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Chapter 12: operations on the coasts of the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico.

We left General Burnside in Albemarle Sound, after the capture of Roanoke Island and the operations at Elizabeth City, Edenton, and Plymouth,1 preparing for other conquests on the North Carolina coast. For that purpose he concentrated his forces, with the fleet now in command of Commodore Rowan (Goldsborough having been ordered to Hampton Roads), at Hatteras Inlet. New Berne, the capital of Craven County, at the confluence of the rivers Trent and Neuse, was his first object of attack.2

The land and naval forces left Hatteras Inlet on the morning of the 12th of March,

and at sunset the gun-boats and transports anchored off the mouth of Slocum's Creek, about eighteen miles from New Berne, where Burnside had determined to make a landing. His troops numbered about fifteen thousand. The landing was begun at seven o'clock the next morning,
March 18.
under cover of the gun-boats; and so eager were the men to get ashore, that many, too impatient to wait for the boats, leaped into the water, waist deep, and waded to the land. Then they pushed on in the direction of New Berne, in a copious rain, dragging their heavy cannon,3 with great difficulty and fatigue, through the wet clay, into which men often sank knee deep. The head of the column was within a mile and a half of the Confederate works at sunset, when it halted and bivouacked. During the night the remainder of the army came up in detachments hour after hour, meeting no resistance. The gun-boats meanwhile had moved up the river abreast the army, the flag-ship Delaware leading. A shore-battery opened upon her at four o'clock in the afternoon, but was soon quieted by her reply.

The main body of the Confederates, under the command of General Branch, consisted of eight regiments of infantry and five hundred cavalry, with three batteries of field-artillery of six guns each. These occupied a line of intrenchments extending more than a mile from near the river across the railway, supported by another line, on the inland flank, of rifle-pits and detached intrenchments in the form of corvettes and redans, for more than a mile, and terminating in a two-gun redoubt. On the river-bank and covering [306] their left was Fort Thompson, four miles from New Berne, armed with thirteen heavy guns; and other works and appliances, prepared by good engineering skill, for the defense of the river-channel against the passage of gun-boats, were numerous.4

At daylight on the morning of the 14th,

March, 1862.
the army moved forward in three columns, under Generals Foster, Reno, and Parke. A heavy fog lay for a short time upon the land and water, but it was soon dissipated. Foster, with the first brigade, marched up the main country road to attack Fort Thompson and the Confederate left. Reno, with the second brigade, followed nearer the line of the railway, to fall upon their right; and Parke, with the third brigade, kept such position that he might attack their front or assist the other two brigades.

Foster began battle at eight o'clock.6 At the same time Reno pushed on toward the Confederate right flank, while Parke took position on their front. Foster was supported on his left by the boat-howitzers, manned by Lieutenants McCook, Hammond, Daniels, and Tillotson, with marines and a detachment of the Union Coast Guard. Before the Confederate center was placed a 12-pounder steel cannon, under Captain Bennett, of the Cossack, who was assisted in its management by twenty of that ship's crew; and on the left of the insurgents was Captain Dayton's battery, from the transport Highlander.

Foster's brigade bore the brunt of the battle for about four hours. In response to his first gun, the assailed ran up the Confederate flag with a shout, and opened a brisk fire which soon became most severe. There was a hard struggle for the position where their intrenchments crossed the railway, and in this the Second Massachusetts and Tenth Connecticut were conspicuous. General Parke gave support to Foster until it was evident that the latter could sustain himself, when the former, with his whole brigade excepting the Eleventh Connecticut, Colonel Mathews, went to the support of Reno in his flank movement, which that officer was carrying on with success. After he had fought about an hour, he ordered the Twenty-first Massachusetts, Colonel Clark, to charge a portion of the Confederate works. It dashed forward at the double-quick, accompanied by General Reno in person, and in a few moments was within the intrenchments, from which it was as speedily driven by two of Branch's regiments. This was followed by a charge of the Fourth Rhode Island upon a battery of five guns in its front, supported by rifle-pits. The battery was captured, the National flag was unfurled over it, and its occupants and supporters were driven pell-mell far away [307] from their lost guns and breast-works. The victory was made complete by the aid of the Fifth Rhode Island and Eighth and Eleventh Connecticut.

All this while, Reno was losing heavily from the effects of another battery. So he called up his reserve regiment (the Fifty-first Pennsylvania, Colonel Hartrauft), and ordered it to charge the work. It was done gallantly, and the Fifty-first New York, Twenty-first Massachusetts, and Ninth New Jersey participated in the achievement and the triumph. Foster, meanwhile, hearing the shouts on the left when the order to charge was given, had directed his brigade to advance along the whole line. Pressed at all points, on front and flank, the Confederates abandoned every thing and fled, pursued by Foster to the verge of the Trent. The fugitives were more fleet than he, and, burning the railway and turnpike bridges behind them that spanned the Trent (the first by sending a raft of flaming turpentine and cotton against it), they escaped. So ended the battle of New Berne.7

The National squadron, in the mean time, had co-operated with the army in the attack on Fort Thompson, and in driving the Confederates from the other batteries on the shore. When these were

Operations near New Berne.

evacuated, the gun-boats passed the obstructions and went up to the city. The Confederate troops had fired it in seven places, and then hurried to Tuscarora, about ten miles from New Berne, where they halted. Large numbers of the terrified citizens had abandoned their homes and fled to the interior. No less than seven railway trains, crowded to overflowing with men, women, and children, left New Berne for Goldsboroa on the day of the battle. “The town of New Berne,” says Pollard, “originally contained twelve hundred people; when occupied by the enemy, it contained one hundred people, male and female, of the old population.” Pollard did not count the large number of colored loyalists who remained as “people.”

General Foster's brigade was taken over the Trent and to the city wharves by some of Rowan's boats, and took military possession of New Berne. General Burnside made the fine old mansion of the Stanley family, [308] in the suburbs of the town, his Headquarters, and there, on the following day, he issued an order, appointing General Foster military governor of the city,, and directing the places of public worship to be opened on Sunday, the 16th, at a suitable hour, in order that the chaplains of the different regiments might holds divine service in them; the bells to be rung as usual. On the same day Burnside issued an order, congratulating his troops on account of the “brilliant and

Burnside's Headquarters, New Berne.

hard-won victory,” and directed each regiment engaged in it to place the name of New Berne on its banner. In his report, he spoke in the highest terms of the courage and fidelity of his troops, and gave to the general-in-chief (McClellan) the credit of planning the expedition.8

In this battle the Nationals lost about one hundred in killed and four hundred and ninety-eight in wounded. Among the former were Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Merritt, of the Twenty-third Massachusetts, and other gallant officer s and men. The loss of the Confederates wa s much less in killed and wounded, but two hundred of them were made prisoners.9 The spoils of victory were many and important,;10 and the possession of the town of New Berne, by which the Wilmington and Weldon Railway, the great line of travel between the North and the South, was exposed, gave to the National cause in that region an almost in calculable advantage. Its moral effect was prodigious, and greatly disheartened the enemies of the Government, who saw in it “a subject of keen mortification to the South.” 11

In the midst of the horrors of war at New Berne, and almost before the smoke of battle was dissipated, the Christian spirit of the friends of the Government was made conspicuous in acts of benevolence by the generous deeds of Vincent Colyer, a well-known citizen of New York, and the originator of the Christian commission of the army, whose holy ministrations, nearly co-extensive with those of the United States Sanitary commission, in the camp, the field, and the hospital, throughout almost the entire period of the war, will be considered hereafter. Mr. Colyer was with Burnside's [309] expedition for the two-fold purpose of distributing to the sick and wounded the generous contributions of patriotic and charitable citizens, and to exercise a fostering care of the poor and ignorant colored people, from whose limbs the hand of the loyal victor had just unloosed the shackles of hopeless slavery.

Mr. Colyer began his blessed work on Roanoke Island in February, and now, at the middle of March, he was made busy in the same high vocation at New Berne. When his labors in the hospitals were finished, he was placed in charge of the helpless of that town of every kind, by an order issued by Burnside,

March 30, 1862.
which read thus: “Mr. Vincent Colyer is hereby appointed Superintendent of the Poor, and will be obeyed and respected accordingly.” 12 Mr. Colyer took for his headquarters a respectable dwelling in the town, and at once began the exercise of the most commendable form of benevolence, in finding remunerative employment for the healthy destitute.13 He opened evening schools for the education of the colored people, in which over eight hundred of the most eager; pupils were nightly seen, some of General Foster's New England soldiers acting as teachers. But this promising, benevolent work was suddenly stopped by Edward Stanley, who had been appointed
by the

Colyer's Headquarters.

President military governor of North Carolina, and whose policy was that of a large class of Unionists in border slave-labor States, namely, to preserve slavery, and, if possible, the Union. The closing of the schools was the first administrative act of the new governor, in conformity with the barbarous laws of North Carolina, which made it, he said, “a criminal offense to teach the blacks to read.” He also returned fugitive slaves to their masters; and the hopes of that down-trodden race in that region, which were so delightfully given in promises, were suddenly extinguished.14

Having taken possession of New Berne, Burnside proceeded at once to further carry out the instructions of General McClellan by leading a force [310] against Fort Macon, that commanded the important harbor of Beaufort, North Carolina, and Bogue Sound.15 That fort, with others, it will be remembered, was seized by Governor Ellis, early in 1861,16 before the so-called secession of the State. Its possession by the Government would secure the use of another fine harbor on the Atlantic coast to the National vessels engaged in the blockading and other service, an object of great importance. It stands upon a long spit or ridge of sand, cast up by the waves, called Bogue Island, and separated from the main by Bogue Sound, which is navigable for small vessels. At the head of the deeper part of Beaufort harbor, and at the terminus of the railway from New Berne, is Morehead City, thirty-six miles from the former; and on the northern side of the harbor is Beaufort, the capital of Carteret County, and an old and pleasant town, which was a. popular place of resort for the North Carolinians in the summer. Into that harbor blockade-runners had for some time been carrying supplies for the Confederates.17

General Burnside intrusted the expedition against Fort Macon to the command of General Parke, at the same time sending General Reno to make further demonstrations in the rear of Norfolk. Parke's forces were transferred by water to Slocum's Creek, from which point they marched across the country and invested Morehead City, nine days after the fall of New Berne.

March 23, 1862.
The latter place was evacuated. On the 25th, a detachment, composed of the Fourth Rhode Island and Eighth Connecticut, took possession of Beaufort without opposition, for there was no military force there.

In the mean time a flag had been sent to Fort Macon with a demand for its surrender. It was refused, the commander, Colonel Moses T. White (nephew of Jefferson Davis), declaring that he would not yield until he had eaten his last biscuit and slain his last horse. Vigorous preparations were at once made to capture it, and on the 11th of April General Parke made a reconnoissance in force on Bogue Spit, drove in the Confederate pickets, and selected good points for the planting of siege-guns. At that time regular siege operations commenced, and the garrison was confined within the limits of the fort, closely watched, for it was expected that in their supposed desperate [311] strait they might make a sudden and fierce sortie, but there was only some picket skirmishing occasionally. Ordnance and ordnance stores were rafted over from a wooded point near Carolina City by General Parke, and batteries were constructed behind sand dunes on Bogue Spit. Gun-boats

View at the Landing at Morehead City.18

were co-operating with them, and the garrison, composed of about five hundred North Carolinians, was cut off from all communication by sea and land.19

Three siege batteries were erected on Bogue Spit behind sand-hills, the sides and front being formed by sand-bags. The most distant, under Lieutenant Flagler, of the New York Third Artillery, was in the borders of a marsh, about fourteen hundred yards from the fort, and mounted four teninch [312] mortars. The second was about two hundred yards in front of it, under Captain Morris, of the First Regular Artillery, and mounted three long 30-pound Parrott guns; and the third was one hundred yards still nearer the fort, composed of four 8-inch mortars, and commanded by Lieutenant Prouty, of the Third New York Artillery. When these batteries were completed, the gun-boats Daylight (flag-ship); State of Georgia, Commander Armstrong; and Chippewa, Lieutenant Bryson, and the barque Gemsbok, Lieutenant Cavendish, took position for battle outside the Spit, within range of the fort. Burnside came down from New Berne, and passed over to the batteries; and at six o'clock, on the morning of the 25th of April,

Flagler opened fire with his 10-inch mortars, directed by Lieutenant Andrews of the Signal Corps, and his accomplished young assistant, Lieutenant Wait.20 The other batteries followed, and in the course of ten minutes the fort replied with a shot from Captain Manney's 24-pounder battery on the terreplein. The heavy columbiads and 32-pounders en barbette joined in the cannonade, and at eight o'clock the fort, belching fire and smoke like an active volcano, was sending a shot every minute. The National batteries were responding with equal vigor, and the war vessels were doing good service, maneuvering in an elliptical course, like Dupont's at Port Royal Entrance, and throwing heavy shot and shell upon the fortress. But the roughness of the sea, caused by a southwest wind, compelled them to withdraw after fighting an hour and a quarter. The land batteries kept at work until four o'clock in the afternoon, when a white flag, displayed on Fort Macon, caused their firing to cease. Captain Guion, of the garrison, came out with a proposition from Colonel White to surrender; and before ten o'clock the next morning
April 26.
the fort was in the possession of the National forces, with about five hundred prisoners of war.21 Burnside was present, and had the pleasure of seeing the ensign of the [313] Republic, and the new colors of the Fifth Rhode Island battalion, which had just been presented to it by the women of Providence, unfurled over the fort.22

The writer visited and sketched Fort Macon in December, 1864, while accompanying the expedition under General Butler against Fort Fisher. The transports bearing his troops, and the Ben Deford, his Headquarters ship, had been furnished with water and fuel for only ten days. Having waited three days at the place of rendezvous, twenty-five miles at sea, off Fort Fisher, for the arrival of the war-vessels that were to co-operate with the soldiers, it was necessary to run up the coast seventy miles to Beaufort for a new supply of fuel and water. This gave the writer a wished for opportunity to visit Beaufort Harbor and its surroundings. We entered it during one of the heaviest gales known on that coast for thirty years, and were detained there four days, during which time we visited the old town of Beaufort, the more modern Morehead City, Carolina City, the Bogue Banks or Spit, and Fort Macon. The latter is at the eastern point of the Spit, upon an elevation above the common level, composed of a huge mound of sand thrown up for the purpose. The fort was built of brick and stone,

Fort. Macon in 1864.23

and named in honor of Nathaniel Macon, a distinguished statesman of North Carolina. Built for defense against a foreign foe, its principal strength in [314] masonry and guns was toward the sea, and it perfectly commanded the narrow ship channel at the entrance to the harbor.

We found Fort Macon very much in the condition in which Burnside observed it when he entered it, excepting the absence of fragments of shot and shell and cannon and carriages, made by the National missiles. On its wall, landward (seen in shadow in the engraving), that bore the brunt of the bombardment, were the broad wounds made by shot and shell; and here and there the remains of furrows made by them were seen on the parades, the ramparts, and the glacis. After passing half an hour pleasantly with Captain King, the commandant, and other officers of the garrison, and making the sketch on the preceding page, we departed for the Ben Deford in the tug that took us from it and on the following day left the harbor for the waters in front of Fort Fisher.

While Parke and Lockwood were operating at Beaufort Harbor, troops under General Reno were quietly taking possession of important places on the waters of Albemarle Sound, and threatening Norfolk in the rear. The movement was partly for the purpose of assisting Parke in his siege of Fort Macon, and partly to gain some substantial advantages on the Sounds.

Reno's force consisted of the Twenty-first Massachusetts, Fifty-first Pennsylvania, the Sixth New Hampshire, and a part of the Ninth and Eighty-ninth New York. They advanced in transports up the Pasquotank to within three miles of Elizabeth City, and, landing cautiously in the night,

April 19. 1862.
a part of them under Colonel Hawkins were pushed forward to surprise and intercept a body of Confederates known to be about leaving that place for Norfolk. Hawkins took with him portions of the Ninth and Eighty-ninth New York, and Sixth New Hampshire; and a few hours later he was followed by General Reno and the remainder of the troops.

Hawkins was misled by a treacherous or incompetent guide, and, marching ten miles out of his way, lost so much time that in retracing his steps he came in behind General Reno. Meanwhile the Confederates had been apprised of the movement, and when the Nationals were within a mile and a, half. of South Mills, near Camden Court-house, they were assailed with grape and canister shot from the foe, who were in a good position with artillery, having a dense forest in their rear for a protection and cover, and swamps on their flanks. The attack was bravely met. Reno's superior numbers soon flanked the Confederates, and the latter hastily withdrew. A gun-boat under Captain Flusser had, in the mean time, driven the foe out of the woods along the river-banks. Hawkins's Zouaves had made a gallant charge, but were repulsed, and in this the chief loss to the Nationals occurred. They had fifteen killed, ninety-six wounded, and two made prisoners. The loss of the Confederates is not known. They left thirty killed and wounded on the field. This engagement is called the battle of South Mills. The defeat of the Third Georgia regiment in the fight produced much consternation in Norfolk.

General Reno allowed his wearied troops to rest on the battle-field about six hours, when they returned to the boats. For want of transportation, he was compelled to leave some of his killed and wounded behind.

Winton, at the head of the Chowan; Plymouth, at the mouth of the [315] Roanoke; and Washington, at the head of the Pamlico River, were all quietly occupied by the National forces.24 This occupation so widely dispersed Burnside's troops, which at no time numbered more than sixteen thousand, that he could no longer make aggressive movements. The Government had no troops to spare to re-enforce him; and matters remained comparatively quiet in his department until the middle of July, when he was hastily summoned to Fortress Monroe

July 17, 1862.
with all the forces he could collect; for the Army of the Potomac, on the Virginia Peninsula, under General McClellan, was then apparently in great danger. General Burnside promptly obeyed the summons, leaving General Foster in command of the department. During the four months of his campaign in that region, Burnside

Operations in Burnside's Department.

had exhibited those traits of character that marked him as an energetic, sagacious, and judicious commander, and led to his appointment to more important posts of duty.

For the remainder of the year, the coasts of North Carolina were in the, possession of the National troops. Its ports were closed, either by actual occupation or by blockading vessels, and its commerce ceased entirely, excepting such as was carried on by British blockade-runners. These, in spite of the greatest vigilance of the blockading squadrons cruising off its entrances, constantly entered the Cape Fear River, with military supplies and necessaries for the Confederates, until the fall of Fort Fisher, at the beginning of 1865. These blockade-runners were steamships, built expressly [316] for the purpose, and were remarkable for strength and speed. They drew but little water, and had raking smoke-stacks. Every part of them was painted a gray color, so that they could not be seen even in a very light fog. Their achievements in supplying the Confederates with arms, ammunition, and the necessaries and luxuries of life, will be considered hereafter.

While Burnside and Rowan were operating

A blockade-runner.

on the coast of North Carolina, Sherman and Dupont were engaged in movements on the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia, having for their first object the capture of Fort Pulaski, and ultimately other important points and posts between the Savannah River and St. Augustine in Florida.

We have seen that at the close of 1861 the National authority was supreme along the coast from Wassaw Sound, below the Savannah River, to the North Edisto, well up toward Charleston.25 National troops were stationed as far down as Daufuskie Island; and so early as the close of December, General Sherman had directed General Quincy A. Gillmore, his Chief Engineer, to reconnoiter Fort Pulaski and report upon the feasibility of a bombardment of it., Gillmore's reply was, that it might be reduced by batteries of rifled guns and mortars placed on Big Tybee Island, southeast of Cockspur Island, on which the fort stood, and across the narrower channel of the Savannah; and that aid might be given from a battery on Venus Point of Jones's Island, two miles from Cockspur, in the opposite direction. While waiting orders from Washington on the subject, the Forty-sixth New York, Colonel Rosa, was sent to occupy Big Tybee.

At about this time

Jan., 1862.
explorations were made by the Nationals for the purpose of finding some channel by which gun-boats might get in the rear of Fort Pulaski. Lieutenant J. H. Wilson, of the Topographical Engineers, had received information from negro pilots that convinced him that such channel might be found, connecting Calibogue Sound with the Savannah River. General Sherman directed him to explore in search of it. Taking with him, at about the first of January, 1862; seventy Rhode Island soldiers, in two boats managed by negro crews and pilots, he thridded the intricate passages between the low, oozy islands and mud-banks in that region (always under cover of night, for the Confederates had watchful pickets at every approach to the fort), and found a way into the Savannah River above the fort, partly through an artificial channel called Wall's Cut, which had for several years connected Wright's and New Rivers. He [317] reported accordingly, when Captain John Rogers made another reconnoissance at night, and so satisfied himself that gun-boats could navigate the way, that he offered to command an expedition that might attempt it. Sherman and Dupont at once organized one for the purpose. The land troops were placed in charge of General Viele,26 and the gun-boats were commanded by Rogers. Another mixed force, under General H. G. Wright27 and Fleetcaptain

Obstructions in the Savannah River.28

Davis, was sent to pass up to the Savannah River, in rear of Fort Pulaski, by way of Wassaw Sound, Wilmington River, and St. Augustine Creek. The latter expedition found obstructions in St. Augustine Creek; but the gunboats were able to co-operate with those of Rogers in an attack

Jan. 28, 1862.
on the little flotilla of five gun-boats of Commodore Tatnall, which attempted to escape down the river from inevitable blockade. Tatnall was driven back with two of his vessels, but the others escaped.

The expedition, having accomplished its object of observation, returned to Hilton Head, and the citizens of Savannah believed that designs against that city and Fort Pulaski were abandoned. Yet the Confederates multiplied the obstructions in the river in the form of piles, sunken vessels, and regular chevaux-de-frise; and upon the oozy islands and the main land on the right bank of the river they built heavy earthworks, and greatly enlarged and strengthened Fort Jackson, about four miles below the city. Among the most formidable of the


new earthworks was Fort Lee, built under the direction of Robert E. Lee, after his recall from Western Virginia, in the autumn of 1861.

Soon after the heavy reconnaissance of Rogers and Wright, the Nationals made a lodgment on Jones's Island, and proceeded, under the immediate direction of General Viele, to erect an earthwork on Venus Point, which was named Battery Vulcan. This was completed on the 11th of February, after very great labor,29 and with a little battery on Bird Island, opposite [318] (Battery Hamilton), effectually closed the Savannah River in the rear of Fort Pulaski. That fortress, as we have already observed,30 was a strong one on Cockspur Island, which is wholly a marsh. Its walls, twenty-five feet in height above high water, presented five faces, and were casemated on all sides, and mounted one tier of guns in embrasures and one en barbette.

The absolute blockade of Fort Pulaski may be dated from the 22d of February. Preparations were then made on Tybee Island to bombard it. Nearly all of the work had to be done in the night, and it was of the same laborious nature as that performed on Jones's Island. It took about two hundred and fifty men to move a single heavy gun, with a sling-cart, over the quaking mud

Quincy A. Gillmore.

jelly of which Tybee Island is composed; and it was often with the greatest difficulty that it was kept from going down twelve feet to the bottom of the morass, when, as sometimes it happened, it slipped from the causeway or a platform.31 Patiently the work was carried on under the supervision of General Gillmore, who was in chief command, and on the 9th of April eleven batteries, containing an aggregate of thirty-six guns, were in

Siege of Fort Pulaski.

readiness to open fire on the fort.32 On that day the commanding General [319] issued minute orders for the working of the batteries, which was to corn mence at daybreak the next morning.33

General David Hunter, who had just succeeded General Sherman

March 31, 1862.
in the command of the Department, arrived at Tybee on the evening of the 8th, accompanied by General Benham as district commander. At sunrise on the morning of the 10th, Hunter sent Lieutenant J. H. Wilson to the fort, with a summons to the commander of the garrison (Colonel Charles H. Olmstead, of the First Georgia Volunteers) to surrender. It was refused, the commander saying, “I am here to defend this fort, not to surrender it,” and at a quarter past eight o'clock the batteries opened upon it. They did not cease firing until night, when five of the guns of the fortress were silenced, and the responses of the others were becoming feeble. All night long, four of Gillmore's guns fired at intervals of fifteen or twenty minutes; and at sunrise the next morning
April 11.
the batteries commenced afresh, and with the greatest vigor. It was soon evident that the fort, at the point on which the missiles from the three breaching batteries (Sigel, Scott, and McClellan) fell, was crumbling. A yawning breach was visible; and yet the fort kept up the fight gallantly until two o'clock in the afternoon, when preparations were made to storm it. Then a white flag displayed from its walls caused the firing to cease, and the siege to end in its surrender. Ten of its guns were dismounted; and so destructive of masonry had been the Parrott projectiles (some of which went through the six or seven feet of brick walls) that there was imminent

Breach in Fort Pulaski.34

danger of their piercing the magazine and exposing it to explosion.35 The Nationals, who were under the immediate command of General Viele, had only one killed. The Confederates had one killed and several wounded. It was a very hard fought but almost bloodless battle. The spoils of victory were the fort, forty-seven [320] heavy guns, a large supply of fixed ammunition, forty thousand pounds of gunpowder, and a large quantity of commissary stores. Three hundred men were made prisoners.36 By this victory, won on the first anniversary of the fall of Fort Sumter,
April 12, 1862.
the port of Savannah was sealed against blockade-runners. The capture of Fort Jackson above, and of the city, would have been of little advantage to the Nationals then, for the forces necessary to hold them were needed in more important work farther down the coast.

While Gillmore and Viele were besieging Fort Pulaski, Commodore Dupont and General Wright were making easy conquests on the coast of Florida. Dupont left Port Royal on the 28th of February,

in the Wabash, with twenty armed vessels, and six transports bearing land forces, and on the 1st of March arrived in St. Andrew's Sound, north of Cumberland and St. Andrew's Islands. Leaving the Wabash, Dupont raised his flag on the smaller war vessel Mohican, and, at ten o'clock on the 2d, the fleet anchored in Cumberland Sound, between Cumberland Island and the Georgia main. Its destination was Fort Clinch,37 on the

Fort Clinch.

northern extremity of Amelia Island, a strong regular work, and prepared by great labor for making a vigorous defense. Outside of it, along the shores, were heavy batteries, well sheltered and concealed behind sand-hills on their front, while on the southern extremity of Cumberland Island was a battery of four guns. These, with the heavy armament of Fort Clinch, perfectly commanded the waters in the vicinity.

Dupont had expected vigorous resistance at Fort Clinch, and he was incredulous when told by a fugitive slave, picked up on the waters, that the troops had abandoned it, and were fleeing from Amelia Island. The rumor was confirmed, and Dupont immediately sent forward Commander Drayton, of the Pawnee, with several gunboats, to save the public property there and prevent outrages. He then returned to the Wabash, and, going outside, went down to the main entrance to Fernandina harbor. There he was detained until the next morning. Meanwhile Drayton had sent Lieutenant White, of the Ottawa, to hoist the National flag over Fort Clinch. This

The Union Generals.

[321] was the first of the old National forts which was “repossessed” by the Government.

The Confederates fled from the village of Fernandina,38 near the fort, and also from the village of St. Mary's, a short. distance up the St. Mary's River. These were at once occupied by National forces. Fort Clinch was garrisoned by a few of General Wright's troops, and Commander C. R. P. Rogers, with some launches, captured the Confederate steamer Darlington, lying in the adjacent waters. The insurgent force was utterly broken up. “We captured Port Royal,” Dupont wrote to the Secretary of the Navy,

March, 4, 1862.
“but Fernandina and Fort Clinch have been given to us.”

News reached Dupont that the Confederates were abandoning every post along the Florida coast, and he took measures to occupy them or hold them in durance. Commander Gordon was sent with three gun-boats to Brunswick, the terminus of the Brunswick and Pensacola railway. He took possession of it on the 9th of March. The next day he held the batteries on the islands of St. Simon and Jekyl, and on the 13th he proceeded with the Potomska and Pocahontas through the inland passage from St. Simon's Sound to Darien, on the Altamaha River, in Georgia. This place, like Brunswick, was deserted, and nearly all of the inhabitants on St. Simon's and neighboring islands had fled to the main. In the mean time Dupont sent a small flotilla, under a judicious officer, Lieutenant Thomas Holdup Stevens, consisting of the gun-boats Ottawa, Seneca, Pembina, and Huron, with the transports I. P. Smith and Ellen, to enter the St. John's River, twenty-five miles farther down the coast, and push on to Jacksonville, and even to Pilatka, if possible. Stevens approached Jacksonville on the evening of the 11th of March,

and saw large fires in that direction; and on the following day he appeared before the town, which was abandoned by the Confederate soldiers.39 The fires had been kindled by order of General Trapier, the insurgent commander of that district, who directed the houses, stores, mills, and other property of persons suspected of being in favor of the Union, to be burnt. Under that order, eight immense saw-mills and a vast amount of valuable lumber were burned by guerrillas. On the appearance of Stevens's flotilla, the corporate authorities of the town, with S. L. Burritt at their head, went on board his vessel (the Ottawa) and formally surrendered the place. The Fourth New Hampshire, Colonel Whipple, landed and took possession, and it was hailed with joy by the Union people who remained there.

Two days before Jacksonville was surrendered to Stevens, Fort Marion and the ancient city of St. Augustine, still farther down the coast,40 were surrendered to Commander C. R. P. Rogers, who had crossed

March 11.
[322] the bar in the Wabash. With a flag of truce, and accompanied by Mr. Dennis, of the Coast Survey, he landed, and was soon met by the Mayor of the town, who conducted him to the City Hall, where he was received by the Common Council. He was informed that two Florida companies, who had garrisoned the fort, had left the place on the previous evening, and that the city had no means for resistance, if there was a disposition to fight. On assuring the authorities of the kind intentions of his Government toward all peaceful citizens, they formally resigned St. Augustine into his hands. Fort Marion, a decayed castle of heavy walls, built by the

Fort Marion.

Spaniards early in the last century (and which was seized by the insurgents early in 186141), with its dependencies, passed into the hands of the Nationals. On the top of the broad walls of the fort, huts and tents were soon erected.

The capture of St. Augustine was followed by a visit of National gunboats to Musquito Inlet, fifty miles farther down the Florida coast, into which it was reported light-draft vessels were carrying English arms and other supplies for the Confederates, which had been transhipped from the British port of Nassau. The boats were the Penguin, Lieutenant Budd, who commanded the expedition, and the Henry Andrew, Acting-master Mather. On their arrival, a small boat expedition, composed of forty-three men, under Budd and Mather, was organized for a visit to Musquito Lagoon.

While returning, the two commanders, who were in one boat, landed at an abandoned earthwork and dense grove of live oaks. There they were fired upon by the concealed foe. Budd and Mather, and three of the five men composing the boat's crew, were killed, and the remaining two were wounded and made prisoners. The other boats were fired upon when they came up, and their passengers suffered much; but under the cover of night they escaped.

In this expedition the Nationals lost five killed and eleven wounded. Had it been entirely successful, all Florida might have been brought under the control of the National forces for a time, for there was panic everywhere in that region after the fall of Fort Pulaski. Pensacola was soon afterward evacuated

May 9 and 10, 1862.
by the Confederate General, T. N. Jones, who burnt every thing that he could at the navy yard, at the hospital, and in Forts McRee and Barrancas, and retreated toward the interior. But, as events proved, the Nationals could not have held Florida at that time. Because of their weakness in numbers, their conquests resulted, apparently, in more harm than good to the Union cause. At first, the hopes [323] they inspired in the breasts of the Union people developed quite a wide-spread loyalty. A Union convention was called to assemble at Jacksonville on the 10th of April, to organize a loyal State Government, when, to the dismay of those engaged in the matter, General Wright prepared to withdraw his forces, two days before the time when the convention was to meet. General Trapier would of course return, so the leaders were compelled to fly for their lives with the National troops, instead of attempting to re-establish a loyal government. In consequence of a sense of insecurity caused by this event, very little Union feeling was manifested in Florida during the remainder of the war.

Dupont returned to Port Royal on the 27th of March, leaving a small force at different points to watch the posts recovered. He found Skiddaway and Greene Islands abandoned by the Confederates, and the important Wassaw and Ossabaw Sounds and the Vernon and Wilmington Rivers entirely open to the occupation of National forces. So early as the 11th of February, General Sherman, with the Forty-seventh New York, had taken quiet possession of Edisto Island, from which all the white inhabitants had fled, burning their cotton on their departure. By this movement the National flag was carried more than half way to Charleston from Beaufort. And so it was, that on the first anniversary of the attack on Fort Sumter, the entire Atlantic and Gulf coast, from Cape Hatteras to Perdido Bay, excepting, the harbor of Charleston and its immediate surroundings, had been abandoned by the insurgents, and the National power was supreme. To Dupont and the new Commander of the Department of the South (General Hunter) Charleston was now a coveted prize, and they made preparations to attempt its capture. That movement we will consider hereafter.

Turning again to Hampton Roads, we see General Butler and some troops going out upon another expedition, with his purpose a profound secret, but which proved to be one of the most important movements of the first year and a half of the war. It was the expedition against New Orleans.

We have seen42 that so early as September, 1861, General Butler was commissioned by the Secretary of War to go to New England and “raise, arm, and uniform a volunteer force for the war,” to be composed of six regiments. Unavoidable collision with the efforts of State authorities to raise men ensued, and at one time it seemed as if Butler's mission would be fruitless. To give him more efficiency, the six New England States were constituted a Military Department, and Major-General Butler was made its commander while engaged in recruiting his division. He worked to that end with untiring energy, in the face of opposition; and it was not long before his six thousand troops and more were ready for the field. The Government had then turned its attention to the posts on the Gulf of Mexico and its tributary waters, and the seizure of Mobile and New Orleans, and the occupation of Texas, formed parts of its capital plan of operations in that region. Butler was called upon to suggest the best rendezvous for an expedition against Mobile. He named Ship Island, off the coast of Mississippi, [324] between Mobile Bay and Lake Borgne (a low sand-bar, lying just above low water, and averaging seven miles in length and three-fourths of a mile in width), as the most eligible point for operations against any part of the Gulf Coast. Thither some of his troops were sent, in the fine steamship Constitution, under General J. W. Phelps, whom Butler well knew, and honored as a commander at Fortress Monroe and vicinity. The Constitution returned, and two thousand more of the six thousand men embarked, when an electrograph said to Butler, in Boston, “Don't sail. Disembark.”

The Government was then trembling because of the seeming imminence of war with Great Britain, on account of the seizure of Mason and Slidell. They were in Fort Warren, and the British Government had demanded their surrender. This made the authorities at Washington pause in their aggressive policy, to wait for the development of events in that connection. But the tremor was only spasmodic, and soon ceased. The work against treason was renewed with increased vigor. Edwin M. Stanton, who was in Mr. Buchanan's Cabinet during the closing days of his administration43--a man possessed of great physical and mental energy, comprehensiveness of intellectual grasp, and great tenacity of will, had superseded Mr. Cameron as Secretary of War,

Jan. 13, 1862.
and a conference between him and General Butler resulted in a decision to make vigorous efforts to capture New Orleans, and hold the lower Mississippi.

When that decision was referred to General McClellan, the latter thought such an expedition was not feasible, for it would take fifty thousand men to give it a chance of success, and where were they to come from? He was unwilling to spare a single man of his more than two hundred thousand men then lying at

Edwin M. Stanton.

ease around Washington City. His question was promptly answered. New England was all aglow with enthusiasm, and its sons were eagerly flocking to the standard of General Butler, who asked for only fifteen thousand of it. On for the expedition. Already more than twelve thousand were ready for the field, under his leadership. Two thousand were at Ship Island; more than two thousand were on ship-board in Hampton Roads; and over eight thousand were ready for embarkation at Boston.

President Lincoln gave the project his sanction. The Department of the Gulf was created, and General Butler was placed in command of it. On the 23d of February

he received minute orders from General McClellan to co-operate with the navy, first in the capture of New Orleans and its approaches, and then in the reduction of Mobile, Galveston, and Baton Rouge, with the ultimate view of occupying Texas. To his New [325] England troops were added three regiments, then at Baltimore, and orders were given for two others at Key West and one at Fort Pickens to join the expedition. On paper, the whole force was about eighteen thousand, but when they were all mustered on Ship Island they amounted to only thirteen thousand seven hundred. Of these, five hundred and eighty were artillerymen and two hundred and seventy-five were cavalry.

On the day after receiving his instructions, General Butler left Washington and hastened to Fortress Monroe. To Mr. Lincoln he said, “Good-bye, Mr. President; we shall take New Orleans or you'll never see me again ;” and with the assurance of Secretary Stanton, that “The man who takes New Orleans is made a lieutenant-general,” 44 Butler embarked at Hampton Roads,

Feb. 25, 1862.
accompanied by his wife, his staff, and fourteen hundred troops, in the fine steamship Mississippi. Fearful perils were encountered on the North Carolina coast, and vexatious delay at Port Royal;45 and it was thirty days after he left the capes of Virginia before he debarked at Ship Island.
March 25.
There was no house upon that desolate sand-bar, and some charred boards were all the materials that could be had for the erection of a shanty for the accommodation of Mrs. Butler. The furniture for it was taken from a captured vessel.

When the war broke out, there was an unfinished fort on Ship Island, to which, as we have observed, Floyd, the traitorous Secretary of War, had ordered heavy guns.46 The insurgents of that region took possession of it in considerable force

July, 1861.
and, during their occupation of it for about two months, they made it strong and available for defense. They constructed eleven bomb-proof casemates, a magazine and barracks, mounted twenty heavy Dahlgren guns, and named it Fort Twiggs. When rumors of a heavy naval force approaching reached the garrison, they abandoned the fort,
Sept. 16.
burnt their barracks, and, with their cannon, fled to the main. On the following day, a small force was landed from the National gun-boat Massachusetts, and took possession of the place. They strengthened the fort by building two more casemates, adding Dahlgren and rifled cannon, and piling around its outer walls tiers of sand-bags, six feet in depth. Then they gave it the name of their vessel, and called it Fort Massachusetts.47 The Constitution arrived there with General Phelps and his troops48 on the 3d of December, and on the following day
Dec. 4.
he issued a proclamation to the loyal inhabitants of the south-western States, setting forth his views as to the political status of those [326] States and the slave-system within their borders. It pointedly condemned that system, and declared that it was incompatible with a free government, incapable of forming an element of true nationality, and necessarily dangerous to the Republic, when assuming, as it then did, a political character. He pictured to them the blessings to be derived from the abolition of slavery,

Fort Massachusetts, on Ship Island.

and declared that his motto and that of his troops coming among them was, Free labor and working-men's rights.

This proclamation astonished Phelps's troops, provoked the pro-slavery officers under his command, and highly excited the people to whom it was addressed, who heard it, and who used it effectually in “firing the Southern heart” against the “abolition Government” at Washington. It was too far in advance of public opinion and feeling at that time, and General Butler, whose views were coincident with the tenor of the proclamation, considering it premature, and therefore injudicious, said, in transmitting his brigadier's report of operations at Ship Island, that he had not authorized the issuing of any proclamation, “and most certainly not such an one.” So General Phelps and those of his way of thinking were compelled to wait a year or two before they saw a public movement toward the abolition of slavery.

All winter Phelps and his troops remained on the dreary little island, unable, on account of great and small guns in the hands of the neighboring insurgents, to gain a footing on the adjacent shore, and waiting in painful anxiety, at the last, for the arrival of General. Butler and the remainder of his command, who, at one time it was feared, had gone to the bottom of the sea. Their advent produced joy, for the troops well knew that the stagnation of the camp would soon give place to the bustle of preparations for the field. That expectation was heightened when, a few hours after he landed, Butler was seen in conference with Captains Farragut and Bailey, of the navy, who were there, in which his Chief of Staff, Major George C. Strong, and his Chief Engineer, Lieutenant Godfrey Weitzel (both graduates of West Point) participated. The latter had been engaged in the completion of the forts below New Orleans, and was well acquainted with all the region around the lower Mississippi.

At that conference, a plan of operation against the forts below New [327] Orleans and the city itself was adopted, and was substantially carried out a few weeks later.

While preparations for that movement were in progress, some minor expeditions were set on foot. One against Biloxi, a summer watering-place on the Mississippi Main, was incited by the conduct of some Confederates who violated the sanctity of a flag of truce, under circumstances of peculiar wickedness. A little girl, three years of age, the daughter of a physician and noted rebel of New Orleans, was cast upon the shore at Ship Island after a storm, in which it was supposed her father had perished. She was kindly cared for by Mrs. Butler; and, as the child knew the name of her grandfather in New Orleans, the General determined to send her there. Fo<*> that purpose Major George C. Strong, General Butler's chief of staff, too<*> her, in a sloop, under a flag of truce, to Biloxi, with money to pay he<*> expenses to New Orleans. There she was left to be sent on. The sloo<*> grounded on her return in the evening, and, while in that condition, an attempt was made to capture her by men who had been witnesses of Major Strong's holy errand. By stratagem he kept the rebels at bay until a gun-boat came to his rescue.

On the following day, an avenging expedition, commanded by Major Strong, proceeded to Biloxi. It was composed of two gun-boats (Jackson and New London), and a transport with the Ninth Connecticut, Colonel Cahill, and Everett's battery on board. Fortunately for the Biloxians, they were quiet. Their place was captured without opposition, and the Mayor was compelled to make a humble apology in writing for the perfidy of his fellow-citizens in the matter of the flag of truce.

Leaving Biloxi, Major Strong went westward to Pass Christian. While his vessels lay at anchor there that night, they were attacked by three Confederate gun-boats, that stole out of Lake Borgne. The assailants were repulsed. Major Strong then landed his troops, and, making a forced march, surprised and captured a Confederate camp three miles distant. The soldiers had fled. The camp was destroyed, and the public stores in the town on the beach were seized and carried away. Major Strong also captured Mississippi City.

Tail-piece — ruins of the steamer Nashville.

1 See Chapter VI. pages 170 to 175, inclusive.

2 New Berne was a point of much military importance. It was near the head of an extensive and navigable arm of the sea, and was connected by railway with Beaufort harbor at Morehead City, and Raleigh, the capital of the State.

3 Among them were six naval howitzers that Rowan put ashore, under Lieutenant R. S. McCook, to assist in the attack.

4 A little below Fort Thompson was Fort Dixie, four guns. Between Fort Thompson and the city were Forts Brown, Ellis, and Lane, each mounting eight guns ; and a mile from New Berne was Union Point Battery, of two guns, manned by a company of public singers. In the channel of the Neuse were twenty-four sunken vessels, several torpedoes,4 and submerged iron-pointed spars, planted so as to pierce the bottoms of vessels ascending the river. On the left bank of the Neuse was a succession of redoubts, over half a mile in extent, in the midst of woods and swamps, for riflemen and field-pieces.

5 These torpedoes consisted of a cylinder of iron, about ten inches in diameter, into which fitted a heavily loaded bomb-shell, resting on springs. The torpedo was placed on the point of heavy timber, in the form and position of chevaux-de-frise, held firmly at the bottom of the river by stones in a box, and lying at an angle of forty-five degrees in the direction of an approaching vessel. The shell was s<*> arranged, that when a vessel should strike the cylinder on the point of the timber, a percussion cap would be discharged and the shell exploded. These were very formidable missiles, but the gun-boats did not go near them.

6 His troops consisted of the Twenty-third, Twenty-fourth, Twenty-fifth, and Twenty-seventh Massachusetts, commanded respectively by Colonels Kurtz, Stevenson, Upton, and Lee; and the Tenth Connecticut, Colonel Drake.

7 See reports of General Burnside and his subordinate officers, and of Commodore Rowan.

8 “I beg to say to the general commanding the army,” he wrote, “that I have endeavored to carry out the very minute instructions given me by him before leaving Annapolis, and thus far events have been singularly coincident with his anticipations.”

9 They reported their loss at 64 killed, 101 wounded, and 413 missing.

10 These were the important town and harbor of New Berne; eight batteries mounting forty-six heavy guns; three batteries of light artillery of six guns each; two steamboats; a number of sailing vessels; wagons, horses, and mules; a large quantity of ammunition and army supplies; the entire camp equipage of the Confederates; and much turpentine, rosin, and cotton,

11 Pollard's First Year of the, War, i. 288.

12 On the 24th of April, General Foster issued an order that all passes given to negroes by Mr. Colyer to go out of the lines be respected at the outposts, and that all persons outside, inquiring for him, be sent to him unquestioned.

13 Mr. Colyer gave employment to every able-bodied man that could be found; and in the course of the four months that he administered the duties of his office under Burnside there, colored men built three first-class earthwork fortS: one at New Berne, another on Roanoke Island, and a third at Washington, North Carolina. They also performed much labor as carpenters and blacksmiths, and were made useful in loading and discharging cargoes for about three hundred Government vessels, serving as crews on about twenty steamers, and as gangs of laborers in several departments. More than fifty of them were employed in the perilous duty of spies, going sometimes three hundred miles within the Confederate lines, and bringing back the most reliable information, because the negroes were uniformly loyal to the National cause.

During the four months that Mr. Colyer was in New Berne, he and his assistants cared for and kept from want and suffering over eight hundred people.

14 When this fact was told to President Lincoln, he said, with great earnestness, “Well, this I have always maintained and shall insist on, that no slave who once comes within our lines a fugitive from a rebel shall ever be returned to his master. For my part, I have hated slavery from my childhood.” This was said at about the time when he had written a proclamation of emancipation, which, by the advice of the Secretary of State, was withheld for some months, for prudential reasons.--See Mr. Colyer's Report of the Christian Mission to the United States Army, from August, 1861, to August, 1862. In that report may be found most interesting details of work and experience among the freedmen on the Atlantic coast.

15 “Having gained possession of which [New Berne], and the railroad passing through it, you will at once throw a sufficient force upon Beaufort, and take the steps necessary to reduce Fort Macon and open that port.” --McClellan's Instructions, January 7th, 1862.

16 See page 161, volume I.

17 The Confederates owned a war steamer called the Nashville, commanded by Captain R. P. Pegram. At. the beginning of February, 1862, she was lying in the harbor of Southampton, England, with a cargo of stores. valued at $3,000,000. Near her was the United States gun-boat Tuscarora, Captain Craven, carrying nine heavy guns, which had been sent over for the special purpose of watching the Nashville, and capturing her when she should put to sea. The British authorities, sympathizing with the Confederates, notified Captain Craven that the Tuscarora would not be allowed to leave the port until twenty-four hours after the Nashville should depart. The British war-ship Dauntless lay near, ready to enforce the order, and the armored ship Warrior was within call, if necessity should require its presence. The result was, that on the 3d of February the Nashville left Southampton, eluded the chase of the Tuscarora, that commenced twenty-four hours afterward, and ran the blockade into Beaufort harbor on the 28th of the same month, with her valuable cargo. She had coaled on the way at the friendly English port of Bermuda, where, on the 22d of February, an order was promulgated prohibiting the use of that port as a coal depot by the United States. This was one of many similar exhibitions of the professed neutrality of Great Britain during the war. The Nashville remained in Beaufort until the night. of the 17th of March, when she again ran the blockade, and went to sea to depredate upon American merchant-vessels.

18 this is a view looking westward of the causeway, on which lies the railway track from the main at Morehead City to the wharf at deep water. Morehead City is seen in the distance, and Bogue Sound and Spit appear on the left, where the vessels are seen. The single bird indicates the place of Morehead City; the two birds, the site of a fort erected by the Nationals; the three birds, the wooded point at Carolina City from which ordnance and supplies were sent over to the Spit; and the four birds show the position of the Landing-place on the Spit from which the siege-guns were taken to their proper places. The picture is from a sketch made by the writer from the deck of the Ben Deford, in December, 1864.

19 Two of the companies in the fort were young men from Beaufort, and there, in sight of their homes, they were really prisoners. They resorted to various devices to keep up communication with their friends. Among others, they would send out tiny vessels, with sails all set, to drift across the bay, around the marshes, to Beaufort, carrying letters or other kinds of messages. On a thin board, thus set afloat on the 20th of April, was inscribed the following message: “To the Ladys of Beaufort,--we are still induring the privations of War, with unexosted Hopes if this vessil due reach hur port of destiny you will find that we are still well and alive and will not leeve till we sea the ruins of theas old Walls we have had several scurmish fights with the Yankee Piket Gard, the old topsail gards sends there best Respects to all there Lady friends of Beaufort and surrounding country.”

Such contrivances for communication were used elsewhere. While the contending armies were on the Rappahannock, the pickets of both sides would send newspapers backward and forward across the stream in that d way. Our little picture shows one in the possession of a Lieutenant C. A. Alvord, Jr., of General Caldwell's staff, which he brought from the Rappahannock. It is made of a piece of thin board, about twenty-three inches in length, with a strip of the same for a keel, and a rudder

Newspaper-boat at Fredericksburg.

of tin. Two small sticks formed masts, and the sails were made of checked cotton cloth. On it a newspaper was sent over by the insurgents from the Fredericksburg side of the river.

20 In cases like this, where the mortars and guns were so situated behind obstructions to vision that the range could not be precisely known, nor the effects of missiles sent determined, the services of the members of the Signal Corps were most important. As an illustrative example, I quote from the report of Lieutenant Andrews on this occasion: “I was the only [Signal] officer on duty on Beaufort station, until Lieutenant Marvin Wait reported for duty. My station was at a right angle with the line of fire, so that I was enabled to judge with accuracy the distance over or short a shot fell. The 10-inch shell were falling, almost without exception, more than three hundred yards beyond the fort. Lieutenant Wait and myself continued to signal to the officer in charge until the correct range was obtained. The 8-inch shell were falling short — we signaled to the officer in charge of that battery with the same effect. The same was the case with the battery of Parrott guns, which was too much elevated. From the position of our batteries, it was impossible for the officers in charge to see how their shots fell, but owing to the observations made by Lieutenant Wait and myself, and signaled to them from time to time, an accurate range was obtained by all the batteries, and was not lost during the day. After 12 M., every shot fired from our batteries fell in or on the fort.”

Lieutenant Wait (son of John T. Wait, of Norwich, Connecticut) was then only a little more than nineteen years of age. He had acquired great skill in signaling, and, for his services on this occasion, Major Myer, the chief of the Signal Department, presented him with a very beautiful battle-flag. A few months later he gave his young life to his country, while gallantly battling with his regiment (Eighth Connecticut) on the field of Antietam.

21 The capitulation was signed by Colonel M. T. White, General J. G. Parke, and Commodore Samuel Lockwood. The troops of the garrison were held as prisoners of war on parole until duly exchanged. The officers were allowed to retain their side-arms; and both officers and men had the privilege of saving their private effects. In this conflict the Nationals lost only one man killed and two wounded. The Confederates lost seven killed and eighteen wounded. The fruits for the victors were — the important fort; the command of Beaufort Harbor; 20,000 pounds of powder; 150 10-inch shells; 250 32-pound shot; 150 8-inch shot, and 400 stand of arms.--See Reports of General Burnside and Commodore Lockwood, April 27, 1862.

On the day after the surrender Burnside issued a congratulatory order, in which he said he took particular pleasure “in thanking General Parke and his brave command for the patient labor, fortitude, and courage displayed in the investment and reduction of Fort Macon,” and declared that the troops had “earned the right to wear upon their colors and guidons the words, ‘ Fort Macon, April 25, 1862.’ ”

22 The Confederate flag that was displaced by the National banner was made of the old United States flag that was over the fort when the insurgents seized it, more than a year before. The red and white stripes had been ripped apart, and then put together so as to form the broad bars of the Confederate flag. The superfluous stars had been cut out, and the holes thus made were left.

23 this view is from the ramparts, near the sally-port, looking seaward. The lower and the upper terreplein, on which forty-nine heavy guns and some mortars were then mounted, en barbette, are seen, the first being a part of the outer works, and the second the surmounting of the walls of the citadel (eighteen feet in height), which were casemated, covered with turf, and surrounded a large parade. In the foreground is seen an iron 82-pounder.

24 At about this time, an expedition under Commodore Rowan was sent to obstruct the Dismal Swamp Canal, in the rear of Norfolk. Rowan left Elizabeth City on the 23d of April, with the Lockwood, Whitehead, and Putnam, each with an officer and a detachment of troops. In the afternoon he landed one hundred men (fifty on each bank), and then, with a launch on the canal carrying a heavy 12-pounder, went forward about two miles. They sunk a schooner in the canal, and filled the stream, for about fifty yards above it, with stumps and trunks of trees, brush, vines, and earth. In this work they met with no opposition. In fact, the Confederates themselves had evidently abandoned the use of the canal, for they had obstructed it farther on toward Norfolk.

25 See page 125.

26 These troops consisted of the Forty-eighth New York; two companies of New York volunteer engineers, and two companies of Rhode Island volunteer artillery with twenty heavy guns.

27 Wright's troops consisted of the Fourth New Hampshire, Colonel Whipple; Sixth Connecticut, Colonel Chatfield; and Ninety-seventh Pennsylvania, Colonel Guess.

28 this is from a sketch made by the author from the deck of a steam-tug, just at sunset in April, 1866. these were only the remains of the formidable obstructions, those from the main channel having been removed. The scene is near Fort Jackson. On the right are seen earthworks on a small island, and on the left the shore of the main land, while in the distance is the City of Savannah.

29 A causeway was built across the island, chiefly by the Forty-eighth New York, over which heavy mortars were dragged. The islands near the mouth of the Savannah are formed of mud, of jelly consistency, from four to twelve feet in depth, and resting on half liquid clay. The surface is covered with a light turf of matted grassroots. Over this the causeway was built, of poles covered with loose planks; and upon this road mortars weighing more than eight tons were dragged, and placed in battery on heavy plank platforms. This labor was all performed at night.

30 See page 179, volume I.

31 “No one,” said Gillmore in his report, “can form any but a faint conception of the Herculean labor by which mortars of eight and a half tons weight, and columbiads but a trifle lighter, were moved in the dead of night over a narrow causeway bordered by swamps on each side, and liable at any moment to be overturned, and buried in the mud beyond reach.”

32 These were batteries Stanton and Grant, three 10-inch mortars each; Lyon and Lincoln, three columbiads each; Burnside, one heavy mortar; Sherman, three heavy mortars; Halleck, two heavy mortars; Scott, four columbiads; Sigel, five 30-pounder Parrott, and one 48-pounder James; McClellan, two 84-pounders and two 64-pounders James; Totten, four 10-inch siege mortars. Totten and McClellan were only 1,650 yards from the fort; Stanton was 8,400 yards distant. Each battery had a service magazine for two days supply of ammunition, and a depot powder magazine of 8,000 barrels capacity was constructed near the Martello tower, printed on page 125, which was the landing-place for all supplies on Tybee.

33 See the report of General Gillmore, dated April 80, 1862.

34 this is a view of the angle of the Fort where the great breach was made. It was copied by permission, from a drawing that accompanied General Gillmore's report, published by D. Vanostrand, New York. It was sketched on the morning after the battle. When the writer visited Fort Pulaski, in April, 1866, this breach was repaired, but the casemates within it were still in ruins.

35 Gillmore's breaching batteries had been ordered to assail the eastern half of the pancoupe, covering the south and southeast faces, so as to take in reverse, through the opening formed by them, the powder magazine. These batteries were established at the mean distance of 1,700 yards from the scarp walls of the fort.

36 Report of General Hunter, April 18; of General Benham, April 12, and of General Gillmore, April 80, 1862.

37 So named in honor of Brigadier-General Clinch, who was active in the war of 1812. He was the father-in-law of General Robert Anderson.

38 Fernandina was the eastern terminus of the Cedar Keys and Fernandina Railway, that crossed from the island to the main on trestle-work. A train was just starting on the arrival of Drayton. In the Ottawa he pursued it about two miles, firing several shots at the locomotive, but without doing much damage.

39 So large a number of Northern people inhabited Jacksonville at the beginning of the war, that it was called by the natives a “Yankee town.” But many of them were secessionists, and of 400 families who were there when Dupont arrived on the coast, only 70 remained when Stevens appeared. Jacksonville was one of the most beautiful, as well as the most flourishing and important cities in Florida; but this beginning of misery for the inhabitants did not end until it was nearly all destroyed during the war.

40 St. Augustine is the capital of St. John's County, Florida, and is situated on an estuary of the Atlantic, called North River, and two miles from the ocean. It is upon a plain a few feet above the sea. It is the oldest town in the United States founded by Europeans. The Spaniards built a fort there in 1565.

41 See page 170, volume I.

42 See page 108.

43 See page 146, volume I.

44 Parton's General Butler in New Orleans, page 194.

45 The captain of the Mississippi appears to have been utterly incompetent. On the night after leaving Hampton Roads, he ran his vessel on a shoal off Hatteras Inlet, and barely escaped wrecking. On the following day it struck a sunken rock, five miles from land, off the mouth of the Cape Fear, and an hour later, while leaking badly, it was hard fast on the Fryingpan Shoals, and partly submerged, when relief came in the gun-boat Mount Vernon, Commander O. S. Glisson, of the blockading squadron off Wilmington. The Mississippi was taken to Port Royal and repaired, and was again run aground while passing out of that harbor, when her commander was deposed.

46 See page 128, volume I.

47 This fort was on the extreme western end of the island. It was nearly circular in shape, and built of brick., The sand-bags made its walls bomb-proof. Outside of the fort was a redoubt, built of sand-bags, upon which a heavy Dahlgren gun was mounted, so as to command the channel leading into the really fine. harbor, in which vessels might find shelter from the worst storms on the Gulf.

48 These were the Twenty-sixth Massachusetts, Colonel Jones, Ninth Connecticut, Colonel Cahill, and Fourth Battery Massachusetts Artillery, Captain Manning.

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Amelia Island (Florida, United States) (10)
Ship Island (Mississippi, United States) (9)
Savannah (Mississippi, United States) (8)
North Carolina (North Carolina, United States) (8)
Morehead City (North Carolina, United States) (8)
Norfolk (Virginia, United States) (7)
Jacksonville (Florida, United States) (7)
Florida (Florida, United States) (7)
Washington (United States) (6)
St. Augustine (Florida, United States) (6)
Port Royal (South Carolina, United States) (6)
Mississippi (Mississippi, United States) (6)
Edgefield (Tennessee, United States) (6)
Charleston (South Carolina, United States) (6)
Hampton Roads (Virginia, United States) (5)
Fort Thompson (South Dakota, United States) (5)
Biloxi (Mississippi, United States) (5)
United States (United States) (4)
New England (United States) (4)
Fort Fisher (North Carolina, United States) (4)
Warsaw Sound (Georgia, United States) (3)
Tuscarora (North Carolina, United States) (3)
Roanoke Island (North Carolina, United States) (3)
Ottawa, Ill. (Illinois, United States) (3)
New Bern (North Carolina, United States) (3)
Mobile, Ala. (Alabama, United States) (3)
Fortress Monroe (Virginia, United States) (3)
Fort Marion (Florida, United States) (3)
Fort Jackson (Louisiana, United States) (3)
England (United Kingdom) (3)
Elizabeth City (North Carolina, United States) (3)
Cumberland Island (Georgia, United States) (3)
Carolina City (North Carolina, United States) (3)
Bogue Sound (North Carolina, United States) (3)
Bluff Point (North Carolina, United States) (3)
Wilmington River (Georgia, United States) (2)
Tybee River (Georgia, United States) (2)
Tybee Island (Georgia, United States) (2)
Texas (Texas, United States) (2)
St. Simon (France) (2)
St. Augustine Creek (Georgia, United States) (2)
Savannah (Georgia, United States) (2)
Pointe Venus (2)
Plymouth, N. C. (North Carolina, United States) (2)
Neuse (North Carolina, United States) (2)
Lake Borgne (United States) (2)
Gulf of Mexico (2)
Georgia (Georgia, United States) (2)
Fernandina, Fla. (Florida, United States) (2)
Cockspur Island (Georgia, United States) (2)
Brunswick, Ga. (Georgia, United States) (2)
Wright River (South Carolina, United States) (1)
Winton (North Carolina, United States) (1)
Wilmington, N. C. (North Carolina, United States) (1)
West Virginia (West Virginia, United States) (1)
West Point (Virginia, United States) (1)
Vernon River, Ga. (Georgia, United States) (1)
St. Simon's Sound (Georgia, United States) (1)
St. Andrew's Sound (Georgia, United States) (1)
St. Andrew's Island (Florida, United States) (1)
St Johns (Florida, United States) (1)
Southampton, Mass. (Massachusetts, United States) (1)
Southampton (United Kingdom) (1)
South Mills (North Carolina, United States) (1)
South Carolina (South Carolina, United States) (1)
Skidaway Island (Georgia, United States) (1)
Savannah River (United States) (1)
San Juan River (Florida, United States) (1)
Saint Marys River (Virginia, United States) (1)
Saint Mary's (Canada) (1)
Roanoke (United States) (1)
Rhode Island (Rhode Island, United States) (1)
Raleigh (North Carolina, United States) (1)
Providence, R. I. (Rhode Island, United States) (1)
Pollard (Alabama, United States) (1)
Perdido Bay (Florida, United States) (1)
Pensacola (Florida, United States) (1)
Pawnee City (Nebraska, United States) (1)
Pass Christian (Mississippi, United States) (1)
Pamlico (North Carolina, United States) (1)
Palatka (Florida, United States) (1)
Ossabaw Sound (Georgia, United States) (1)
Orleans, Ma. (Massachusetts, United States) (1)
Norwich (Connecticut, United States) (1)
North River (Virginia, United States) (1)
National (West Virginia, United States) (1)
Nassau River (Florida, United States) (1)
Mobile Bay (Alabama, United States) (1)
Massachusetts (Massachusetts, United States) (1)
Macon (Georgia, United States) (1)
Landing (New Jersey, United States) (1)
Key West (Florida, United States) (1)
Kanawha (West Virginia, United States) (1)
Hilton Head (South Carolina, United States) (1)
Greene Island (Rhode Island, United States) (1)
Galveston (Texas, United States) (1)
Fredericksburg, Va. (Virginia, United States) (1)
Fort Warren (Massachusetts, United States) (1)
Fort Taylor (Texas, United States) (1)
Fort Pickens (Florida, United States) (1)
Fort McRae (Florida, United States) (1)
Fort Lee (New Jersey, United States) (1)
Fort Lane (Utah, United States) (1)
Fort Barrancas (Florida, United States) (1)
Edisto Island (South Carolina, United States) (1)
Edenton (North Carolina, United States) (1)
Delaware (Delaware, United States) (1)
Dawfuskie Island (South Carolina, United States) (1)
Darien, Ga. (Georgia, United States) (1)
Cumberland Sound (United States) (1)
Craven County (North Carolina, United States) (1)
Carteret (North Carolina, United States) (1)
Cape Hatteras (North Carolina, United States) (1)
Cape Fear (North Carolina, United States) (1)
Calibogue Sound (South Carolina, United States) (1)
Bermuda (1)
Beaufort, S. C. (South Carolina, United States) (1)
Baton Rouge (Louisiana, United States) (1)
Baltimore, Md. (Maryland, United States) (1)
Annapolis (Maryland, United States) (1)
Altamaha (Georgia, United States) (1)

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Ambrose Everett Burnside (21)
Benjamin F. Butler (20)
Samuel F. Dupont (14)
Jesse L. Reno (13)
John G. Foster (13)
Quincy A. Gillmore (11)
Vincent Colyer (11)
J. G. Parke (10)
George B. McClellan (9)
George C. Strong (7)
William T. Sherman (7)
Stephen C. Rowan (7)
H. G. Wright (5)
Marvin Wait (5)
Thomas Holdup Stevens (5)
J. W. Phelps (5)
Egbert S. Viele (4)
Edwin M. Stanton (4)
John Rogers (4)
Samuel Lockwood (4)
Abraham Lincoln (4)
David Hunter (4)
M. J. Hawkins (4)
Moses T. White (3)
Mather (3)
Percival Drayton (3)
Ben Deford (3)
Helen Budd (3)
J. H. Wilson (2)
Whipple (2)
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James Totten (2)
Josiah Tatnall (2)
C. R. P. Rogers (2)
Pollard (2)
John G. Parke (2)
R. S. McCook (2)
Robert E. Lee (2)
T. N. Jones (2)
Henry James (2)
Flagler (2)
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Craven (2)
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Henry W. Benham (2)
J. J. Andrews (2)
Horatio G. Wright (1)
Whitehead (1)
M. T. White (1)
Godfrey Weitzel (1)
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Upton (1)
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Parton (1)
E. G. Parrott (1)
Charles H. Olmstead (1)
Albert J. Myer (1)
George M. Morris (1)
Henry Merritt (1)
Mathews (1)
E. H. Mason (1)
Manning (1)
Manney (1)
Nathaniel Macon (1)
Francis S. Lyon (1)
Kurtz (1)
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Guess (1)
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Dayton (1)
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Clinch (1)
John B. Clark (1)
Chatfield (1)
Cavendish (1)
Simon Cameron (1)
B. Caldwell (1)
S. L. Burritt (1)
McKean Buchanan (1)
Bryson (1)
Bennett (1)
Theodorus Bailey (1)
Armstrong (1)
Henry Andrew (1)
Robert Anderson (1)
C. A. Alvord (1)
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