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A Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology (ed. William Smith) 22 22 Browse Search
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ubulus prevailed on the Athenians to send an embassy to Peloponnesus with the object of uniting the Greeks against the common enemy. and Aeschines was sent to Arcadia. Here Aeschines spoke at Megalopolis against Hieronymus an emissary of Philip, but without success; and from this moment Aeschines, as well as all his fellow-citizens, gave up the hope of effecting anything by the united forces of Greece. (Dem. De fals. Leg. pp. 314, 438; Aesch. De fals. Leg. p. 38.) When therefore Philip, in B. C. 347, gave the Athenians to understand that he was inclined to make peace with them, Philocrates urged the necessity of sending an embassy to Philip to treat on the subject. Ten men, and among them Aeschines and Demosthenes, were accordingly sent to Philip, who received them with the utmost politeness, and Aeschines, when it was his turn to speak, reminded the king of the rights which Athens had to his friendship and alliance. The king promised to send forthwith ambassadors to Athens to negotia
Archela'us (*)Arxe/laos), one of the illegitimate sons of AMYNTAS II. by Cygnaea. Himself and his two brothers (Archideus or Arrhidaeus, and Menelaus) excited the jealousy of their halfbrother Philip; and, this having proved fatal to one of them, the other two tied for refuge to Olynthus. According to Justin, the protection which they obtained there gave occasion to the Olynthian war, B. C. 349; and on the capture of the city, B. C. 347, the two princes fell into Philip's hands and were put to death. (Just. 7.4, 8.3.) [E.
ded a curb, whereas Xenocrates needed the spur. (D. L. 4.6.) And while he recommended the latter "to sacrifice to the Graces," he appears rather to have warned Aristotle against the " too much." Aristotle lived at Athens for twenty years, till B. C. 347. (Apoll. apud Diog. Laeert. 5.9.) During the whole of this period the good understanding which subsisted between teacher and scholar continued. with some trifling exceptions, undisturbed. For the stories of the disrespect and ingratitude of theer, we have still the letter in which his royal friend announces to him the birth of his son Alexander. (B. C. 356; Gel. 9.3; Dion Chrysost. Orat. xix.) After the death of Plato, which occurred during the above-mentioned embassy of Aristotle (B. C. 347), the latter left Athens, though we do not exactly know for what reason. Perhaps he was offended by Plato's having appointed Speusippus as his successor in the Academy. (D. L. 5.2, 4.1.) At the same time, it is more probable that, after the not
east of the Chersonese, of which Cephisodotus had been ordered to make himself master under the pretext of dislodging a band of pirates who had taken refuge there. Unable to cope with Charidemus, he entered into a compromise by which the place was indeed yielded to Athens, but on terms so disadvantageous that he was recalled from his command and brought to trial for his life. By a majority of only three votes he escaped sentence of death, but was condemned to a fine of five talents. (Dem. c. Aristocr. pp. 670-676; Suid. s. v. *Khfiso/dotos.) This was perhaps the Cephisodotus who, in B. C. 355, joined Aristophon the Azenian and others in defending the law of Leptines against Demosthenes, and who is mentioned in the speech of the latter as inferior to none in eloquence. (Dem. c. Lept. p. 501, &c.; cump. Ruhnk. Hist. Crit. Orat. Gr. p. 141.) Aristotle speaks of him (Rhet. 3.10) as an opponent of Charges when the latter had to undergo his eu)qu/nh after the Olvnthian war, B. C. 347. [E.E]
neness is doubted by some of the ancients. See the Greek Argumentum. 35. *(Upe\r *Formi/wnos paragrafh/ *(Upe\r *Formi/wnos paragrafh/, belongs to B. C. 350. 36. *Pro\s *Pantai/neton paragrafh/ *Pro\s *Pantai/neton paragrafh/, falls after B. C. 347. 37. *Pro\s *Nausi/maxon kai\ *Cenopei/qh paragrafh/ *Pro\s *Nausi/maxon kai\ *Cenopei/qh paragrafh/, is of uncertain date. 38. *Pro\s *Boiwto\n peri\ tou o)no/maatos *Pro\s *Boiwto\n peri\ tou o)no/maatos, belongs to B. C. 351 or 350, and was ascribed by some of the ancients to Deinarchus. (Dionys. Deinarch. 13.) See Böckh, Urkund. über. das Att. Seewesen, p. 22, &c. 39. *Pro\s *Boiwto\n n(pe\r proiko\s mhtrw/|as *Pro\s *Boiwto\n n(pe\r proiko\s mhtrw/|as, B. C. 347. 40. *Pro\s *Spoudi/an u(pe\r proiko/s *Pro\s *Spoudi/an u(pe\r proiko/s, of uncertain date. 41. *Pro\s *Fai/nippon peri\ a)ntido/sews *Pro\s *Fai/nippon peri\ a)ntido/sews, of uncertain date. The genuineness of this oration is doubted by the author of the
Dercylus or DERCYLLUS (*Derku/los, *De/rkullos), an Athenian, was one of that embassy of ten, in which Aeschines and Demosthenes were included, and which was sent to Philip to treat on the subject of peace in B. C. 347. In B. C. 346, the same ambassadors appear to have been again deputed to ratify the treaty. (See the Argument prefixed to Dem. de Fals. Leg. p. 336; Aesch. de Fals. Leg. p. 41; Thirwall's Greece, vol. v. p. 356; comp. the decree apud Dem. de Cor. p. 235; Classical Museum, vol. i. p. 145.) Dercylus was also one of the envoys in the third embassy (*e)pi\ tou\s *)Amfiktu/onas), which was appointed to convey to Philip, then marching upon Phocis, the complimentary and cordial decree of Philocrates, and to attend the Amphictyonic coullncil that was about to be convened on the affairs of Phocis. When, however, the ambassadors had reached Chalcis in Euboea, they heard of the destruction of the Phocian towns by Philip, and of his having taken part entirely with the Thebans, and
situation of a banker to the undisputed government of the two cities already mentioned. In this position Eubulus maintained himself till his death, in defiance, it would appear, of the authority of Persia (see Arist. Pol. 2.4), and on that event Hermias seems to have succeeded to his authority without opposition. The exact period of his accession is unknown, and we know not how long he had held the sovereign power when he invited Aristotle and Xenocrates to his little court, about the year B. C. 347. The long sojourn of Aristotle with him, and the warm attachment which that philosopher formed towards him, are strong arguments in favour of the character of Hermias: yet the relations between them did not escape the most injurious suspicions, for which there was doubtless as little reason as for the obloquy with which Aristotle was loaded when, after the death of Hermias, he married Pythias, the niece, or, according to other accounts, the adopted daughter of his friend and benefactor. (S
Hypsaeus a cognomen of the Plautia Gens at Rome. 1. C. Plautius Venno Hypsaeus, was consul for the first time in B. C. 347. H/is year of office was memorable for the reduction of the interest on loans to the twenty fourth part of the sum borrowed, or 4 and one-sixth per cent. Hypsaeus was consul again in B. C. 341, when the war with Privernum and with the Volscian league was committed to him. He defeated the Privernatians, and took from them two-thirds of their public land, and he compelled the Volscians to retreat, ravaged their territory as far as the sea-coast, and consecrated the arms of the slain " Luae Matri." (Liv. 7.27, 8.1.)
Meneisa'us 2. A son of Amyntas II., king of Macedonia, by his wife Gygaea. (Just. 7.4.) According to Justin, he was put to death by his step-brother Philip, after the capture of Olynthus, B. C. 347. (Id. 8.3.)
e writers he is called an Athenian, probably because the Athenians, who, as Plutarch informs him, held him in high honour, had bestowed upon him the right of citizenship (Senec. Controv. 5.10; Acro, Schol. ad Hor. Carm. 4.8; Plut. This. 4; Junius, Catal. Artif. s. v.). With respect to the time at which he flourished, there has been some doubt, arising from a story told by Seneca (l.c.), which, if true, would bring down his time as late as the taking of Olynthus by Philip, in Ol. 108, 2, or B. C. 347. But this tale has quite the air of a fiction; and it is rejected, as unworthy of attention, by all the authorities except Sillig and Meyer, the latter of whom makes the extraordinary mistake of bringing down the life of Parrhasius as late as the time of Alexander the Great. On the other hand, the statement of Pausanias (1.28.2), that he drew the outlines of the chasing on the shield of Pheidias's statue of Athena Promachus, would place him as early as Ol. 84, or B. C. 444, unless we accep
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