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, Adv., never in the form ἦε ἠέ):
I. TO CONFIRM an assertion, in truth, of a surety, “ ὀλίγον οἷ παῖδα ἐοικότα γείνατο ΤυδεύςIl.5.800, etc.; ironically, 1.229, al.; with concessive force, it is true that . . : hence, although . . , “ καὶ γένει ὕστερος ἦεν3.215: freq. strengthd. by the addition of one or two other Particles, as “ ἄραOd.24.193; “ ἄρα δήIl.13.446; “ ῥα4.82; “ ῥά νυ6.215; “ γάρ1.78; “ γάρ τοιOd.16.199; “ δήIl.2.272; “ δή που21.583; “ δῆταS.OT429; “ θηνIl.20.452; “ κάρταS. El.1279; “ μάλαIl.3.204; “ μάλα δή5.422; μήν and μέν (v. infr.); “ νυIl.22.11; “ τάχαOd.18.73; “ τε13.211: and to express doubt, που, v. που and ποῦ: esp. μήν used in oaths and asseverations, Il.2.291, 7.393, A.Pr.73, 168, etc.; also “ μάνIl.2.370, 13.354, Sapph.Supp.23.5; “ μένOd.10.65(later εἶ μήν, v. εἷ): c. inf. in orat. obliq., after Verbs of swearing, etc., “σὺ δὲ σύνθεο, καί μοι ὄμοσσον, μέν μοι πρόφρων ἔπεσιν καὶ χερσὶν ἀρήξεινIl.1.77; μέν also in Ion. historical Prose, Hdt.4.154, 5.93, al.; “ἐγγυᾶσθαι, μὴν παραμενεῖνPl. Phd.115d; ἐγγυητὰς καταστῆσαι μὴν ἐκτείσειν Lexap.D.24.39: with other Particles, “ μὲν δήIl.2.798, Od.18.257, al.; “ δὴ μάνIl.17.538.
2. in the combinations ἐπεὶ , ὅτι and τί ; A.D.Conj.255.5, Synt.307.19(cf. Hdn.Gr.1.520), recognizes an 'expletive' παραπληρωματικὸς σύνδεσμος) perispom. after ἐπεί, barytone after ὅτι or τί. It is prob. the same as the affirmative (cf. A.D.Conj.l.c.), and occurs in the same combinations, “ἐπεὶ πολύ . . Il.1.169, al.; ἐπεὶ μάλα ib. 156, Od.10.465; “ἐπεὶ καί . . Il.20.437, Od.16.442. Trypho took τίη as one word, and this can be supported by “τί δὲ σύ . . Il.6.55, but A.D.Conj.l.c.) infers from the accent of ὅτι that τί was two words. The Attic accentuation is said by Eust.45 init., 118.39, 907.14 to be τιή, ὁτιή(qq. v.).
3. this (or ) is prob. to be recognized in “ὥς τε γὰρ Il.2.289, “ὥς τέ τευ Od.3.348, 19.109, where codd. have (in Od.3.348 ἠδέ (cj. Bekker) shd. perh. be read for ἠέ).
II. in Questions not involving alternatives:
1. Direct questions,
a. epexegetic of a preceding question, suggesting the answer to it, τίπτ᾽ εἰλήλουθας; ἵνα ὕβριν ἴδῃ Ἀγαμέμνονος; why hast thou come? is it that thou mayst see . . ? Il.1.203, cf. 5.466,7.26, Od.4.710,13.418, 17.376, B.17.5; τί δῆτα χρῄζεις; με γῆς ἔξω βαλεῖν; S.OT622, cf. E.Or.1425 ( codd.); τίς σοι διηγεῖτο; αὐτὸς Σωκράτης; Pl.Smp.173a (perispom., cod. B): on the accent, Hdn. Gr.2.112.
b. not epexegetic of a preceding question, σύ γ᾽ Ὀδυσσεύς ἐσσι πολύτροπος; art thou the wily Odysseus? Od.10.330, cf. Il.11.666, 15.504; οὐκ ὀτρύνοντος ἀκούετε . . Ἕκτορος; do you not hear . .? ib.506, cf. Od.16.424; τὸ πλοῖον ἀφῖκται; Pl.Cri.43c; οὐ δοκεῖ καὶ σοὶ οὕτω; don't you think so too? Id.Grg.479b (perispom., cod. T); βούλει συλλογισώμεθα αὐτά; shall we work them (the consequences) out? ib.479c (perispom., cod. T); τορῶς λέγω; A.Ag.269; κἀν δόμοισι τυγχάνει τανῦν παρών; S.OT757: freq. with other Particles, ἄρ . . ; Od.20.166, Il.19.56; mostly ῥα . . ; 5.421, 762, Od.4.632; also in Trag. (in lyr.), A.Pers.633, S.Aj.172, 955: esp. to mark the first of several questions, Pi.I.7(6).3 sqq.; ἄρα δή . . ; Il.13.446; ῥά νυ . . ; 4.93; νυ . . ; 15.128; ταῦτα δή . . ; S.Ph.565, El.385; ταῦτα δῆτα . . ; Id.OT429; γάρ . . ; A.Pr. 745, 757, S.OT1000: in Att. Prose, γάρ; standing alone, is it not so? Pl.Tht.160e, Grg.449d, 468d; καί . . ; A.Ag.1207, 1362:— usu. begins the sentence, except that the vocative may precede, as in Il.5.421, 762, Od.4.632, S.OC863, 1102, or ἀλλά, as in A.Ag.276, Ch.774:—by Crasis combines with ἄρα in Att. and the κοινή to ἆρα (q. v.), in all other dialects (cf. A.D.Conj.223.24) to ἦρα (q. v.), but ἆρα is found in Pi.P.4.78 (ἄρα codd.), al., Archil.86, 89.
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