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James Turner (search for this): chapter 7
, now plated over with strong surface-color like a coat of burnished metal, now sending light, pearly hints of variegated radiance, from clusive depths; or cups fantastically pied with scales of iridescence over their own strong original colorations, are scattered around a considerable apartment, defeating all sense of strict estimation, and cheating the mind with the notion of a possible perfection in the manufacture only compatible, as it seems, with decay. Some of the platters look as if Turner had painted skies on them in his maddest mood, and had been allowed to use flames for colors. The general effect seems to suggest that all the sunsets that have glimmered over Cyprus since these crystals were lost in the earth had sunk into their hiding-place and permeated their substance. —N. Y. Nation. Most of the pieces are of simple inflated shapes, but some are pressed, having monograms and inscriptions in relief, opaque glass in mingled colors, sticks of twisted colors. Small gl
Jethro Tull (search for this): chapter 7
. It was regarded as a curiosity merely, until a man appeared who was able to appreciate it. The system of drill husbandry of Britain is the invention of Jethro Tull, a farmer of Berkshire, England, who was an original thinker and innovator. He introduced his system in 1701, and published his Horse-hoeing husbandry in 1731.more than thirty years. He died soon after the publication of his book, and his son died in a debtors' prison, when such things were. Not so very long ago. Jethro Tull's first invention was a kind of plow, with drill attached, for sowing wheat and turnips in three rows at a time; it consisted of two seed-boxes with a colter atver, each lever swinging by an ordinary hinge-joint, and having a movable weight at the outer end to press the colter into the soil to the required depth. After Tull, the machine was much improved by James Cooke, a elergyman, of Lancashire, England; his improvements have been adopted in almost all of the subsequent machines use
Tomlinson (search for this): chapter 7
n impalpable powder and mixed with the flour. Also a French plan, in which grinding is dispensed with; the wheat being decorticated, macerated, and crushed by rollers into a dough fit for baking. The first steam flouring-mill in England, perhaps in the world, was the Albion, erected at the Southwark end of Blackfriars' Bridge, London, in 1783. The best-appointed grinding-mill in England is said to be the City FlourMill of London. Its capacity and arrangement are thus described by Mr. Tomlinson : — The mill, which is fire-proof, is 260 feet in length and 60 in width. There are thirty-two pairs of stones all furnished with the blowing-apparatus, the runner of each pair being worked by a strap. A long horizontal trunk placed above the millstones is supplied with condensed air by means of a powerful fan. From this trunk proceeds a smaller trunk obliquely into the casing of each pair of millstones, and when the blast has served its purpose it escapes up another oblique trun
s on the sides of decanters and similar objects, and the concave form the convex ribs called pillars. The wheels for first or rough grinding are of iron, and a considerable quantity of sand is employed; the work is then smoothed upon fine grit stones, rendered circularly true and very smooth, less water and no sand being used; after which they are polished upon wooden wheels with pumice and rottenstone and water, and the final luster imparted by wet puttypowder applied on similar wheels. Tilghman's process for cutting glass or stone by means of a blast of air or steam carrying a stream of sand is adapted for piercing or for engraving the surface, and has many adaptations. In Fig. 2237, A is an apparatus for roughening sheet-glass. The air-blast is produced by the fan a below, and the air rises through the curved tube b, carrying the sand up with it, which is thrown into the air-tube by an endless belt of scoops arranged in the lower part of the angular box d. The sand is carried u
nt of three curious cups of glass which reflected like a pigeon's neck a variety of colors. Flexible glass is referred to by Pliny, Petronius, Dion Cassius, and others who copied from them. The two former refer to vases made in the time of Tiberius. It is not fully credited. Julius Caesar found the Britons in possession of glass beads, which they probably obtained of the Phoenicians in return for tin. Rome had few glass windows till the reign of Nero. Some are found in the ruins of Pomployed. Crystals of gypsum are generally in the form of more or less compressed rhomboids, which are easily divisible into thin laminae by splitting them parallel to their two broad planes. Such laminae were employed at Rome in the reign of Tiberius for many of the purposes for which we at present use glass. Spain and Cappadocia furnished the best, sometimes of the length of five feet. This variety of gypsum was known by the name of Lapis Specularis, from the use to which it was applied, n
William Thomson (search for this): chapter 7
for observing the attraction or repulsion between the pole of a suspended bar magnet and that of a vertical magnet h. See Indicatortelegraph; torsion-balance. Thomson's reflecting galvanometer, b, such as is employed in working the ocean cables, consists of a small mirror with a magnet laid across its back, both together weighias a double vertical web. It is stated by Rankine to have been long employed in the platforms of blast-furnaces, and to have been first used in railway bridges by Thomson, on the Pollok and Gowan Railway, in 1832. Figs. 2228 and 2229 are forms of arched girders for bridges. The former has for an arc a flanged iron beam and tens Ephron, one of the sons of Heth. The tombs are preserved in rigid seclusion from Jew and Christian; of the latter, not one lives in the town of 5,000 people. Dr. Thomson gives an account of it in his work, The land and the book, but could not reach the vault. The manufacture consists of party-colored glass bracelets for the J
carbon to the peroxide, the whole being ground into a paste. Professor Bunsen, a few years since, introduced bichromate of potash instead of nitric acid in the battery bearing his name. This performs well for a time, but in consequence of the precipitation of sesquioxide of chromium upon the zinc it gradually loses power. Another modification dispenses with the porous cup, using the two liquids in mixture. The same objection attaches to this as to the former. In the battery of Professor Thomsen of Copenhagen, a number of plates of platinum are immersed in dilute sulphuric acid, and are, by means of an electro-magnetic motor, successively brought into contact with the poles of a single cell of Daniell. The plates become covered by the decomposition of water with oxygen on one side and hydrogen on the other, giving rise to a powerful current in the platinum combination, which is maintained nearly constant when the contacts succeed one another rapidly and regularly. To descr
Henry Thompson (search for this): chapter 7
h bore the name and title of the Khorsabad king, written in two different ways, as in the inscriptions of Khorsabad. The cuneiform inscription on one small green glass vase was to Sargon, king of Assyria, the founder of Khorsabad, about 709 B. C. He also found a plano-convex glass lens 1 1/2 inches in diameter and 9/10 of an inch thick. The lachrymatories (g) of ancient Phoenicia were of glass or pottery, and are found in great numbers on opening the tombs and sarcophagi of that land. Thompson records the opening of an ancient tomb in a garden of the city of Beirut, which contained scores of these tear-bottles in thin glass or unglazed pottery. They have a slender neck, a broad bottom, and a funnel-shaped top. David says: Put thou my tears into thy bottle. —Psalm Ivi. 8. These bottles are probably coeval with the sweet singer of Israel. A record of the Phoenician trade on the western coast of Africa is still preserved in the peculiar glass beads found there. The pillar of
Theophrastus (search for this): chapter 7
by Herodotus in the temple of Hercules at Tyre (Book II. 44) was probably of glass. Of all stones, says Pliny, the emerald is most easily imitated (xxvii. 12). The Tyrians erected the first glass-houses mentioned in history, and practiced the manufacture for many ages before other contemporary nations attempted it. From Syria the art was brought by the Crusaders to Europe (1177), and established in Venice, which long had a monopoly therein and attained great excellence. See p. 976. Theophrastus, the pupil and successor of Aristotle, notices the fitness of the sand at the mouth of the river Belus for the manufacture of glass. Lucretius termed it vilrum. Cicero mentions glass, linen, and paper as the common articles of Egyptian merchandise. Scaurus, 58 B. C., introduced it in the seena of his gorgeous theatre, which was divided into three tiers: the lower of marble, the middle of glass, the upper of gilded wood. The price of a glass drinking-cup in the time of Strabo w
Hampton Court (Jamaica) (search for this): chapter 7
to form meshes; musket bullets put up in this way were formerly employed for blunderbusses, wall-pieces, and small artillery. Grape-trel′lis. A structure on which grapevines are trained. See trellis.. Previous to 1547 (time of Edward VI.) grapes were brought from Flanders to England. The vine was introduced into England in 1552. The statements of the growth of the vine in Britain (time of Julius Caesar) seem to lack confirmation. One of the largest vines in Europe is that of Hampton Court Palace, near London, the famous palace built by Cardinal Wolsey and given to Henry VIII. It is stated to have been planted in 1769, and to have produced 2,272 bunches of grapes in a season, weighing over 2,000 pounds; its stem being thirteen inches in girth. Graph. Names ending in graphs are as follows. The list is given for the convenience of those in search of a word:— Actinograph.Ichnograph. Anaglyptograph.Kinograph. Anemograph.Lithograph. Arcograph.Magnetograph. Anto-c
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