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A surname of Artaxerxes III., king of Persia, who reigned B.C. 359-338. In order to secure his throne, he began his reign with a merciless extirpation of the members of his family. He himself was a cowardly and reckless despot; and the great advantages which the Persian arms gained during his reign were owing only to his Greek generals and mercenaries. These advantages consisted in the conquest of the revolted satrap Artabazus and in the reduction of Phœnicia, of several revolted towns in Cyprus, and of Egypt, B.C. 350. The reins of government were entirely in the hands of the eunuch Bagoas and of Mentor the Rhodian. At last he was poisoned by Bagoas, and was succeeded by his youngest son, Arses. See Persia.

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