Hide browse bar
Your current position in the text is marked in blue. Click anywhere in the
line to jump to another position:
Table of Contents:
Careful dialect study will always separate the more or less
sophisticated language of literature from the native speech. There
is scarcely a writer in dialect that has not been assailed for
infidelity to the spoken tongue; and if this is true of those who
have tried to reproduce the dialect faithfully, what shall be said
of the make-believes, such as Burns and Mistral?1 What shall be said
of the lyric poets of Greece, who seem to have shifted and blended
dialects according to rhythm and mood?2
Doubtless, to a certain extent, the dialect was dictated by the
origin of the department. Lyric poetry emerging from the Epos could
not throw off the authority of Epic forms, but the so-called Epic
dialect is itself composite, and the Doric strains, with which the
Epic language was tempered by Stesichoros, became characteristic of
the higher lyric. And yet such is the freedom with which the Ionian
Simonides and the Theban Pindar handle the language, that we must
leave a wide margin for individual susceptibility. Those who
translate Homer back into the original Aiolic may yet reconstruct a
Pindar in uniform dialect. But till this is done it may be
provisionally assumed that Pindar used an artistic dialect that had
no definite relation to the spoken language, and it may be added
that if such a uniform dialect should be established, it would be a contradiction of the subtile variety that Pindar is
always producing out of his material, and always producing with as
full consciousness as true poets ever have. Pindar rejoices in his
play with language; he rings changes on words, he toys with
synonyms, he loves the discord of the oxymoron, and those who think
that such artistic devices are too mechanical forget that before
plastic art had developed its finesse,
song had served an apprenticeship of ages. While awaiting, then, new
light, it may be permissible to call Pindar's language an artistic
dialect, and to give a rapid summary of the chief peculiarities that
The basis is the language of the Epic, itself composite, and with
this are blended in varying proportions Aiolic and Doric forms. None of these
elements appears in its extremes. The flow of the Epic is retained,
but certain forms familiar in Homer are discarded. There are no
echoing verbs in -αω, there is no
-φι, no infinitive in -εμεναι. The Doric majesty and sonorous
fulness of utterance enter into the composition, but the older and
stiffer inflections are set aside. The first person plural cnds in
-μεν and not in -μες, Pindar says τοῦ not τῶ, τούς
not τώς. The Aiolic gives fire and
passion and a certain familiar sweetness as well, but the Boeotian
variety was not refined, and, in spite of local criticism, Pindar
preferred the Asiatic form of the dialect. Thus trebly and more than
trebly composite, Pindar's language shifts with the character of his
rhythms. The three moods — Dorian, Aiolian, Lydian
— call for different coloring, and the mobile Aiolian
measures show the greatest number of recondite forms, so that
dialect, rhythm, plan, imagery, are all in accord. Ahrens has seen
in the dialect of Pindar the influence of Delphic speech. So, for
instance, the use of ἐν with the
accusative, the elision of -ι in
περί. But the evidence seems
too slight, and while the study of Pindar by the light of Hesiod is
instructive, the theory that they both used a Delphic dialect
remains an ingenious suggestion and nothing more.
In the following exhibit only those points are dwelt on that might give the student trouble as to the
recognition of forms. The more familiar facts are briefly
VOWELS. — α_ for Epic
η. So where η comes from an original α, as in the sing. of the A- declension,
ἀρχά, ἀρχᾶς, ἀρχᾷ,
ἀρχάν: in fut., aor., perf. of verbs in -άω as αὐδάσομαι (O. 2.101),
ἐτόλμασαν (O. 2.75), τετόλμακε (P.
5.117). So also τεθνακότων.
But forms from κτάομαι retain
η as κτησάμεναι (N. 9.52),
Φιλοκτήταο (P. 1.50), and also those from χράω, χράομαι, as χρῆσεν (P. 4.6),
χρησθέν (O. 2.43), χρησμός (P. 4, 60).
On α_ in the augment see p.
lxxxv. Derivatives of the A- declension and of verbs in -άω have α_, as νικαφορία (P. 1.59), κυβερνάσιας (P.
10.72), μναμοσύναν (O. 8.74). So in compounds of which the
second part usually begins with η,
as κακαγοριᾶν (P. 2.53), εὐάνορι (O. 1.24).
The personal endings -μην and
-σθην (3 p. dual) are in Pindar
-μαν and -σθαν, as ἱκόμαν
(P. 4.105), κτισσάσθαν (O.
9.49). For -ηνη we find
-ανα, as Κυλλάνας (O. 6.77),
Κυράνας (P. 4.279). Whether we are to read
εἰρήνα or εἰράνα (O.
13.7), Ἀθῆναι or Ἀθᾶναι (P.
7.1), is disputed. In this ed. Ἀθαναίᾳ has been preferred to Ἀθηναίᾳ, and Ἀλκμήνα to Ἀλκμάνα. Feminine abstracts in -της show α as
ταχυτάς (O. 1.95), κυκότατα (P. 2.35).
So adverbs in -ῇ and in -δην, as κρυφᾷ (O. 1.47),
κρύβδαν (O. 3.13). The others cannot be reduced
to classes and must be watched. Doric is η for α_ in Ἀμφιάρηος (P.
(O. 6.13 al.).
η is retained in verb forms and
verbals from verbs in -έω, as
δῆσεν (P. 4.71), αἰτήσων
(O. 5.20), ἐδινήθην (P.
11.38), though many
have ἐδινάθην, as ἀκινήταν (O.
(P. 9.93). There are a few
exceptions, as φώνασε from φωνέω (O.
13.67); a few variations, now η, now α. So the MSS.
vary between θεόδμητον and θεόδματον (O.
3.7). η remains in the
augment of verbs, beginning with
ε as ἤλπετο (P. 4.243), in
the subjunctive endings as βάλῃ
(O. 3.13), the opt. in -ιην as εἰδείην (O. 13.46), in
the aor. pass. φάνη (O. 1.74), λείφθη (O. 2.47).
Nominatives of the 3d. decl. in -ηρ
and -ης are unchanged. So is
ἀλώπηξ. So words in -τηριον as χρηστήριον (O. 9.7),
compounds the second part of which goes back to an initial ε, as δολιχήρετμος (O. 8.20),
εὐήρατος (O. 6.98), ἁρματηλάτας (P.
5.115). Substantives of the 3d decl. in -ημα, as πῆμα (O. 2.21), οἴκημα (O.
2.10). Adj. in -ηρος and
-ηλος that are not related to
α- stems. So ὑψηλός (O.
2.24), λαιψηρός (O. 12.4). Words ending in -ας, -ις, as γῆρας (O. 1.83), ῥῆσις (O.
7.55), κρηπίς (O. 4.138). A noteworthy exception is
μᾶνις (P. 4.159). Adjectives in -ήιος, as ἀρήιος (O. 2.46), adverbs in η, and their compounds, ἦ, δή, μή, μηδέ, μήτε, τῆλε (P. 11.23), adjectives compounded with
ἡμι-, numerals in -ηκοντα, as ἡμίθεος (P. 4.12),
ἑξηκοντάκι (O. 13.99). Verbs generally retain a
penultimate η. So ἀρήγω (P.
2.63), λήγω (P. 4.292). θνᾴσκω, κάδομαι, and forms from πλήσσω and πήγνυμι are the main exceptions. Other retentions of
η than those mentioned cannot be
reduced to rule. α^ for ε. This also is Doric. So σκιαρός (O.
3.14. 18) for σκιερός. Still
Pindar does not say ἱαρός nor
is Ionic and Epic
as well as Doric, τάμνοισαι (O. 12.6), τράφοισα = τρέφοισα
(P. 2.44), τράφεν = τρέφειν
(P. 4.115), τράχον = τρέχον (P. 8.32).
Under ε note that Pindar has κενεός (or κεινός), ἀδελφεός,
never κενός, ἀδελφός. ι is
rejected in ἀφνεός, as ἀφνεάν (O. 1, 10),
ἀφνεαῖς (P. 11.15). For κλεινός, φαεινός, κελαδεινός, we find also the
Aiolic form in -εννος. So κλεεννᾶς (P.
5.20, etc.), κελαδεννῶν
(P. 3.113 al.), φαεννόν (O.
οὖν in Pindar is always ὦν (O.
1.111 al.). Οὔλυμπος
(O. 3.36 al.) varies with
Ὄλυμπος (O. 1.54 al.), but the Ὀλ. form is far
more common (more than 4:1). μόνος
is more common than μοῦνος, νόσος
than νοῦσος, κοῦρος alone is used,
but κόρα outnumbers κούρα. We find δουρί (O. 6.17) as
well as δορί (I. 4 , 42),
οὖρος less frequently than
ὄρος. Διώνυσος is the normal
form for Pindar. Syracuse is
Συράκοσαι (P. 2.1) or Συράκοσσαι
(O. 6.6), never Συράκουσαι. So the derivatives. The
Aiolic ὄνυμα has expelled both
ὄνομα and οὔνομα, the Aiolic -οισα (for -οντια) in the present participle has taken the place of
-ουσα. So φέροισα (P. 3.15),
Κρείοισα (P. 9.17), Μοῖσα (for Μοντσα).
Aiolic -οισι is used as well as
Doric -οντι, περιπνέοισιν (O. 2.79). See p. lxxxv.
CONSONANTS. — γλέφαρον for
βλέφαρον (O. 3.12 al.), but ἑλικοβλεφάρου (P.
4.172). ἐσλός for ἐσθλός is Boeotian. So everywhere (O. 1.99 al.). The first syllable is
short, O. 2.19; P. 3.66; N.
4.95. αὖτις for
αὖθις everywhere (O. 1.66), δέκεσθαι for δέχεσθαι (O. 4.8 al.). For
τότε is found the Doric form
τόκα (O. 6.66). Noteworthy are ὄκχος = ὄχος (O. 6.24), and ὀκχέοντι = ὀχέοντι (O. 2.74), and
πετοῖσαι = πεσοῦσαι (O.
7.69), πετόντεσσι =
πεσοῦσι (P. 5.50), ἔμπετες = ἐνέπεσες (P. 8.81),
κάπετον = κατέπεσον (O. 8.38).
Pindar has ὅσσος (O. 9.100 al.) as well as ὅσος (O.
2.75 al.), τοσσάδε (O. 1.115) as well as τόσα (O.
13.71), μέσσος (P. 4.224) as well as μέσος (P.
11.52 al.), ὧτε, after the
Doric fashion (O. 10 , 86 al.), as well as ὥστε (O. 9.74),
though in different senses.
Φήρ for θήρ is Aiolic, and is used of the Centaur. Φερσεφόνα (P.
12.2) is familiar from the Iliad (1, 268; 2, 143).
δ is not changed before μ in κεκαδμένον (O. 1.27),
τεθμός is a Doric form for
θεσμός (O. 8.25 and often). Metathesis and other slight
variations explain themselves.
DIGAMMA. — Pindar seems to have used the digamma both in
speech and in writing, and in this edition the example of Mommsen and Christ
has been followed after some hesitation, and the digamma, though in
skeletonform, has been restored to the text.4 That the use was not rigid is clear. But from this
irregularity we are not to draw the inference that Pindar only
imitates the effects of the digamma, as seen in Epic poetry,
although it must be admitted that the digammated words in Pindar are
nearly all Homeric.
ϝοῖ, ϝέ, ϝόν (= ἑόν), orig. σϝοῖ, σϝέ, σϝεόν. οἶδα and ἴδον (compare wot and
wit) have the digamma: πολλὰ
ϝειδώς (O. 2.94),
πάντα ϝίσαντι νόῳ (P. 3.29), ἐπεὶ
ϝίδον (P. 5.84), and
yet οὔτ᾽ ἰδεῖν (O. 6.53), ὄφρ᾽
ἰδοῖσ᾽ (O. 14.22).
Add ϝεῖδος (O. 8.19), ϝείδομαι
(P. 4.21). ϝανδάνειν (fr. σϝανδάνειν) is found (P.
1.29), ϝαδόντι (P. 6.51). ϝέργον and its congeners, μέγα
ϝέργον (P. 1.29),
ϝειπεῖν (O. 13.68 al.), yet εἰπεῖν (O.
1.52 al.), ϝέπος (O. 6.16; P.
2.16; 3, 2; N. 7.48), but
ἔπος is more common, though
some examples may be got rid of by emendation. ϝοῖκος (P. 7.4）
occurs, but also οἶκος (P. 1.72), οἰκεῖν is certain (P.
11.64), not so ϝοικεῖν:
ϝάναξ, and ϝανάσσω, once ἀνάκτων (O. 10 , 54). ϝελπίς (O. 13.83),
but ἐλπίς (O. 12.6), as often. ϝέτος (O. 2.102).
ϝείκοσι (N. 6.67). ϝεσπέρα (I. 7 , 44), but ἕσπερον (O. 10 , 82), ϝίδιος (O. 13.49).
There are examples of ϝίσος in
Nemeans and Isthmians; ἴσον (O. 4.22). τὰ
ϝεοικότα occurs (P.
3.59), ἐοικός everywhere
else, ϝέκατι (O. 14.20), ϝῆθος (O. 11 , 21), ϝιόπλοκον (O. 6.30),
but ἰοπλοκάμων (P. 1.1). In proper names ϝαχοῖ (O.
14.21), ἐς δὲ ϝιωλκόν
(P. 4.188), ϝιλιάδα (O.
9.120), ϝιόλαον (P. 9.85 al.), ϝιάλυσον (O. 7.76）
[?]. In the Isthmians ϝισθμός,
elsewhere Ἰσθμός (O. 8.48). Probably ϝώανιν (O.
5.11). The digamma in the middle of a word, ἀϝελπτίᾳ (P.
12.31), ἄϝιδρις (P. 2.37), is seldom indicated in this
edition, e. g. ἀϝάταν (P. 2.28; 3, 24), as the chief object of
the insertion is the very practical one of avoiding the perpetual
explanation of hiatus, to which the young
student of Greek should be made as sensitive as possible.
HIATUS. — True hiatus is rare in Pindar, though he
sometimes keeps a long vowel long before another vowel, as γλώσσᾳ
6.82). For Ὀρθωσίᾳ
ἔγραψεν (O. 3.29) Ahrens
writes Ὀρθωσίας. The shortening
of a long vowel before a vowel is not hiatus, as ἀβουλίᾳ ὕστατος (O. 10 , 45),
ἐν Πίσᾳ ἔλσαις (O. 10
, 47). In the case of a diphthong it would seem that ι and υ
may be semi-consonant. Notice especially ει short in Pindar before a vowel, e. g. ἵππει^ον (O.
13.68 al.). αὐ- is short
in ἀυάταν (P. 2.28), but in this ed. ἀϝάταν is preferred. εὐ- is short in ἰχνευ?́ων (P. 8.35).
CRASIS. — The ordinary crases, such as those with και, τό, τοῦ, belong to the grammar.
Some read ὦναξ (P. 8.67). ὦ
'ριστόμενες (P. 8.80),
is APHAERESIS rather than crasis. Bergk goes so far as to write
ἀρχη 'κδέξατο (P. 4.70), and ὀλβω ν̓δείξατο (P.
ELISION. — α is sometimes
elided in 1 s. perf. act., ἐπιλέλαθ᾽ (O. 10 , 4); αι in 1 s. midd., μέμφομ᾽
αἶσαν (P. 11.53), ψεύσομ᾽ ἀμφί (O.
13.52); in 3 pl. (often), κυλίνδοντ᾽
ἐλπίδες (O. 12.6); in
inf., ἀποθέσθ᾽ ἄπορον (O. 10
, 44). ι is elided in 1 s.,
ἀφίημ᾽ ἀγρούς (P. 4.149); in 3 pl. (Doric), ἀγαπάζοντ᾽ αὐτίκα (P. 4.241). Also περ᾽ for περί (see
p. lxxxvii.). ο is elided in
τοῦτο (O. 6.57 al.), κεῖνο
(P. 9.74), δεῦρο (O. 8.51), even
in δύο (O.
6.101; 9, 86), in 3 pl. midd.; 2 s. opt. midd., γένοι᾽ οἷος (P. 2.72), and in the genitive singular O-declension in
-οιο, a non-Homeric freedom,
Δάλοι᾽ ἀνάσσων (P. 1.39).
SYNIZESIS is very common in Pindar, and it has been
thought best to indicate it in the text as well as DIAERESIS.
FIRST DECLENSION. — Pindar usually follows the Doric
dialect here. Notice, however, the Aiolic shortening of Πέλλανα^
Πελλήνη (O. 7.86; 13, 109), Νέμεα^ (O.
13.24), Κύκνεια^ (O. 10
, 17), Μινύεια (O. 14.17). Compare the Aiolic form
Ὀδύσσεια, retained in
standard Greek. Also χρυσοχαῖτα
(P. 2.16), ἔπιβδαν (P. 4.140),
and words in -τρίαινα (O. 1.40, 70; O.
8.48; P. 2.12). G. s.
masc. -αο (Aiolic), Κρονίδαο (P.
4.171), more commonly -α_
(Doric), Κρονίδα (O. 8.43). G. pl. -ᾶν (Doric), the only form: ἀρετᾶν ἄπο πασᾶν (O.
1.14). So the adj. ἀλλᾶν (O. 6.25), etc.,
with the accent on the last syllable, not ἄλλων. Dat. pl. -αις far more frequently than -αισι, as -οις far more
frequently than -οισι. Acc. pl.
-ας, but also the Aiolic
-αις (I. 1, 24), as Aiolic
-οις is suspected by Bergk
(O. 2.82). Proper names in
-λαος become -λας (Doric), and follow the A- declension
Ἀρκεσίλας (P. 4.65), Ἀρκεσίλᾳ (P. 4.2),
voc. Ἀρκεσίλα (P. 4.250. 298), but Ἰόλαος usually retains the open form
(O. 9.105; P. 9.85 al.).
SECOND DECLENSION. — The genitive ends in -οιο or -ου,
-οιο being susceptible of elision, as is noted p. lxxxii.
acc. pl. in -ος is favored by the
metre (O. 2.78), where, however, the
best MSS. have νᾶσον: the metre
does not require κακαγόρος (O. 1.53).
THIRD DECLENSION. — The dat. pl. ends in -σι, more frequently in -εσσι, sometimes (in ς- stems) we find -εεσσι, πα-
(P. 8.35), μεγαλοκευθέεσσιν (P.
2.33). There is a good deal of variation, but nothing
puzzling. So ποσσί (O. 10 , 71
al.), ποσίν (O. 10 , 62 al.),
πόδεσσιν (N. 10.63). φρασί has better warrant than φρεσί. Genitive -εος
and -εων are never contracted, but
do admit synizesis. -ει is more
common than -εϊ. In the nominative
and accusative plural -εα is seldom
contracted. From words in -κλῆς we
find N. Ἡρακλέης, G. Ἡρακλέος, D. Ἡρακλεῖ and Ἡρακλῆι, A. Ἡρακλέα, V. Ἡράκλεες. From words in -ευς, G. Εὐρυσθέος
(O. 3.28), rarely Εὐρυσθῆος (P.
9.86), D. βασιλεῖ (P. 1.60), βασιλέι (I. 3, 18), βασιλῆι (P. 4.2), βασιλέα (P.
4.32), βασιλῆα (O. 1.23), Ὀδυσσῆ (N. 8.26).
N. pl. βασιλῆες (O. 9.60), βασιλέες (P. 5.97).
Acc. βασιλῆας (P. 3.94), ἀριστέας (I. 7 , 55). Words in -ις retain -ι, πράξιος (P. 12.8), ὕβριος (O. 7.90).
θυγάτηρ has θυγατέρι (P.
2.39) as well as θυγατρί,
θύγατρα (O. 9.62) as well
as θυγατέρα, and always θύγατρες (P.
3.97). Δαμάτηρ has
Δάματρα (O. 6.95). πατέρος (O. 7.36 al.)
occurs as well as πατρός, ματέρος
(P. 4.74 al.) and ματρός, ματέρι (N. 9.4), and ματρί.
ἀνήρ, besides the usual forms which are more common, has
ἀνέρι (P. 4.21), ἀνέρα (O. 9.110), ἀνέρες (P. 4.173),
ἀνέρων (O. 1.66). From Ζεύς Διός is far more common than Ζηνός, Ζηνί is nearly as common as
Δί (Δί). Ζῆνα occurs
twice (P. 4.194; 9, 64), Δία once. Ποσειδάων contracts αω into α, Ποσειδᾶν, or
keeps open, and so all the cases except the dat., which is always
Ποσειδάωνι. A variant is
Ποτειδᾶνος (O. 13.5. 40).
The termination -θεν (-θε) occurs frequently. σέθεν takes the prepositions of the genitive ἐκ and παρά. The local -δε
(whither) is not common, -θι except
in πόθι, τόθι, occurs only thrice.
GENDER. — Τάρταρος (P. 1.15) is fem. So is Ἰσθμὀς always (O. 7.81; 8, 48 al.), κίων, commonly fem. in the Od., is always fem. in Pindar. Μαραθών is fem. (O. 13.110), αἰών varies (fem. P.
4.186; 5, 7), αἰθήρ is
sometimes fem., as in Homer (O. 1.6;
13, 88), sometimes masc. (O. 7.67
ADJECTIVES. — Pindar, like other poets, sometimes uses
adjectives of two terminations instead of three, σὺν μοιριδίῳ πα-
9.28), σιγαλὸν ἀμαχανίαν
(P. 9.100); more commonly and
more poetically adjectives of three terminations instead of two:
ἀθανάτα Θέτις (P. 3.100), Δάλου θεοδμάτας (O.
6.59), ἀκινήταν ῥάβδον
(O. 9.35), παρμονίμαν εὐδαιμονίαν (P.
7.15). Of the less common forms of πολύς note πολλόν =
πολύ (O. 10 , 40), πολεῖς = πολλούς (P. 4.56),
πολέσιν = πολλοῖς (O. 13.44).
The old accentuations — ὁμοῖος,
ἐρῆμος, ἑτοῖμος — are retained.
COMPARISON. — Pindar is fairly regular in his comparison.
Eustathios says that he has a leaning to the endings -εστερος, -εστατος, as ἀφθονέστερον (O.
2.104), ἀπονέστερον (O. 2.68), αἰδοιέστατον (O.
3.42). ταχυτάτων = ταχίστων (O.
1.77) is peculiar to Pindar. πόρσω forms πόρσιον
(O. 1.114). μακρός forms μάσσων (O. 13.114）
as well as μακρότερος.
PRONOUNS, Personal. — N. ἐγών once before a vowel (P.
3.77). σύ or τύ. Genitive σέο,
σεῦ, σέθεν. D. ἐμοί or μοί (the latter being far
more common), σοί, τοί, τίν, of
which τοι is always enclitic, while
τίν like τύ is emphatic. ϝοῖ
is common. I have not ventured to write ϝιν with Hermann and Bőckh (P. 4.36). (See G. Meyer, Gr. Gram.
§§ 411, 414.) Acc. ἐμέ and μέ, σέ, ϝέ
(O. 9.15). In the plural N.
ἄμμες. D. ἄμμιν, ἄμμι, ὑμῖν (once), ὔμμιν, ὔμμι, σφίσι, σφίσιν, σφι,
σφίν. Acc. ἄμμε, ὔμμε, σφέ.
νίν (Doric) is preferred by recent editors to the
Epic μίν, which is found not
infrequently in the MSS. There are no reflexives. The emphatic forms
of αὐτός suffice. Of the
possessives note ἀμός = ἡμέτερος = ἐμός (P. 3.41; 4, 27);
τεός (Doric) is far more common
than σός, ἑός is nearly four
times as common as ὅς: for
find ὑμός (P. 7.15; 8, 66), σφός
occurs once (P. 5.102), σφέτερος = αὐτῶν (P. 10.38; I. 2,
27) twice, σφέτερος usually being =
ἑός, while ἑός is once used for the possessive of
the pl. (P. 2.91). The article has
Doric α in the fem. So has the
relative. Notice ταί = αἱ, ὅ = ὅς (P. 1.74 al.).
VERB. — The augment is often omitted, both syllabic and
temporal, but it is safer to read α
before two consonants long; hence ἆρχε (O.
10 , 51), ὑπᾶρχεν (P. 4.205). αι,
αυ, ευ, ει are unchanged.
Of the terminations in the pres. act. -οντι (Doric) or -οισι
(Aiolic) is used to the exclusion of -ουσι.
οντι cannot take ν
ἐφελκυστικόν, and hence -οισιν must be used before vowels. On the so-called short
subjunctive, see note on O. 1.7.
-μεν is more common than -ειν in the inf. στᾶμεν = στῆναι
(P. 4.2), βᾶμεν = βῆναι
(P. 4.39), whereas a long vowel
before -μεν would not be allowed in
Homer. ἔμμεναι occurs, but
ἔμμεν is nearly twice as
common. The Doric γαρύεν (O. 1.3), τράφεν (P. 4.115) has
the authority of the MSS., not the cogency of metre.5
γεγάκειν (Doric) is from a
theoretical γεγάκω, and is =
γεγονέναι (O. 6.49).
In the participles -οισα (Aiolic) is
used exclusively in the fem. pres. -αις and -αισα (Aiolic) in
the masc. and fem. aor., but never in βάς: ἀναβάς (O. 13.86), καταβάς (O. 6.58).
Two perfect participles have present endings: πεφρίκοντας (P.
4.183), κεχλάδοντας (P. 4.179).
In the passive the open forms, -εαι,
-εο, are preferred, with
synizesis, if needful (but always δέκευ). -μεσθα for
-μεθα occurs (P.
10.28). In the 3 pl. aor. pass. -εν is used as needed, φάνεν (O. 10 , 88), δμᾶθεν (P. 8.17). So in
the active ἔβαν (O. 2.38), ἔγνον (P. 4.120).
Many verbs in -ζω form the future and
aor. in ξ instead of the ordinary ς (see G. Meyer, Gr. Gram. §
529). κλεΐξειν (O. 1.110), εὐκλεΐξαι (P.
9.99), κατεφάμιξεν (O. 6.56), ἀποφλαυρίξαισα (P.
3.12). ἴυξεν (P. 4.237), a Pindaric
word, simply follows the analogy of onomatopoetic verbs in -ξω, which regularly have ξ as ἀλάλαξεν (O. 7.37).
Others vary. κωμάζω forms κωμάξατε (N. 2.24）
and κωμάσαις (N. 11.28); κομίξω, κόμισον (O.
2.16) and κομίξαις (P. 5.51); ὑπαντιάξω, ὑπαντίασεν (P. 4.135) and ὑπαντιάξαισα (P. 8.11);
ἁρπάξω, ἅρπασε (P. 3.44) and ἁρπάξαις (P. 4.34);
ἅρμοσαν (P. 3.114), but in the compound
ἐναρμόξαι (O. 3.5). Only a few verbs in -ξω double ς in the ς- forms, as
θεμισσάμενος (P. 4.141), whereas future and aor.
ς, preceded by a short vowel,
are often doubled: ἐράσσατο (O. 1.25), ἐκάλεσσε (O. 6.58),
ἄνυσσεν (P. 12.11). This so-called gemination
is a reappearance (G. Meyer, Gr. Gram. § 224).
Pindar uses the Homeric ἐδόκησεν
(P. 6.40), but also the common
ἔδοξαν (O. 5.16); once he uses ἐκδιδάσκησεν (P. 4.217); αἰνέω
increases in η except three times;
verbs in -αίνω have -ανα in the aor.
Contract Verbs. Pindar contracts regularly the verbs in -αω. ναιετάω, an Epic verb, is the only
one left open, ναιε-
6.78; P. 4.180). Verbs in
-εω contract -εε and -εει into -ει, but
-εο, -εοι, -εω are never
contracted. Verbs in -οω contract.
Verbs in -μι.
8.11), διδοῖ (P. 4.265), are found as from verbs in
-ω, but τίθησι (P. 2.10) and
δίδωσι (P. 5.65) also occur. There
is much dispute about the reading in P.
4.155 (where see the notes). δίδοι (Aiolic) is the only form used for the imperative.
The short forms, τίθεν (P. 3.65), παρέσταν (O. 10 , 58), κατέσταν (P. 4.135）
= ἐτίθεσαν, παρέστησαν,
κατέστησαν may be noticed. δοῦναι occurs once (P.
4.35), otherwise δόμεν is
the rule (see p. lxxxv.). The passive forms require no special
exhibit. The first aorist middle of τίθημι balances the second, each occurring four times,
θηκάμενος (P. 4.29), θέμεναι (O. 14.9).
Notice ἔρα_ται, 3 s. pres. subj.
midd. from ἔραμαι (P. 4.92).
Pr. s., 1. εἰμί, 2. ἐσσί, 3.
ἐστι: pl., 1. εἰμέν, 3.
ἐντί, once εἰσίν (P.
5.116). Inf., ἔμμεν or
ἔμμεναι. Part., ἐών, ἐοῖσα. Impf. s., 3. ἦν: pl., 3. ἔσαν or ἔσσαν.
Fut. s., 1. ἔσσομαι, 3. ἔσσεται, ἔσεται, ἔσται. Inf.,
ἔσεσθαι, ἔσσεσθαι. Part.,
φαμί has for its third pers. pl.
φαντί. ἴσαμι is a Doric verb
PREPOSITIONS. — παρά, ἀνά,
κατά are apocopated when apocope is needful. ἀμνάσει (P.
4.54) = ἀναμνάσει, so
（P. 1.47). κὰν
νόμον (O. 8.78) =
κατὰ νόμον, κάπετον (O. 8.38) = κατέπεσον. Compare Alkm. fr. 38: καβαίνων. ποτί (Doric) = πρός. It is elided once ποτ᾽ ἀστῶν (O.
7.90), and rarely used in compounds ποτιστάζων (P.
4.137), and in five other words. The regular πρός is far more common.
εἰς is suffered only before vowels,
and when a long syllable is needed, and in composition εἰσιδέτω (I. 7 , 36) is the only
example. Everywhere else we find ἐς.
ἐν with the acc., especially noticeable in Boeotian
inscriptions, is found only in Aiolic odes (P. 2.11. 86; 5, 38).
περί is elided περ᾽ ἀτλάτου (O.
6.38), περ᾽ αὐτᾶς (P. 4.265), περάπτων (P. 3.52).
For μετά Aiol.-Dor. πεδά is found (P. 5.47; 8, 74). In compare πεδάμειψαν (O.
12.12). ξύν occurs only
three times, once alone (N. 4.25),
twice in composition.