caused to print dots on a continuous slip of paper, moved by clock-work. While making experiments in connection with this work, Steinheil made the important discovery that the earth might be used as a part of the circuit, thus enabling him to dispense with one half the length of wire which w
Persians all excelled in it. The adornments of the tabernacle in the wilderness were of tapestry worked in blue, scarlet, and gold. The garment of Sisera, as referred to by Deborah, was embroidery, needle-work on both sides. See damask. Homer refers to embroidery as the occupation of Helen and Andromache. The tents of wealthy Arabs have an inner covering of white embroidered stuff beneath the dark, outer, water-proof covering of goat's-hair. The Tartar women excel in embroidery,eveh, and the gorgeous rilievos of Persepolis, attest the skill and fancy of the artists of the times Ere Romulus and Remus. From Egypt or Phoenicia the Greeks received the art of engraving, where it had considerably advanced in the time of Homer. Among other uses which are allied to chasing and inlaying, it was employed in delineating maps on metallic plates. Specimens of Etrurian art are also of great antiquity, and we prudently do not enter the arena to settle the questions of prece
added two parts of nitric acid and two of water, is employed. With this long strips of paper are saturated, which being drawn between a metallic roller and stylus operated by means usual in electro-telegraphy, — dispensing, however, with relay-magnets, — dots and dashes are produced, as in the Morse system. These appear of a blue color, in consequence of the ferro-cyanide of potassium being converted into cyanide of iron by electric action and contact of the iron stylus with the paper. Bakewell subsequently improved the construction of this instrument, and added an electro-magnetic governor, to obtain synchronism in the movements of the apparatus at the two ends of the line. Gintl, a German, in his method, also dispenses with the relay, and records messages by the line-current direct. He prepares his paper with a solution of one part iodide potassium and twenty starch-paste in forty parts of water. The iodine being set free colors the starch blue. Bonelli's telegraph (1860
J. Scott Russell (search for this): chapter 5
ospheric air to be tested; one third the amount of condensation may be ascribed to the removal of oxygen, whose proportions for combining with hydrogen to form water are, oxygen 1, hydrogen 2, by bulk. The space between the thumb and the surface of the water in the open leg forms an air-cushion when the gases explode. Dobereiner's is founded upon the power of spongy platinum to cause the combination of oxygen and hydrogen gas. The labors of Bunsen, Regnault, and Reiset, Williamson and Russell, Franklin and Ward, have brought the instrument to the present efficient form. Eu′phroe. A long slat of wood, perforated for the passage of the awning-cords which suspend the ridge of an awning. The euphroe (or uphroe) and its pendent cords from a crow-foot Eu′style. (Architecture.) That style of intercolumniation in which the space between the columns was 2 1/2 times their diameter; so called from being considered the most beautiful style. E-vap′o-rating-cone. A Belg
Francis P. Smith (search for this): chapter 5
h the colors are laid on or fixed by heat. The ancient Greek encaustics were executed in wax-colors, which were burned in by a hot iron, and covered with a wax or encaustic varnish. Pictures in this style were common in Greece and Rome. (See Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. ) The credit to Gausias, of Sicyon, 33 B. C., as the inventor, is rather to be taken as an indication that he was an improver. Sir Joshua Reynolds, in his attempts to fix his colors durably, mixed ate of a door, drawer, or desk. E-sopha-gus-forceps. One for removing foreign matters from the gullet. An esophagus-forceps, with bent shank, was found in 1819, in a house in Pompeii, by Dr. Savenko, of St. Petersburg. It is pictured in Smith's Dictionary of Antiquities, p. 274. Es-pal′ier. (Agriculture.) A trellis for training vines or other plants. Espla-nade. (Fortification.) An extended glacis. The sloping of the parapet of the covered way toward the open country.<
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