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Washington dispatches.

--From the mass of dispatches sent from Washington to the Northern press we take the following items:

Judge Douglas has been preparing for some days past an elaborate and set speech on the pending crisis. It is understood he will take the position that secession means war, and that it is the duty of the Government to use its entire power, not only to execute the laws and collect the revenue, but to hold the federal property at all hazards, thus coercing the States into submission. This speech will, it is understood, be delivered on Monday or Tuesday next. The position of Judge D. fills the friends of the Union with the gloomiest apprehensions as to the future — at a time, too, when every effort is being made to bring about an adjustment.

Gen. Cass was a member of Gen. Jackson's Cabinet, as Secretary of War, and the Old Hero's course in the matter of nullification was fully endorsed by Gen. Cass. It is supposed that the views he then entertained, regarding the right of State revolution, have not been changed nor impaired by the lapse of time, and the President, having declined enforcing the federal power by succoring the fortifications in Charleston harbor in this crisis, he has felt obliged to withdraw from the chief council of the nation. His resignation will precipitate events in the South, and, it is believed in the highest quarters, will render certain matters of a revolutionary tendency which were hither to in doubt.

Mrs. Anderson, wife of Major Anderson, in command at Fort Moultrie, has called upon the President within a few days and demanded that he increase the force at that place, or she will take his neglect to do so as an intentional and wicked sacrifice of her husband's life, who, she declares, will never surrender the place, but rather fall in its defence.

The Governor of Mississippi has appointed Secretary Thompson a Commissioner on the part of that State to North Carolina. The President has given his consent to his acting in that capacity, and he will leave at once.--The object of this is to get the Southern States to co-operate together.

"Miss Lane's Saturday morning receptions commence to-day, although it had been previously announced that all festivities at the White House would be suspended, for political reasons.

"Reverdy Johnson made a speech in the Supreme Court, in the Albany Bridge case, and incidentally alluding to the present national crisis, remarked that it is preposterous to suppose that any State can absolve itself from the allegiance due to the Federal Government. It is said his remarks produced a deep sensation."

Senator Benjamin, it is stated, will take an early opportunity to make a secession speech.

Certain secessionists assert that France, Russia, Prussia, and other European powers, will probably recognize the independence of any seceding States, and it is said that a line of French steamers, which were intended to run from Havre to New York, will be changed from the latter port to New Orleans.

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