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multa (mulcta ), ae, f. Sabine, acc. to Varr. ap. Gell. 11, 1, 5; Oscan, acc. to Paul. ex Fest. p. 142 Müll.,
I.a penalty involving loss of property, a fine, amercement, mulct; in the most ancient times riches consisted only in the possession of flocks and herds; it accordingly signified, at first, a fine in cattle; but in later times, when money was the measure of wealth, it signified a pecuniary fine (whereas poena denotes a punishment of any kind, e. g. corporal punishment, imprisonment, capital punishment): “vocabulum ipsum multae M. Varro non Latinum, sed Sabinum esse dicit,Gell. 11, 1, 5: multam Osce dici putant poenam quidam. M. Varro ait poenam esse, sed pecuniariam, Paul. ex Fest. p. 142 Mull.: “cum pecore diceretur multa,Varr. L. L. 5, § 95 Müll. The highest penalty in the earliest times was thirty head of cattle, the lowest a sheep, in specifying which the word ovis is used as of the masculine gender: ego ei unum ovem multam dico, I condemn him to pay, fine him, a legal formula ap. Gell. 11, 1, 4: “multae dictio ovium et bovium,Cic. Rep. 2, 9, 16.—Later, of a pecuniary fine: “multa praesens quingentum milium aeris in singulas civitates imposita,Liv. 10, 37: “multam alicui dicere,to decree, award, Cic. Phil. 11, 8, 18: “indicere,Plin. 18, 3, 3, § 11: “subire,Ov. F. 5, 289: “committere,to deserve, incur, Cic. Clu. 37, 103: “exigere,Varr. L. L. 5, § 177 Müll.: “remittere,Cic. Phil. 11, 8, 18: “irrogare (of the plaintiff, or people's tribune),to propose that the accused be fined a certain sum, id. Mil. 14, 36; so, “petere,id. Clu. 33, 91: “aliquem multā et poenā multare,id. Balb. 18, 42: “multam alicui facere,Gell. 7, 14, 8: certare, to contend on both sides whether or not the proposed fine should be paid: “duo tribuni plebis ducentum milium aeris multam M. Postumio dixerunt: cui certandae cum dies advenisset,Liv. 25, 3: “multae certatio,Cic. Leg. 8, 3, 6: “multa erat Veneri,for the benefit of Venus, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 9, § 25: “multa gravis praedibus Valerianis,a heavy loss, great damage, id. Fam. 5, 20, 4.—
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