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φθάνω , Il.9.506, impf.
A.ἔφθανονX.HG6.2.30, AP9.272 (Bianor): fut. “φθήσομαιIl.23.444, Th.5.10, Pl.R.375c, etc.; but φθάσω [α^] Hp. Morb.3.13 (s. v. l.), X.Cyr.5.4.38: aor. “ἔφθα^σαHdt.7.161, A.Pers. 752 (troch.), Th.3.49, X.Cyr.7.1.19, etc.; imper. “φθάσονJ.AJ6.11.7; opt. 3sg. “φθάσειεIsoc.8.120, pl. “φθάσειανX.HG7.2.14 (this tense prevails in later Gk., Plb.3.66.1, etc.); Dor. “ἔφθασσαTheoc.2.115: but the only Ep. aor. is ἔφθην, not found in A. or S., but the more usual form in E. and Ar., less freq. in Th., X., D.; pl. ἔφθημεν, -ητε, -ησαν, E.Ph.1468, Isoc.5.7, Antipho 2.2.5, Ep.pl.3φθάνIl.11.51; subj. φθῶ, Ep. 3sg. φθήῃ, φθῇσιν, 16.861, 23.805; Ep. 1pl. “φθέωμενOd.16.383; 3pl. “φθέωσι24.437; opt. φθαίην, Ep. 3sg. φθαίησι παρα-) Il.10.346; inf. “φθῆναιHdt.6.115, Th.4.4; part. “φθάςHdt.3.71; Ep. part. Med. “φθάμενοςIl.5.119, al., Hes.Op.554: pf. ἔφθα^κα Philipp. ap. D.18.39, LXX 2 Ch.28.9, IG12 9).906.26 (Chalcis, iii A. D.); “πέφθακαPs.-Callisth. 2.10 (v. l): plpf. “ἐφθάκειPlu.Galb. 17, Luc.Philops.6:—Pass., Arist.Mu.395a18: impf. “ἐφθάνετοAP9.278 (Bianor); “ἐφθάνοντοJ.BJ5.2.4 (v.l. ἐφονεύοντο): aor. “ἐφθάσθηνD.H. 6.25, Epigr.Gr.315 (Smyrna), IPE2.197 (Panticapaeum, ii A. D.), J.AJ8.12.4. Gal.4.560. [φθα^νω always in Att. (so also in AP9.272 (Bianor), APl.4.382, 384); φθα_νω in Il.9.506, 21.262 (where Zenod. read φθανέει for φθάνει)]:—come or do first or before others:
I. c. acc. pers., to be beforehand with, overtake, outstrip, in running or otherwise, “φθάνει δέ τε καὶ τὸν ἄγονταIl.21.262; “φθῆ σε τελος θανάτοιο11.451, cf. Hes.Op.554,570, Hdt.7.161, E.Heracl.120, IT669, Isoc.9.42, etc.; “οὐ μὴ φθάσωμεν τοὺς κοιμηθέντας1 Ep.Thess.4.15; so ἔφθησαν τὸν χειμῶνα they anticipated the storm, Hdt.7.188; “φθάσας τὸν λογισμόνD.21.38:—Pass., to be overtaken,ὑπό τινοςArist. Mu.395a18, AP9.278 (Bianor); ἐφθάσθην (v. supr.).
2. with Preps., come or arrive first,ἕως τῶν οὐρανῶνLXX 2 Ch.28.9; “ἔφθασεν ἐφ᾽ ὑμᾶςEv.Matt.12.28, Ev.Luc.11.20, cf. 1 Ep.Thess.2.16: φ. εἰς . . , simply, arriveat, attain to, Ep.Rom.9.31, Ep.Phil.3.16, Plu.2.338a; “φθάσομεν εἰς Πηλούσι<ον>PPar.18.14 (ii A. D.): abs., of Time, arrive, καιρὸς τῆς τομῆς ἔφθακε (v.l. ἔφθασεν) LXXCa. 2.12; ἔφθασεν μὴν ἕβδομος ib.2 Es.3.1.
b. extend,μέχρι γῆςPlot.3.27; “εἰς βορρᾶνPFlor.50.87 (iii A. D.).
c. reach,αἰθέραAPl.4.384.
d. Gramm., to be applied or applicable,ἐπ᾽ ἀμφοτέρας τὰς διαθέσειςA.D.Synt.211.22, cf. 217.23, al.
III. the action in which one is beforehand is expressed by the part. agreeing with the subject, [Ἄτη] πολλὸν ὑπεκπροθέει, φθάνει δέ τε πᾶσαν ἐπ᾽ αἶαν βλάπτουσ᾽ ἀνθρώπους and is beforehand in doing men mischief, Il.9.506; ἀλλ᾽ ἄρα μιν φθῆ Τηλέμαχος κατόπισθε βαλών Telemachus was beforehand with him in striking, i.e. struck first, Od.22.91, cf. 16.383, Il.10.368; “ἔφθασέν με προαπελθὼν ΧάρμοςPCair.Zen.16.3 (iii B. C.); ἔφθησαν ἀπικόμενοι arrived first, Hdt.4.136, cf. 6.115; so φ. εὐεργετῶν to be the first to show a kindness, X.Mem.2.3.14; “ὅπως φθάσειαν βοηθήσαντεςId.HG7.2.14; “ἔφθασαν προκαταλαβόντεςTh.3.112; “φθάνουσιν αὐτοὺς προκαταφυγοῦσαιId.2.91; “ἢν φθάσωσιν πρότερον διαφθείραντες τὸ στράτευμαId.7.25; “φ. γόνασι προσπεσὼν πατρόςE.HF986, etc: part. Pass. is also used, κε πολὺ φθαίη πόλις ἁλοῦσα, i.e. it would be taken first, Il.13.815; εἴ κε φθήῃ τυπείς shall be wounded first, 16.861; φθαίητε γὰρ ἂν . . ἐξανδραποδισθέντες . . Hdt.6.108; “μὴ φθάσωσι προεπιβουλευόμενοιTh.3.83; “ἔφθη κατακωλυθείςX.HG1.6.17; φθάνειν δεῖ πεφραγμένους τοὶς πόρους they must first be blocked up, Id.Cyr.2.4.25: these clauses, being compar. in sense, are folld. by a gen., φθὰν δὲ μέγ᾽ ἱππήων . . κοσμηθέντες were drawn up before the drivers, Il.11.51; more freq. by πρὶν . . or “ . . , ἔφθη ὀρεξάμενος, πρὶν οὐτάσαι16.322, cf. Antipho1.29, X. Cyr.3.2.4; “φθήσονται τούτοισι πόδες καὶ γοῦνα καμόντα ὑμῖνIl.23.444; “ἔφθης πεζὸς ἰὼν ἐγὼ σὺν νηΐOd.11.58; ἔφθησαν ἀναβάντες πρὶν . . Hdt.9.70; ἔφθησαν ἐκπεσόντες πρότερον . . Id.6.91.
b. in later Gr., c. part. to express previous action or happening, φθάνω ὑμῖν πρότερον γεγραφηκώς I have already written to you, POxy.1666.3 (iii A. D.), cf. 237 vi30 (ii A. D.), etc.; “ἔφθασα εἰρηκώςLuc.Pisc.29; “ὡς ἔφθην εἰπώνId.Par.3; cf. 111.2b.
2. in the same sense, part. φθάς or φθάσας, Ep. φθάμενος, is used like an Adv. with a principal Verb, ὅς μ᾽ ἔβαλε φθάμενος, for ὅς μ᾽ ἔφθη βαλών, Il.5.119, cf. 13.387, Od. 19.449; οὐκ ἄλλος φθὰς ἐμεῦ κατήγορος ἔσται no other shall be an accuser before me, Hdt.3.71; ἀνέῳξάς με φθάσας you opened the door before me, Ar.Pl.1102; “φθάσας προσπεσοῦμαιTh.5.9, cf. 2.91, X.Cyr. 1.5.3, etc.; even with a part., “φθάσας . . ἁρπάσαςHdt.6.65; rarely part. pres., “φθάνοντες δῃοῦμενX.Cyr.3.3.18.
b. in signf. 111.1b, φθάσαντες ἐπληρώσαμεν αὐτούς we had already paid them, POxy.1103.6 (iv A. D.); but ὡσεὶ καὶ ὁμογενῆ φθάσας εἶπον as if I had said (not had already said) ., Gal.16.502.
3. rarely c. inf., φθάσας θαρσῆσαι he that first gains confidence, Th.3.82; σπεύδειν ὅπως . . φθαίης ἔτ᾽ εἰς ἐκκλησίαν ἐλθεῖν (v.l. ἐλθών) hurry to be in time to get to . . , Ar.Eq.935 (lyr.), cf. Nu.1384 (v. infr. IV. 1); μόλις φθάνει θρόνοισιν ἐμπεσοῦσα μὴ χαμαὶ πεσεῖν hardly manages by falling first on the seat not to fall on the ground, E.Med.1169; more freq. in later writers, of actions which one manages to do, does before or has done first or already, A.R.1.1189, D.H.4.59,61, Sor.1.111, Gal.15.2,93, Luc. DMort.13.2, Harm.2; “ἐὰν φθάσω πρὸ τῆς τρύγης ἀνελθεῖνPSI8.971.10 (iii/iv A. D.); “ἐὰν ἰατρὸς αὐτὸ φθάσῃ κενῶσαιGal.16.499; φθάνοντος ἤδη πυρέττειν ἐκ τεττάρων ἡμερῶν τοῦ νοσοῦντος having already begun, ib.498; μὴ φθάνων προσηκόντως τρέφεσθαι if he is not first suitably nourished, Id.18(2).36, cf. 84,103; συμβαίνει φθάνειν ἀποθνῄσκειν τοὺς νεωτέρους the young die first, ib.222; εἰ φθάσαιμεν παλαιοὺς πίθους ἔχειν μεγάλους if we already have . . , Gp.6.3.11, cf. 10.22.2, al., A.D.Pron.90.1; “ἔφθακεν οὖν ταῦτα ἐψηφίσθαι καὶ τῇ βουλῇIG12(9).906.26 (Chalcis, iii A. D.).
IV. with negatives,
1. with οὐ and part. (inf. is v. l. in Ar.Nu. 1384), folld. by καί or καὶ εὐθύς, of two actions following close on each other, οὐ φθάνειν χρὴ συσκιάζοντας γένυν καὶ . . ὁρμᾶν you must no sooner get your beard than you march, E.Supp.1219; οὐ φθάνει ἐξαγόμενος καὶ εὐθὺς ὅμοιός ἐστι τοῖς ἀκαθάρτοις no sooner is he brought out than he becomes unclean, X.Eq.5.10, cf. Ar.Nu.1384; οὐκ ἔφθημεν εἰς Τροιζῆν᾽ ἐλθόντες καὶ τοιαύταις νόσοις ἐλήφθημεν ἐξ ὧν . . no sooner had we come to Troezen than . . , Isoc.19.22, cf. 5.53, 8.98, 9.53; οὐκ ἔφθη μοι συμβᾶσα ἀτυχία καὶ εὐθὺς ἐπεχείρησαν διαφορῆσαι τἄνδοθεν scarcely or no sooner had misfortune befallen me when . . , D.57.65, cf. 43.69, Isoc.4.86.
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  • Cross-references in general dictionaries from this page (133):
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