Naval operations in the Vicksburg campaign.
By the 1st of July, 1862, the Mississippi
had been traversed by the fleet of Davis
down, and by that of Farragut
from the Passes up, and the only point where the Confederates
retained a strong foothold was at Vicksburg
The objects of the river operations were to establish communication from the Ohio
to the Gulf
, and to cut off the important supplies drawn by the Confederacy
, and Texas
The commanders of the Mississippi squadron during this period were, first, Charles Henry Davis
, and later, David D. Porter
, the transfer of the command taking place October 15th, 1862.
The operations of the navy at this time were unique in maritime warfare in the energy and originality with which complex conditions were met.
After the defeat of Montgomery
's flotilla at Memphis
, on the 6th of June, by the combined forces of Flag-Officer Davis
and Colonel Ellet
I., pp. 449-459], the Mississippi squadron remained at Memphis
for three weeks. Immediately after the battle Davis
had formed the project of sending a force up the Arkansas
and White rivers
to cut off the Confederate
gun-boats which were supposed to have taken refuge there, among them the Van Dorn
, the only vessel remaining of Montgomery
did not know that the Van Dorn
had made her way into the Yazoo
There were, however, two Confederate gun-boats in White River
, the Maurepas
, which had previously been in the flotilla of Hollins
at Island Number10
--the former under Lieutenant Joseph Fry
and the latter under Lieutenant John W. Dunnington
On the 10th Davis
received a telegram from General Halleck
urging him to open communication by way of Jacksonport
with General Curtis
, then moving through Arkansas
toward the Mississippi
accordingly altered his plan, and directed that the expedition should confine its operations to the White River
The force detached for the purpose was composed of the iron-clads Mound City
and St. Louis
, and the wooden gun-boats Conestoga
, under Commander A. H. Kilty
, of the Mound City
, and the 46th Indiana, Colonel Graham N. Fitch
Ascending the White River
, the expedition arrived on the evening of the 16th in the neighborhood of St. Charles
, ninety miles from the mouth.
[See map, p. 442.]
Anticipating this movement, Hindman
had taken steps to obstruct the channel at this point, where the first bluffs touch the river.
One hundred men, under Captain A. M. Williams
, C. S. Engineers, were the only force which could be spared for the defense of the place, and their only arms were thirty-five Enfield
rifles which Hindman
had impounded at Memphis
had placed two rifled 32-pounders in battery on the bluffs, and had manned them with part of the crew of the Pontchartrain
had stationed the Maurepas
in the river below.
The approach of Kilty
's gun-boats was first discovered on the afternoon of June 16th.
Expecting an immediate attack, Fry
placed the Maurepas
across the stream and prepared to defend her. Finding that the gun-boats remained below, Fry
now landed his guns and scuttled his ship, sinking her across the channel.
Two transports also were sunk, and the imperfect obstruction thus created was completed about daylight.
During the night a small rifled Parrott gun was placed in position four hundred yards below Dunnington
's battery, under Midshipman F. M. Roby
. Two rifled Parrott
8-pounders were also moved up soon after daylight, and placed near Roby
's gun, and the three guns were manned by the crew of the Maurepas
, and fought personally by Fry
, the senior officer present.
Below this second battery Captain Williams
was stationed with his thirty-five men, those without arms having been sent to the rear.
He was presently reinforced by the 12-pounder howitzer from the Maurepas
, manned by some of her crew.
The total force under Fry
's command comprised the men with Williams
, and 79 seamen from the two gun-boats,--in all, 114 persons, to resist the attack of Fitch
's Indiana regiment, and four gun-boats, two of them iron-clads.
Rarely has it happened to such a feeble force to accomplish so much by a determined resistance.
Early on the morning of June 17th the troops landed about two miles below the bluffs.
At half-past 8 the gun-boats advanced to the attack, the Mound City
ahead, followed closely by the St. Louis
, the Lexington
and the Conestoga
bringing up the rear.
They moved slowly, endeavoring to discover the enemy's position, but in total ignorance of the whereabouts of his guns, which were covered by the trees and bushes on the bluffs.
About 9 o'clock Williams
's men were engaged by Fitch
The firing disclosed the enemy's advanced position, and the gun-boats opened a heavy fire of grape and shell upon it, compelling Williams
to fall back.
's battery of four light guns, manned by the crew of the Maurepas
, now became engaged with the gun-boats.
At 10 Dunnington
opened with his rifled 32-pounders.
had now to some extent made out the location of the Confederate
guns, and, moving up, replied with a rapid fire, aimed carefully in what was supposed to be the direction of the batteries, the vessel taking a position at point-blank range from both of them.
At the same time Fitch
sent word to him that the troops were ready to storm the batteries, unless he desired to silence them with the gun-boats.
, unfortunately for himself and his crew, gallantly decided on the latter course.
The Mound City
had been in position less than half an hour, about 600 yards from the batteries, when one of the 32-pounder rifle shot, directed by the skillful and experienced eye of Lieutenant Dunnington
, penetrated the port casemate of the Mound City
just forward of the armor, or, as Colonel Fitch
rather comically described it in his report, “the larboard forequarter of the gun-boat,” and, after killing 8 men at the gun, struck the steam-drum, and went through it directly fore and aft. At the time, the Mound City
was turning her wheel over slowly, and, being in slack water, the wheel kept on turning until the steam was exhausted, and the boat slowly forged ahead, running her nose directly under the battery.
ran up in the Conestoga
, with great gallantry, and making fast to the Mound City
, towed her away from the bank and out of action.
, seeing the catastrophe, and apprehensive lest another fortunate shot from the enemy should deprive him of his support afloat, gave the signal to cease firing, and assaulted the works simultaneously in front and in flank.
They were quickly carried; Dunnington
made good their retreat, but Fry
, who was badly wounded, was taken prisoner with about thirty of his men. General Hindman
reported the Confederate
loss as 6 killed, 1 wounded, and 8 missing.
The scene on board the Mound City
, upon the explosion of the steam-drum, was beyond description.
The gun-deck was at once filled with scalding steam, and many of the crew were instantly killed,--literally cooked alive.
Others, in an agony of pain, jumped into the water, where they were shot at by sharp-shooters from the bluff, under orders from Dunnington
The boats from the other vessels put off at once to the rescue, and were riddled with shot while picking up their comrades.
Out of 175 officers and men on board the Mound City
, only 23 answered to their names at the roll-call that evening, and these were men and boys that were in the shell-room and magazine when the explosion took place.
The only officers unhurt were Dominy
, the first master
, and McElroy
, the gunner.
Eighty-two men perished in the casemate, 43 were killed in the water or drowned, and 25 were severely wounded.
The latter, among whom was the gallant Kilty
, were sent at once to Memphis
in the Conestoga
The Mound City
remained at St. Charles
, under First Master John H. Duble
, of the Conestoga
, with a crew of one hundred of Fitch
's men, her injuries being temporarily repaired.
The expedition continued up White River
as far as Crooked Point Cut-off, 63 miles above St. Charles
, where the gun-boats were compelled to turn back by the falling of the water.
meantime had decided to increase Fitch
's command by the addition of two regiments, which sailed for White River
on the 26th of June, under convoy of the Conestoga
. Commander John A. Winslow
, of Kearsarge-Alabama
fame, who was at this time in command of the forces afloat in White River
, was ordered to give additional convoy as far up as the state of the water would permit.
The bulk of the naval force was then withdrawn, the Lexington
remaining to support Fitch
in his subsequent operations up the river.
on the 13th of July without communicating with the gun-boats.
[See p. 445.]
During the months of May and June, 1862, Farragut
's fleet had been slowly working up from New Orleans, receiving the surrender of the principal cities on the way, and having an occasional encounter with the Confederate batteries along the river.
None of the latter were at this time of any great importance, although those at Grand Gulf
inflicted some damage on two of the gun-boats which attacked them on June 9th.
No serious obstruction, however, to the passage of the river from Cairo
to the sea now existed, except at Vicksburg
The advance division of Farragut
's squadron under Commander Lee
in the Oneida
had summoned Vicksburg
to surrender on the 18th of May, but had met with a refusal.
, arriving soon after, held a consultation with
, who commanded a small detachment of Butler
's army, and the two came to the conclusion that they had not enough men to make an attempt on Vicksburg
with any hope of success, and Farragut
went back to New Orleans.
Soon after, Farragut
received pressing instructions from the Navy Department to attack Vicksburg
, and in consequence returned up the river with his squadron, the mortar-boats under Porter
, and 3000 troops under Williams
On the night of the 26th of June Porter
placed his mortar-boats in position, nine on the eastern and eight on the western bank, the latter, as at New Orleans, being dressed with bushes to prevent an accurate determination of their position.
The next day they opened upon Vicksburg
On the 28th Farragut
passed the batteries
with all the vessels of his fleet, except the Brooklyn
, and Kennebec
, which dropped back, owing to a too rigid adherence to their original orders.
No impression of any consequence was made on the forts, nor were the ships materially injured, notwithstanding the great advantage which the forts possessed in their plunging fire.
was principally damaged by the battery above the town, which was able to rake a passing ship in a position from which the latter could not reply.
, in his report of July 2d, sums up the situation with the phrase:
The forts can be passed, and we have done it, and can do it again as often as may be required of us. It will not, however, be an easy matter for us to do more than silence the batteries for a time, as long as the enemy has a large force behind the hills to prevent our landing and holding the place.
with the Western Gulf Squadron, so called, was passing the batteries at Vicksburg
, the Mississippi
flotilla was still at Memphis
, except the rams now commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Alfred W. Ellet
, which had left Memphis
about the 20th, and arrived above Vicksburg
on the afternoon of the 24th.
opened communication with Farragut
across the neck of land opposite Vicksburg
replied, suggesting the cooperation of Davis
received this message at Memphis
on the 28th, and the next day started down the river.
During the interval, Ellet
's audacity was rewarded by another extraordinary success.
Taking the Monarch
and the Lancaster
, the latter under Charles Rivers Ellet, a mere boy nineteen years of age, he steamed fifty miles up the Yazoo River
was in perfect ignorance of what he might find there, whether batteries, gun-boats,
His rams carried no armament.
As a matter of fact there were at the time in the river two of Hollins
's former fleet, the Polk
and the Livingston
, and the last of Montgomery
's vessels, the Van Dorn
These were tied up abreast of a battery at Liverpool Landing, and above them was a barrier made from a raft.
was at Yazoo City
above the barrier, completing her preparations.
The officer in charge at Liverpool Landing, Commander Robert F. Pinkney
, on the approach of the rams set fire to his three gun-boats, and the purpose of Ellet
's visit being thus easily accomplished, he withdrew again to the Mississippi
arrived above Vicksburg
on the 1st of July, and joined Farragut
with four gun-boats and six mortar-boats.
The fleets remained here at anchor for several days, while the army was attempting to make a cut-off across the neck of the land opposite Vicksburg
, and thus create a new channel out of range of the batteries on the bluffs.
During this time Porter
continued his daily bombardment.
Beyond this nothing was attempted, there being no force of troops to make it worth while.
While matters were in this condition, it was resolved between the two flag-officers
that a detachment of gun-boats should make a reconnoissance in force up the Yazoo River
The shoalness and narrowness of the stream led them to take vessels of the upper squadron in preference to those of the lower, and the following were selected: the Carondelet
, Commander Henry Walke
, Lieutenant William Gwin
, and Queen of the West
, an armored ram with a heavy battery, was known to be up the river, and Farragut
in his report mentions her as one of the objects of investigation.
The engagement that followed has been the subject of much discussion [see p. 572]. The Queen of the West
, which had no weapons except her ram and the muskets of the sharp-shooters, and possibly a borrowed howitzer, immediately proceeded down the river.
, a very vulnerable wooden gun-boat, also retreated, placing herself under the protection of the Carondelet
The latter therefore became the principal antagonist of the Confederate ram. It now became a question for Walke
of the Carondelet
to decide whether he would advance to meet the Arkansas
bows on, trusting to the skillful management of the helm to avoid a ram-thrust, or would retreat, engaging her with his stern guns.
He chose the latter course.2
The Confederate ram “Arkansas” running through the Union fleet at Vicksburg, July 15, 1862. |
was decidedly the superior vessel.
Apart from the fact that she was larger, and had at the beginning of the contest somewhat greater speed, she had a more efficient battery, and a far more complete and impenetrable armor protection.
Indeed the Eads gun-boats, of which the Carondelet
was one, were by no means fully armored, their two and one-half inch plating on the casemate covering only the forward end and that part of the sides abreast of the machinery.
The stern was not armored at all. The side armor had no heavy backing, and such as it was could only ward off a shot directly abeam.
It was by no means a complete protection to the boilers, as was shown in the catastrophe at St. Charles
on the other hand had three inches of railroad iron
surrounding her casemate, with a heavy backing of timber and cotton bales.
She had, besides, her ram, which experience had shown was a weapon much to be dreaded.
However, the position adopted by Walke
was the one which, by exposing his weakest point, gave the enemy the benefit of his superiority.
, instead of presenting her armored bow, armed with three rifled guns, 30, 50, and 70 pounders, presented her unarmored stern, armed with two smooth-bore 32-pounders.
That she escaped total destruction in the running fight of an hour or so that ensued with the two 8-inch guns in the Arkansas's
bow is little short of a miracle.
made a very good fight of it, and both he and Gwin
of the Tyler
, who pluckily supported the Carondelet
, inflicted much injury on their antagonist, riddling her smoke-stack so as nearly to destroy her speed, wounding her captain twice, damaging her wheel, and killing her Yazoo
When near the mouth of the river, the Carondelet's
steering gear was disabled and she ran in close to the bank, where the water was too shoal for the Arkansas
to follow her. The latter, therefore, passed her, the two vessels exchanging broadsides, and the Arkansas
continued on her course to Vicksburg
Her approach caught the two flag-officers fairly napping.
Notwithstanding their knowledge of her presence in the Yazoo
, and the heavy firing that had been heard for more than an hour, there was, out of the combined fleet of twenty vessels or thereabouts, but one that had steam up, the captured ram General Bragg
, and she did nothing.
dashed boldly through the mass of clustered vessels, receiving the broadside of each ship as she passed, and delivering her fire rapidly in return.
Her audacity was rewarded by success, for though she was badly battered, she was neither stopped nor disabled.
On the other hand, her shot, penetrating the boiler of the ram Lancaster
, used up that vessel and caused considerable loss of life among her crew.
's flagship, got under way after Brown
had passed, and followed him “at her usual snail's pace,” to borrow Davis
's phrase, without overtaking him. In a few minutes the Arkansas
was under the guns of Vicksburg
A week before, on the 7th of July, Farragut
had written to the department that he hoped “soon to have the pleasure of recording the combined attack by army and navy, for which we all so ardently long.”
In the course of the week that had elapsed these hopes had been pretty well extinguished.
The canal had turned out a failure, and the prospect that a considerable force of troops would arrive had been growing every day more remote.
Before the Arkansas
made her appearance, therefore, Farragut
had already been meditating a return down the river, and the falling of the water and the prevalence of sickness in his crews admonished him to hasten.
He also wished to damage the Arkansas
in the rush by, so as to recover in some measure the prestige lost through her successful passage of the fleet.
Preparations were therefore made for the descent on that very afternoon.
Already on the 10th Porter
had left his station below Vicksburg
with twelve of his mortar-boats, which were to be sent round to the James River
Most of the gun-boats of the mortar-flotilla went with him to tow the schooners down.
The force that remained was composed of six mortar-schooners, under Commander W. B. Renshaw
, with the ferry-boat Westfield
On the afternoon of the 15th these were moved up into position on the west bank of the river (with the exception of one, the Sidney C. Jones
, which had run on shore and was blown up), and by half-past 3 they were engaged with the batteries.
, in the river above, also stationed three of his vessels, the Benton
, and Cincinnati
, in position to attack the upper batteries, and to aid in covering Farragut
Toward 7 in the evening the fleet got under way, consisting of the four sloops, the Hartford
, and Iroquois
, four gun-boats, and the ram Sumter
, which Davis
had lent for the special purpose of attacking the Arkansas
The fleet made a gallant dash past the batteries, meeting with little loss, but the attack on the Arkansas
was a failure, for she had shifted her position and could not be readily distinguished
by the flashes of the guns.
A single 11-inch shot, however, reached tie ram and inflicted very serious injury, especially to the engine.
Early on the morning of the 22d, Farragut
's reunited squadron being now at anchor below Vicksburg
, another attempt was made on the Arkansas
While the upper and the lower fleets were drawing the fire of the batteries in their neighborhood, the Essex
, under Commodore William D. Porter
, started down the river, followed by the Queen of the West
, Lieutenant-Colonel A. W. Ellet
The crew of the Arkansas
was small, but they were skillfully handled.
The assailants tried to ram her in succession, but as each came on the beak of the Confederate
was turned toward them, and they only succeeded in giving a glancing blow, and, sheering off, ran on the bank.
Extricating themselves with difficulty, they withdrew as rapidly as they could from their perilous position, the Essex
going below and the Queen
, temporarily disabled, resuming her station with the upper squadron.
One shot from the Essex
did serious damage on board the Arkansas
were now permanently detained below Vicksburg
Shortly after the last engagement Farragut
sailed down the river with Williams
and his troops.
had expected Farragut
's departure, but he had relied on the occupation by the land forces of the point opposite Vicksburg
, by which he communicated with his vessels below.
As these had now departed, nothing could be gained by staying longer in the neighborhood.
accordingly withdrew to Helena
, and for the next four months Vicksburg
was left unmolested.
remained at Baton Rouge
, with the Essex
, and Sumter
, while Farragut
continued to New Orleans with the rest of his fleet.
At daylight on the 5th of August, Baton Rouge
was unsuccessfully attacked by the Confederates
under General John C. Breckinridge
, and on the 6th the Arkansas
[See pp. 579 and 583.] The remaining events of the summer of 1862 were of little importance.
Early in August a reconnoissance showed that the White River
had fallen three feet and was impracticable for gun-boats.
Later in the month a more important expedition was sent down the river.
It was composed of the Benton
, Mound City
, and Bragg
, together with four of Ellet
's rams, the Switzerland
, and Lioness
, all under Lieutenant-Commander Phelps
, with a detachment of troops under Colonel Charles R. Woods
At Milliken's Bend
, thirty miles above Vicksburg
, the Confederate transport steamer Fairplay
was captured, loaded with a heavy cargo of arms and ammunition.
The gun-boats then penetrated far up the Yazoo River
, and two of the rams even ascended the Sunflower
for twenty miles. When the expedition returned to Helena
, it had destroyed or captured a vast quantity of military supplies.
It taught the Confederates
a lesson, however, and it was a long time before the Federal fleet could again enter the Yazoo
The experience of the gun-boats in the White River
showed the necessity of obtaining light-draught vessels for service in the uncertain channels of the tributaries of the Mississippi
, and each additional operation in these rivers
confirmed the impression.
As early as the 27th of June Davis
had urgently recommended this step, and his recommendations, sustained by the earnest appeals of other officers, resulted in the creation of the “tin-clads,” or “light-draughts,” which during the next year performed invaluable service.
On the 15th of October Davis
was relieved of this command, having been appointed Chief of the Bureau of Navigation at the Navy Department.
He was succeeded by Porter
Two important and much-needed changes in organization took place about this time, the first being the formal transfer of the squadron on the 1st of October from the War Department, under which it had first come into existence, to the Navy Department, which henceforth exercised exclusive direction of it. The second was the order of the Secretary of War
of November 8th, directing Ellet
to report “for orders and duty” to Porter
These two changes made the vessels in the Mississippi
for the first time a homogeneous naval force, and swept away all the complications of command which had hitherto vexed and harassed its commander-in-chief.
, as acting rear-admiral, assumed command of the Mississippi squadron at the naval depot at Cairo
, which was now the headquarters.
He received from Davis
intact the squadron as it had come from Foote
— the Benton
, the seven Eads
iron-clads, and the three Rodgers
He had also Ellet
's nine rams and several very valuable captured vessels, including the Eastport
, and Montgomery
's rams captured at Memphis
— the Bragg
, and Little Rebel
The only vessels that had been withdrawn were the Essex
, now in the river below Vicksburg
was also getting at this very time an accession to his force in the new tin-elads,--the Brilliant
, and others,--and an equally important accession of iron-clads, the Lafayette
, altered steam-boats of great power, and the newly (and rather badly) constructed boats, Chillicothe
, and Tuscumbia
On the 21st of November Porter
issued orders from Cairo
to Captain Henry Walke
, then in command of the gun-boats patrolling the river below Helena
, to enter the Yazoo
and destroy the batteries as far up as possible.
Accordingly, on the 11th of December the Marmora
entered the river for twenty miles. They found that in the interval since Phelps
's raid in August, the Confederates
had been by no means idle.
The channel was full of scows and floats, indicating torpedoes, one of which exploded near the Signal
, while another was discharged by musket-balls from the Marmora
Next day, as the river was rising, the light-draughts went in again, supported by two iron-clads, the Cairo
, Lieutenant-Commander T. O. Selfridge
, and the Pittsburgh
, Lieutenant Hoel
The Queen of the West
also went in. About a dozen miles up, the Cairo
was struck by two torpedoes, one exploding under her bow, the other under her quarter.
She sank in twelve minutes, disappearing completely save the tops of her smoke-stacks.
The discipline of the crew was perfect, the men remaining at quarters until they were ordered away, and no lives were lost.
Several torpedoes were removed before the expedition returned to the mouth of the river.
The object of both these expeditions was to prepare for the attack on
On December 23d, Porter
, who had now come down from Cairo
, went up the Yazoo
with the Benton
, and Lexington
, three tin-clads, and two rams.
By three days incessant labor, under musketry fire from the banks, the fleet worked up to a point within range of the enemy's heavy batteries at Haynes's Bluff, whose fire the Benton
sustained for two hours. The ship was not much damaged, but her commander, Gwin
, one of the best officers in the squadron, was mortally wounded.
After the failure of the army at that point (December 29th) came the expedition against Arkansas
The vessels detailed by Porter
for this movement were the iron-clads De Kalb
, Lieutenant-Commander John G. Walker
, Lieutenant-Commander Elias K. Owen
, and Cincinnati
, Lieutenant George M. Bache
; the ram Monarch
, Colonel C. R. Ellet
; the gun-boats Black Hawk
, Lieutenant-Commander K. R. Breese
, and Tyler
, Lieutenant-Commander James W. Shirk
; and the tin-clads, Rattler
, Lieutenant-Commander Watson Smith
, and Glide
, Lieutenant S. E. Woodworth
's force, comprising Sherman
's and Morgan
's corps, accompanied the fleet in transports.
As a feint the vessels ascended the White River
, crossing over to the Arkansas
by the cut-off.
On the 9th of January the army landed three miles below the fort.
Fort Hindman was a square bastioned work, standing at a bend of the river, sufficiently high to command the surrounding country.
It was commanded by Lieutenant Dunnington
, who had done such good service at St. Charles
, and defended by troops under General Churchill
On the side facing the river were three casemates, two of them at the angles containing each a 9-inch gun, and the intermediate one an 8-inch. On the opposite side the approaches were defended by a line of trenches a mile in length, beginning at the fort and terminating in an impassable swamp.
[See map and cuts, pp. 452, 453.] In the main work and in the trenches were mounted fourteen lighter pieces, several of them rifled.
Two or three outlying works were built on the levee below the fort, but these were exposed to an enfilading fire from the gun-boats, and at the first attack by the latter were promptly abandoned.
On the afternoon and night of the 10th, the army marched up past the abandoned outworks, and took position about one thousand yards from the fort.
On the afternoon of the same day the three iron-clads advanced to within 300 or 400 yards of the fort and opened with their heavy guns.
When they had become hotly engaged, Porter
moved up the Black Hawk
and the Lexington
, together with the light-draughts, which threw in a destructive fire of shrapnel and rifle-shells.
When the guns on the river-side had been partly silenced, Lieutenant-Commander Smith
in the Rattler
was ordered to pass the fort and enfilade it, which he did in a very gallant and handsome manner.
suffered somewhat, being raked by a heavy shell, and having her cabin knocked to pieces.
After passing the fort she was entangled in the snags above and obliged to return.
As night came on and the troops were not yet in position, the vessels were withdrawn, and tied up to the bank below.
The next day at 1 o'clock the army was reported ready, and the fleet moved up to a second attack.
The same disposition was made of the vessels.
All of the casemate-guns were silenced, No. 3, which was in the casemate assigned to the Cincinnati
, being reduced to a complete wreck.
At the same time the troops gradually advanced, and were just preparing for a final assault, when white flags were run up all along the works.
surrendered to Porter
, and General Churchill
On the 30th of January Grant
assumed command of the army before Vicks-burg.
The enemy's right flank rested on the Yazoo Valley
, a vast tract of partly overflowed country, oval in shape, two hundred miles long, and intersected by innumerable streams and bayous.
This oval valley was bounded by the Mississippi
on the west, and on the north, east, and south by what was in reality one long stream, known in its successive parts as the Coldwater
, and Yazoo rivers
The bounding streams made the valley almost an island, the only break in their continuity being at the northern end of the valley, at Yazoo Pass
, a bayou which had formerly connected the Coldwater
with the Mississippi
, but which had been closed by the erection of a levee several years before.
The greater part of the valley was impassable for troops, and the streams were deemed impassable for vessels.
The district was a rich storehouse of Confederate supplies, which were carried in small vessels through obscure passages and channels to Yazoo City
, and thence to Vicksburg
At Yazoo City
also, protected from assault by torpedoes and by the forts at Haynes's Bluff, was a large navy-yard, where several gun-boats were in course of erection.
's plan was to cut the levee at Yazoo Pass
, thus restoring the entrance and raising the water in the rivers, and by this means to get in the rear of Yazoo City
before the enemy could prepare his defenses.
Involving, as it did, a circuit of some two hundred miles through the tributary streams in the enemy's country, it was an audacious and original conception, but still a sagacious piece of naval strategy.
adopted the plan, and on the 2d of February the work of cutting the levee was begun by Colonel James Harrison Wilson
of the Engineers
On the evening of the 3d a mine was exploded in the remaining portion of the embankment, and the waters of the Mississippi
rushed through in a torrent, cutting a passage forty yards wide, and sweeping everything before them.
The difference in the levels was eight or nine feet, and some days elapsed before the new entrance was practicable for vessels.
The first reconnoissance developed the fact that the Confederates
had already been vigilant enough to block the way to the Coldwater
by felling trees on the banks of the Pass
The removal of these occasioned a further delay of two weeks, when time was of great importance.
The naval expedition, which was commanded by Lieutenant-Commander Watson Smith
, was composed of two iron-clads, the Chillicothe
, Lieutenant-Commander James P. Foster
, and the DeKalb
, Lieutenant-Commander John G. Walker
, and the tin-clads Rattler
, Forest Rose
, and Petrel
To these were added two vessels of the ram fleet, the Fulton
The only troops at first ordered to accompany the vessels were four thousand men comprising the division under Brigadier-General L. F. Ross
, which, being delayed by the want of boats, only left Helena
on the 23d, arriving a week later at the Coldwater
Meantime, as the feasibility of the project became more apparent, Grant
enlarged his plan, and McPherson
about 30,000 men, was ordered up, but, owing to delays, only a small part of this force under Brigadier-General I. F. Quinby
took part in the movement.
On the 28th of February Smith
's flotilla reached the Coldwater
Notwithstanding the work which had been done by the army pioneers in removing obstructions, the progress of the flotilla had been excessively slow,--hardly more than three miles a day. The tortuous windings of the stream, which imposed the utmost caution on the vessels navigating them in a swift
current, and the overhanging branches of the dense growth of trees lining the banks, which damaged the smoke-stacks and light upper works, made the passage slow and difficult, and caused a number of mishaps.
There appears to be little doubt, however, that if the gun-boats had been pushed they might have got on considerably faster, perhaps with a saving of three or four days. In the Coldwater
they made better time, though still moving slowly, and they only reached the Tallahatchie
on the 6th of March.
After four days more of rather dilatory navigation, they arrived at the junction of the Tallahatchie
and the Yazoo
The transports were close behind them.
The Confederates had put to the fullest use the time given them by Smith
's dilatory advance.
A hastily constructed work of earth and cotton bales, called Fort Pemberton
, was thrown up at the junction of the Tallahatchie
, and though barely completed when the gun-boats arrived, it was armed and garrisoned, and in condition to receive them.
The old Star of the West
, of Fort Sumter
fame, was sunk in the river as an obstruction.
[See p. 550.] The Chillicothe
attacked the fort on three different days, but their guns alone were not enough to reduce it, and the troops under Ross
could find no firm ground for a landing.
was badly racked by the enemy's fire, showing plainly her defective construction.
, who had started on the expedition in failing health, was now sent back in the Rattler
(he died shortly after), and the command of the vessels fell to Foster
of the Chillicothe
Finding that nothing more could be accomplished, Foster
decided to return.
On the way back he met General Quinby
's troops descending the Tallahatchie
, and at that officer's request steamed down again to Fort Pemberton
On the 5th of April the expedition withdrew, and on the 10th arrived in the Mississippi
, about two months after it had started.
About the middle of March, before the Yazoo
Pass expedition returned, Porter
decided to try another route, through a series of narrow streams and bayous which made a circuitous connection between the Mississippi
and the Sunflower
, a tributary of the Yazoo River
. Steele's Bayou
was a sluggish stream which entered the Mississippi
a few miles above the mouth of the Yazoo
, which was little better than a narrow ditch, connected Steele's Bayou
with Deer Creek
, a tortuous river with a difficult and shallow channel.
A second lateral bayou, called Rolling Fork
, connected Deer Creek
with the Sunflower
From Rolling Fork
the way was easy, but the difficulties of reaching that point were such that no commander with less than Porter
's indefatigable energy and audacious readiness to take risks that promised a bare chance of success, would have ventured on the expedition.
The flotilla, consisting of the remaining five Eads
gun-boats, the Carondelet
, Mound City
, and Pittsburgh
, started on the 14th of March, Porter
commanding in person, while a cooperating detachment of troops under Sherman
marched through the swamps.
After overcoming obstacles that would have been insurmountable to almost any other commander, it arrived early at Rolling Fork
was attacked by a small force, which was evidently only the advance-guard of a large army on
its way up from Vicksburg
could not come to his assistance, being himself entangled in the swamp.
At the same time Porter
learned that detached parties of the enemy were felling trees in his rear, which would shortly render the bayous impassable, and place his five iron-clads in a position from which they could not be extricated.
Under these circumstances, he wisely abandoned all thought of farther advance, and after dropping down Deer Creek
until he fell in with the army, he succeeded, notwithstanding the additional obstructions which had been placed in the rivers, in retracing his course; and on the 24th of March, after almost incredible difficulties, his iron-clads arrived safe in the Mississippi
While the two expeditions were at work in the Yazoo Valley
, a series of detached operations had been going on below Vicksburg
The portion of the river that was virtually held by the enemy, from Vicksburg
to Port Hudson
, included the outlet of the Red River
, by which provisions and stores from Louisiana
, arms and ammunition from the Rio Grande
, and detachments of men, were forwarded through the trans-Mississippi
On the 2d of February Porter
sent the Queen of the West
, under Colonel Charles R. Ellet
, to the Red River
Her passage of the Vicksburg
batteries alone and by daylight — for her start had been delayed for necessary repairs — was made in the true Ellet
She was struck thrice before she got abreast of the town.
At this point she turned and delivered a ram-thrust at the enemy's steamer Vicksburg
, which lay at one of the wharves, and damaged her badly; a second attempt to ram was prevented by a conflagration in the cotton bales which Ellet
had placed around his deck.
These were quickly pitched overboard, the ram dashed past the lower batteries, and though struck a dozen times by the enemy's shot, in an hour or two she was ready for active operations and started down the river.
For once the Confederates
were fairly taken by surprise, and before they knew of his approach, Ellet
had run down one hundred miles to the Red River
and pounced upon three heavily laden store-ships.
These were burned, and the Queen
, ascending again until near Vicksburg
, coaled from a barge which Porter
had set adrift the night before, and which had passed the batteries without mishap.
A tender was also found in the De Soto
, a little ferry-boat captured by the army.
With her the Queen
started on February 10th on a second raid, burning and destroying as occasion offered.
Without meeting any serious opposition, this novel expedition proceeded down the Mississippi
, up the Red River
, down the Atchafalaya
, and back again, then farther up the Red River
The Confederate ram Webb
, which was regarded as its most dangerous antagonist, was nowhere to be seen.
But the catastrophe was coming.
On the 14th, some fifty miles from the river-mouth, Ellet
captured a transport, the Era No
Leaving her at this point, the Queen
hastened up again, followed by the De Soto
, but in rounding a bend of the river she ran aground under a 4-gun battery, whose fire made havoc with her, finally cutting her steam-pipe.
Part of the crew made for the De Soto
in a boat, and the remainder, Ellet
among them, jumped overboard on cotton bales, and drifted down the stream.
Upon reaching the Era
, the De Soto
which had lost her rudder, was burned, the floating contingent was picked up, and the prize, now manned by the crews of the abandoned vessels, made her way to the Mississippi
Shortly before this Porter
had sent down the iron-clad Indianola
, under Lieutenant-Commander George Brown
, to support Ellet
in his isolated position.
She had passed Vicksburg
at night without a scratch, and descending the river met the Era
coming up. Both vessels continued on their way, the Era
, and the Indianola
to the mouth of Red River
, where she lay for three days. She then moved up toward Vicksburg
, the two coal barges which she had brought with her being lashed alongside.
While she was working slowly up, the Confederates
, who had meantime repaired the Queen
, fitted out an expedition composed of their prize, together with the Webb
and two cotton-clad steamers.
These followed the Indianola
and overtook her a short distance below Warrenton
her at night, which gave them peculiar advantages, they succeeded in ramming her seven times, disabling her steering gear, and opening at last one great hole in her side.
The Union vessel, reduced to a sinking condition, was then run ashore and surrendered.
A day or two later, Porter
, whose buoyancy of spirit never deserted him, set adrift from his anchorage a dummy-monitor, constructed out of a coal-barge surmounted by barrels.
The incident was in the nature of a stupendous joke, but it had very practical results.
The dummy passed the Vicksburg
batteries under a terrific fire.
When the Queen of the West
, acting as a picket to the grounded Indianola
, saw this new antagonist coming she only stopped to give the alarm, and fled down the river.
The supposed monitor stuck fast a mile or two above the Indianola
, but the Confederate officer in charge of the work on board the latter did not wait for an attack, but set fire to the recent prize, which was in great part destroyed.
Less than three weeks after, on the 14th of March, Farragut
ran the batteries at Port Hudson
Most of his fleet, including the Richmond
, and Kineo
, failed to get through, and the Mississippi
but the Hartford
made the passage, and, coming up to Vicksburg
, communicated with the vessels above.
's request, General Ellet
sent two of his rams, the Lancaster
, to join the Hartford
was sunk in passing the batteries, but the Switzerland
managed to get through.
From this time the Union
forces retained control of the mouth of the Red River
and the adjacent waters of the Mississippi
The navy was now called upon to cooperate with General Grant
's plan of attacking Vicksburg
by the left and rear.
rapidly made his preparations to descend the river, and on the night of April 16th started with seven of his iron-clads, the Benton
, and Tuscumbia
, and the Eads gun-boats Carondelet
, Mound City
, and Pittsburgh
The ram General Price
and three transports laden with stores accompanied the fleet.
The passage was one of the most brilliant and successful of the many dashes of this kind that were made on the river.
Some of the vessels lost the coal-barges which they carried alongside, and all met with various mischances and damages, but the only casualty of importance was the sinking of one of the transports.
About a week later six more transports ran the batteries.
Of these also one was sunk.
From now on to the fall of Vicksburg
, for over two months, Porter
was in command of three detached fleets, acting from three distinct bases of operation--one the squadron which had remained above Vicksburg
, and which was
now to operate along the Yazoo River
, the second that which had passed the batteries and was occupied with the river from Vicksburg
25 miles or more to Grand Gulf
, and the third the vessels in Red River
moved from one to the other as occasion required.
His first duty lay at Grand Gulf
, which was really the southern extremity of the Vicksburg
The batteries were well armed, and one hundred or more feet above the river.
On the 29th of April the seven iron-clads of the lower fleet engaged them for four hours, silencing them, but not destroying the guns.
As the elevation of the batteries made it impossible for the fleet to capture them, the army was landed lower down the river, which resulted in the evacuation of Grand Gulf
on the 3d of May.5
advanced into the interior, Porter
turned his attention to the Red River
For the last fortnight Farragut
had been blockading the river with
, a service of great importance in view of the active operations on foot along the river, and at the end of that time he was joined by a detached force of gun-boats which had been operating in the Teche
, and which had reached Red River
through the Atchafalaya
was then moving against Alexandria
, and a light squadron was formed to go up and cooperate with him. At this juncture Porter
arrived with three ironclads, and with these and a part of Farragut
's detached squadron he steamed up to Alexandria
, where Banks
arrived on May 7th.
After clearing out the Red River
and its tributary the Black
, and destroying much property, the expedition returned, Banks
going to Port Hudson
returning to his old station above Vicksburg
The Yazoo River
now became for a short time the central point of Porter
Nothing had been done there since December except a demonstration during the attack of April 29-30 on Grand Gulf
, which, though conducted with spirit and gallantry, was really only a feint to prevent the enemy from reenforcing his works below Vicksburg
In the fortnight that had elapsed, however, Grant
's environment of the town on the east had cut off Haynes's Bluff and the whole Yazoo Valley above it. Porter
immediately sent up the De Kalb
, and four light-draughts under Lieutenant-Commander
K. R. Breese
to open communication.
Pushing on to Haynes's Bluff the De Kalb
, Lieutenant-Commander John G. Walker
, in advance, it was found that evacuation had already begun, and the small force left in the works hastily abandoned them.
The fortifications were of great strength and covered a large area.
On the 20th Walker
with the De Kalb
and three of the light-draughts, steamed up to Yazoo City
The work of destruction, begun by the retreating enemy, was completed by the gun-boats.
The navy-yard, a large and well-equipped establishment, and the only one now remaining to the Confederates
, with its mills and machine-shops and its stores of lumber, was burned, as were also three formidable vessels then in course of construction.
A second expedition under Walker
, a few days later, struck out into the tributary streams, the Sunflower
, Rolling Fork
, and the smaller bayous, burning the transports that had taken refuge there.
Several steamers were sunk by the enemy on Walker
's approach, and three were captured and burnt by his vessels.
Navigation in the Yazoo Valley
was broken up, and the destruction of military supplies and provisions was enormous.
's assault on the 22d of May, the fleet below Vicksburg
kept up a heavy fire on the hill and water batteries, and during the siege the mortar-boats were incessantly at work, shelling the city and the batteries.
From time to time the gun-boats joined in the bombardment, notably on May 27th and June 20th.
On the first of these occasions, the Cincinnati
, Lieutenant George M. Bache
, engaged alone the battery on Fort Hill
, the principal work above Vicksburg
, while the other iron-clads, under Commander Woodworth
, were similarly occupied below.
The fire from the upper battery was too much for the Cincinnati
, which sank not far from the shore, losing a considerable number of her crew.
On the second occasion three heavy guns mounted on scows were placed in position on the point opposite Vicksburg
, where they did good execution under Lieutenant-Commander F. M. Ramsay
, enfilading the rifle-pits in front of Sherman
's position and rendering them untenable.
The lower squadron also took part in this bombardment.
In addition to the work of the squadron afloat, when the army called for siege-guns thirteen heavy cannon were landed from the gun-boats and placed in position in the rear of Vicksburg
, where they were constantly and efficiently worked by naval crews, first under Selfridge
, and later under Walker
At the same time the squadron was engaged in the duty of patrolling the rivers, keeping open lines of communication, convoying transports, and cooperating with troops in beating off the enemy at detached points.
On the 25th of May Banks
, who had returned with his army from Alexandria
, had invested Port Hudson
, which had been subjected for several nights previous to a bombardment from the Essex
and the mortar flotilla, under Commander Caldwell
During the month of June a naval battery of 9-inch guns, under Lieutenant-Commander Edward Terry
of the Richmond
, rendered efficient service in the siege operations.
On the 9th of July Port Hudson
surrendered and the Mississippi
was now clear of obstructions to its mouth.
Besides the main operations at Vicksburg
and Port Hudson
, the navy had been occupied from time to time in detached bodies at other points.
at the mouth of the Arkansas
, ingeniously made by Selfridge
in April, had contributed materially to the facility of operations at that place.
In May Lieutenant-Commander Wilson
in the Mound City
effectually destroyed a water-battery at Warrenton
In June an attack was made on Milliken's Bend
by Confederate troops from Arkansas
, and the garrison was driven from their works to the levee.
At this critical moment Ramsay
, in the Choctaw
, turned his guns on the successful assailants, and though
unable to see the enemy on account of the intervening bank, he hailed the troops on shore to ascertain their position; and so well placed were the hundred or more shell and shrapnel that he fired that the Confederates
were soon in full retreat.
Finally, on the 4th of July, the day of the fall of Vicksburg
, General Holmes
made his attack on Helena
[see pp. 455-6] with a force of about 8000 men, then garrisoned by 4000 under B. M. Prentiss
The enemy had placed batteries in opposition above and below the town, and, making a spirited attack in front, succeeded in carrying a portion of the outlying works.
The garrison fought stubbornly, but were heavily out-numbered.
The wooden gun-boat Tyler
, under Lieutenant-Commander James M. Prichett
, had been covering the approach by the old town road, but seeing the strategic points of the enemy's position, Prichett
with masterly skill placed his vessel where her bow and stern guns could reach the batteries above and below, while her broadside enfiladed the ravines down which the enemy was pouring in masses.
The gun-boat's rapid discharge of shrapnel and shell told heavily upon the Confederates
, who, after sustaining it for a time, fled in disorder, Prentiss
's men pursuing them with the bayonet.
The destructive fire of the Tyler
caused an unusually severe loss.
The fall of Vicksburg
was followed by successful gun-boat raids, one in July under Selfridge
in the Red
, and Tensas rivers
, the other in August under Bache
in White River
. General Herron
and Lieutenant-Commander Walker
also proceeded up the Yazoo
and retook Yazoo City
, but with the loss of the De Kalb
, destroyed by torpedoes near Yazoo City
[See p. 580.] The vessel sank in fifteen minutes, but all hands were saved.
accepted the misfortune with that true understanding of the business of war which had been the secret of so much of his success — that without taking risks you cannot achieve results.