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tion, to ride for a few stormy years on the restless waves of Polish anarchy, Leibnitz could say with truth: The elector of Brandenburg is now the head of the Protestants in the empire. Ibid., 524. The pope of the hour, foreshadowing the policy of Kaunitz, denounced his coronation as a shamelessly impudent deed, and his house as one of which the dominion ought never to be increased. A copy of the letter of the pope was communicated to me by my friend George V. Bunsen. The peace of Utrecht called forth the vehement Chap. II.} reprobation of Leibnitz, and proved that the house of Hapsburg was not the proper guardian of Germany; yet it was full of good prophecies for the future, and marks the point of time when, in Europe and in America, the new civilization compelled the recognition of its right to existence. For England it contained the acknowledgment by the Catholic powers of an exclusively Protestant succession, established by laws in derogation of legitimacy; for Italy,
dvantages France designed to exact for herself in the final treaty of peace. For a time Montmorin kept him at bay by vague promises. Montmorin to Vergennes, 29 Sept., 1778. In a case like this, said Florida Blanca, probability will not suffice; it is necessary to be able to speak with certainty. And, without demanding the like confidence from Spain, Vergennes in October enumerated as the only conditions which France would require: Vergennes to Montmorin, 17 Oct., 1778. the treaty of Utrecht wholly continued or wholly abrogated; freedom to restore the harbor of Dunquerque; the coast of Newfoundland from Cape Bonavista to Cape St. John, with the exclusive fishery from Cape Bonavista to Point Riche. The question of a right to fortify the commercial establishment of Chandernagor fell with the surrender of that post; Ibid. the insinuation of a desire to recover Canada, Vergennes always repelled as a calumny. As the horizon began to clear and Florida Blanca became sure of his
m. In this congress acquiesced, though two states persisted in demanding their annexation. With regard to the fisheries, of which the interruption formed one of the elements of the war, public law had not yet been settled. By the treaty of Utrecht, Article XIII:, April 11, 1713. France agreed not to fish within thirty Chap. IX.} 1779. leagues of the coast of Nova Scotia; and by that of Paris, not to fish within fifteen leagues of Cape Breton. Treaty of 10 Feb., 1763, article 5. Sep Great Britain, according to the American view, was to possess no territory on the Mississippi, Chap. IX.} 1779. from its source to its mouth. On the same day, Gerry obtained a reconsideration of the article on the fisheries. The treaty of Utrecht divided those of Newfoundland between Great Britain and France, on the principle that each should have a monopoly of its own share. Richard Henry Lee brought up the subject anew, and, avoiding a collision with the monopoly of France, he propo
gnised in 1674 in their fullest extent by the commercial convention between England and the Netherlands. In 1689, after the stadholder of the United Provinces had been elected king of England, his overpowering influence drew the Netherlands into an acquiescence in a declaration that all ships going to or coming from a French port were good prizes; but it was recalled upon the remonstrance of neutral states. The rights of neutral flags were confirmed by France and England in the peace of Utrecht. The benefits of the agreement extended to Denmark, as entitled to all favors granted to other powers. Between 1604 and 1713, the principle had been accepted in nearly twenty treaties. When, in 1745, Prussian ships, laden with wood and corn, were captured on the high seas and condemned in English courts, Frederic, without a navy and even without one deep harbor, without a treaty, resting only on the law of nations, exacted full indemnity from England. The neutral flag found protection i
y-sixth of February, Friesland, famous Feb. 26. for the spirit of liberty in its people, who had retained in their own hands the election of their regencies, declared in favor of receiving the American envoy; and its vote was the index of the opinion of the nation. A month later, the states of Hol- March 28. land, yielding to petitions from all the principal towns, followed the example. Zealand adhered on the fourth of April; Overyssel, on the fifth; Gronin- April 4. gen, on the ninth; Utrecht, on the tenth; and 10. Guelderland, on the seventeenth. On the day which 17. chanced to be the seventh anniversary of the battle 19. of Lexington, their High Mightinesses, the statesgeneral, reporting the unanimous decision of the seven provinces, resolved that John Adams should be received. The Dutch republic was the second power in the Chap. XXVI.} 1782. world to recognise the independence of the United States of America, and the act proceeded from its heroic sympathy with a young