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Freyberg (Nevada, United States) (search for this): chapter 7
ed anagrammatically, by the transposition of the letters of the words, curbonum pulvere; which he wrote Lura nope cum ubre. This looks as though he considered it a secret; not necessarily his invention, but a dangerous compound not adapted for the use of the vulgar. Michael Schwartz, a Cordelier monk, of Goslar, in Germany, about A. D. 1320, seems to have combined the three ingredients, and has been credited with the discovery. A commemorative statue of Schwartz was erected in 1853, at Freiburg. Artillery was known in France in 1345. In 1356, the city of Nuremberg purchased gunpowder and cannon. The same year Louvain employed thirty cannon at the battle of Santfliet against the Flemings. In 1361, a fire broke out at Lubec from the careless use of gunpowder. In 1363, the Hanse towns used gunpowder in a conflict with the Danes. It is commonly stated that gunpowder was first made in England, at periods varying from 1411 to 1438; but recent research by Rev. Joseph Hu
Nuremberg (Bavaria, Germany) (search for this): chapter 7
. It has been affirmed that the art of glass-cutting was invented at the beginning of the seventeenth century by one Caspar Lehmann, of Prague, who was patronized by the Emperor Rodolphus II. Schwanhard, an apprentice of Lehmann, removed to Nuremberg, where he worked for many of the principal nobility, and hence this city acquired the reputation of being the birthplace of the new art; which was afterward much improved by the introduction of new tools and cheaper methods. Previous to thisterior was occupied by ladders and platforms, from which its painted surface was viewed. It was closed in 1861. Martin Behaim on his world apple, the celebrated globe which he finished in 1492, and which is still kept in the Behaim house in Nuremberg, places the coast of China (by estimate), only 100° west of the Azores. Marinus of Tyre had advanced the Chinese coast to the longitude of the Sandwich Islands, being misdirected by the calculations in the Asiatic itineraries, and thereby givi
Bude (United Kingdom) (search for this): chapter 7
ning will be 4/10 of an inch in diameter. With twenty-five holes the central orifice will be about 1 inch in diameter. Burners with ten, fifteen, twenty, or twenty-five holes have central apertures 3/8, 1/2, 3/5, and 95/100 of an inch in diameter. The flames of these burners may be raised without smoking to the height of 3 1/2, 3, 2 1/2, and 2 inches respectively. The glass chimneys for the burners mentioned should be 8/10, 12/10, 13/10, 15/10 of an inch in diameter respectively. The Bude burner has two or three concentric Argand rings. The Winfield-Argand has a metallic button above the annulus to deflect the central current laterally. A contraction of the chimney above the jet has a similar effect upon the exterior envelope of air. Gas-burners. Leslie's Argand has a series of small tubes arranged in a circle, which eject the gas in a conical form just below the contraction of the chimney. Frankland's burner e is an Argand with two chimneys, the outer one standin
Dutch (West Virginia, United States) (search for this): chapter 7
ns of a spring and chain, caused to revolve in contact with a piece of native sulphuret of iron, producing sparks which ignited the priming. This mineral is said to have originally derived its name pyrites, or firestone, from having been thus employed. The snaphaunce lock comprised a hammer carrying a flint, which was caused to strike against a furrowed piece of steel, which performed the office of the battery in the more modern flint-lock. It is said to have been contrived by German or Dutch marauders, to avoid the exposure attending the use of the matchlock in nocturnal expeditions. The flint-lock is said to have originated in France about 1635, and its general features do not appear to have essentially changed in the two centuries, nearly, during which it was used to the exclusion of all others. The parts corresponded to those of the percussion-lock of the present day, except that the hammer was provided with a pair of jaws for holding the flint, which was caused to strike
Leipzig (Saxony, Germany) (search for this): chapter 7
tened, stamped with the maker's name, and packed. In Europe the skins of the young kid, roughly dried in the open air, are collected by peddlers who, setting out from Italy in the early spring, extend their peregrinations to the northern confines of the continent as the season advances and the young kids attain a sufficient degree of maturity. By the peddlers the skins are sold to traders in the larger towns, whence they find their way to the great marts for such articles, as Naples and Leipsic. The method of treating the skins is essentially the same as that adopted in this country. Some of the French manufacturers tan and dye the skins themselves, so as to insure uniformity in color and quality, while others are content to buy them ready prepared. The dye is applied to the outer surface of the leather only by means of the hands and the assistance of a brush, and does not penetrate beyond the exterior. The best skins are colored black and other dark tints, holes or other
Baltimore, Md. (Maryland, United States) (search for this): chapter 7
, Murdoch lighted the cotton-factory of Philips and Lee, Manchester, the light being estimated as equal to 3,000 candles. This was the largest undertaking up to that date. In 1807, Winsor lighted one side of Pall Mall, London; the first street lighting. Westminster Bridge was lighted in 1813. Houses of Parliament, London, in the same year. Streets of London generally, 1815. Streets of Paris, the same year. James McMurtrie proposed to light streets of Philadelphia, 1815. Baltimore commenced the use of gas, 1816. Boston, 1822. New York City, 1825. The Newton gas-well, six miles from Titusville, Pa., discharges at the rate of three millions of cubic feet of gas every day of twenty-four hours. The gas issues under a pressure of from twenty to thirty pounds per square inch, and for the most part goes to waste. Pipes have been laid to Titusville, and two hundred and fifty dwelling-houses, shops, etc., are now supplied with the gas for illumination and fuel. For
Copenhagen (Denmark) (search for this): chapter 7
oxide, the whole being ground into a paste. Professor Bunsen, a few years since, introduced bichromate of potash instead of nitric acid in the battery bearing his name. This performs well for a time, but in consequence of the precipitation of sesquioxide of chromium upon the zinc it gradually loses power. Another modification dispenses with the porous cup, using the two liquids in mixture. The same objection attaches to this as to the former. In the battery of Professor Thomsen of Copenhagen, a number of plates of platinum are immersed in dilute sulphuric acid, and are, by means of an electro-magnetic motor, successively brought into contact with the poles of a single cell of Daniell. The plates become covered by the decomposition of water with oxygen on one side and hydrogen on the other, giving rise to a powerful current in the platinum combination, which is maintained nearly constant when the contacts succeed one another rapidly and regularly. To describe them more in d
Portland (Maine, United States) (search for this): chapter 7
hydrogen have been reached, and the gas thus obtained has been utilized in China, and in the valley of the Kanawha, West Virginia, in evaporating the brine. Gas flowing naturally is or has been used in the neigh borhood of Fredonia, New York; Portland, on Lake Erie; Wigan, Great Britain (in 1667); and in many other places. The uses made of it by the Magi, or fire-worshippers of Persia, have not been properly examined or determined; but the holy fires of Baku, on the shore of the Caspian, ples contains about 2,400 specimens of ancient glass, recovered principally from Pompeii and Herculaneum. They represent numerous forms of glass ornamentation in green, opal, blue, red, white, and yellow. The Barberini vase, now known as the Portland vase, was discovered about 300 years since, a short distance from Rome, in the tomb of Alexander Severus, who was killed by Maximinus, A. D. 235. The body of the vase consists of dark blue glass, on the surface of which are delineated in relief
Cuba, N. Y. (New York, United States) (search for this): chapter 7
ations in the Asiatic itineraries, and thereby giving to the old continent a breadth of 225° instead of 129°. Ptolemy's geography estimated the Chinese coast at the longitude of the Carolinas. So Columbus started west on an uncertain expedition, and, believing Behaim, with whom he had been associated at Lisbon, 1480 – 84, concluded that in reaching land he had found Cathay. He caused the whole crews of his squadron (about eighty sailors) to swear that they believed he might go from Antilia (Cuba) to Spain by land, keeping west. Having letters from the Catholic monarchs to the Great Mogul Khan in Cathay, he sent on shore a baptized Jew who was acquainted with some of the Oriental languages, but his messenger failed to make connection. Columbus died before the error was discovered; he named the natives indians, and so much of the matter remains to this day. See map; where the globes of Behaim and Schoner are compared with the previous maps of Ptolemy, Strabo, Hecataeus, and others.
8 In France, military purposes7512.512.5 In France, sporting781210 In France, blasting621820 In Prussia, military purposes7513.511.5 Although the use of gunpowder in Europe can be traced back only to the middle or earlier part of the fourteenth century, yet it seems fully proved from various passages in ancient authors that it is one of those inventions whose origin is lost in the obscurity of a very remote antiquity. The fact appears indisputable that it originated in Central or Eastern Asia, where it was used for many ages previous to its introduction into Europe, where it appears to have been first made known by the Saracens. In a code of Gentoo laws occurs a prohibition against the use by the ruler of deceitful machines, poisoned weapons, and weapons of fire. To this document is assigned the date 1500 B. C. When Ghengis Khan invaded China, A. D. 1219, he carried with him ho-pao, or fire-tubes, which killed men and set fire to buildings. Passages in Quintius Curtiu
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