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each span, completed the establishment. All being ready, we took one of the roads from Pont-a-Mousson to R6zonville, which is on the direct road from Metz to Chalons, and near the central point of the field where, on the 16th of August, the battle of Mars-la-Tour had been fought. It was by this road that the Pomeranians, numbh their right, while the corps of the Second Army advanced toward the north, to prevent the French, of whose intentions there was much doubt, from escaping toward Chalons; then, as the purposes of the French might be developed, these corps were to change direction toward the enemy successively, and seek to turn his right flank. Bucort who had been wounded. When he had arranged for their care, we set out to rejoin the King, and before going far, overtook his Majesty, who had stopped on the Chalons road, and was surrounded by a throng of fugitives, whom he was berating in German so energetic as to remind me forcibly of the Dutch swearing that I used to hear
French from head to foot, if intense hatred of the Prussians be a sign of Gallic nationality. At daybreak on the 26th word came for us to be ready to move by the Chalons road at 7 o'clock, but before we got off, the order was suspended till 2 in the afternoon. In the interval General von Moltke arrived and held a long conference nderstand, but soon learned that it was because of the movements of Marshal MacMahon, who, having united the French army beaten at Worth with three fresh corps at Chalons, was marching to relieve Metz in obedience to orders from the Minister of War at Paris. As we passed along the column, we noticed that the Crown Prince's troorther than usual that day — to Clermont-so we did not get shelter till late, and even then not without some confusion, for the quartermaster having set out toward Chalons before the change of programme was ordered, was not at hand to provide for us. I had extreme good luck, though, in being quartered with a certain apothecary, who,
consequence of blunders without parallel in history, for which Napoleon and the Regency in Paris must be held accountable. The first of these gross faults was the fight at Worth, where MacMahon, before his army was mobilized, accepted battle with the Crown Prince, pitting 50,000 men against 175,000; the next was Bazaine's fixing upon Metz as his base, and stupidly putting himself in position to be driven back to it, when there was no possible obstacle to his joining forces with MacMahon at Chalons; while the third and greatest blunder of all was MacMahon's move to relieve Metz, trying to slip 140,000 men along the Belgian frontier. Indeed, it is exasperating and sickening to think of all this; to think that Bazaine carried into Metz — a place that should have been held, if at all, with not over 25,000 men — an army of 180,000, because it contained, the excuse was, an accumulation of stores. With all the resources of rich France to draw upon, I cannot conceive that this excuse was s
Baron de Jomini, Summary of the Art of War, or a New Analytical Compend of the Principle Combinations of Strategy, of Grand Tactics and of Military Policy. (ed. Major O. F. Winship , Assistant Adjutant General , U. S. A., Lieut. E. E. McLean , 1st Infantry, U. S. A.), Chapter 3: strategy. (search)
had anticipated Dumouriez at the Islettes, or had attempted more seriously to drive him from thence, it would have had still all the advantage of a mass concentrated against several isolated divisions, in order to overthrow them successively, and render their union impossible. I think that Frederick, in such a case, would have justified the words of Dumouriez, (the latter said at Grandpre that, if he had had to do with the great king, he would have found himself already repulsed far behind Chalons.) The Austrians proved, in this campaign, that they were then still imbued with the false system of Daun and Lacy, of covering all to hold all. The idea of having twenty thousand men in the Brisgaw, whilst the Moselle and the Sarre remained disgarnished, demonstrated that they were afraid of losing a village, and that this system compelled them to form those great detachments which ruin armies. Forgetting that heavy battalions are always in the right, they believed it necessary to occup
Baron de Jomini, Summary of the Art of War, or a New Analytical Compend of the Principle Combinations of Strategy, of Grand Tactics and of Military Policy. (ed. Major O. F. Winship , Assistant Adjutant General , U. S. A., Lieut. E. E. McLean , 1st Infantry, U. S. A.), Chapter 6: logistics, or the practical art of moving armies. (search)
pedition of the Prince Koudacheff, sent after the battle of Dresden to the Prince of Sweden, and who after having swam the Elbe, marched in the midst of the French columns near Wittenburg, is an historical monument of those kinds of excursions. The information furnished by the partisans of Generals Czernitcheff, Benkendorf, Davidoff and Seslawin, have rendered eminent services of the same nature. We recollect that it was a despatch of Napoleon to the Empress Maria Louisa, intercepted near Chalons by the Cossacks which advised the Allies of the project formed by the French Emperor for throwing himself upon their com munications with all his united forces, by basing himself on the belt of strong places of Lorraine and Alsace. This precious information decided the union of the armies of Blucher and Schwartzenburg, which all seeming strategic remonstrance had never succeeded in making act in concert, excepting at Leipsic and Brienne. It is known also that it was information given by
H. Wager Halleck , A. M. , Lieut. of Engineers, U. S. Army ., Elements of Military Art and Science; or, Course of Instruction in Strategy, Fortification, Tactis of Battles &c., Embracing the Duties of Staff, Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery and Engineers. Adapted to the Use of Volunteers and Militia., Chapter 15: military Education—Military schools of France, Prussia, Austria, Russia, England, &c.—Washington's reasons for establishing the West point Academy.—Rules of appointment and Promotion in foreign Services.—Absurdity and injustice of our own system. (search)
t captain of the age. His whole life was devoted to the military art. Berthier and Marmont were both sons of officers, and, being early intended for the army, they received military educations. Lecourbe had also the advantages of a military education before entering the army. Pichegru and Duroc were pupils of the military school of Brienne. Drouet was a pupil of the artillery school. Foy was first educated in the college of Soissons, and afterwards in the military schools of La Fere and Chalons. Carnot, called the Organizer of French victory, received a good early education, and was also a pupil of the engineer school of Mezieres. Several of the distinguished French generals at first received good scientific and literary educations in the colleges of France, and then acquired their military instruction in the subordinate grades of the army; and by this means, before their promotion to responsible offices, acquired a thorough practical instruction, founded on a basis of a thoro
the credit of first making the double-acting high-pressure steam-engine a success. In 1801, he built a floating dredging-machine, to which he fitted wheels connected with the engine, and conveyed it 1 1/2 miles to the place of launching. See high-pressure steamengine. It is stated that about 1803, a Mr. Fredericks made a locomotive for a silver-mine in Hanover. The principles of construction are unknown. In 1806, a locomotive to be driven by hot air was constructed by Niepce at Chalons, France. Trevethick's locomotive had a single cylinder, laid horizontally below the bottom or front part of the boiler, its reciprocating piston-rod being connected by another rod with a crank, at the midlength of an axle which carried a fly-wheel and a pair of cog-wheels, which geared into other spur-wheels on the axle of the driving-wheels. The engine was run upon a railway at Merthyr-Tydvil, in 1802, and drew ten tons in addition to its own load at the rate of five miles per hour. V
parator in which the slimes or comminuted ores are agitated in the presence of water. In the example, the rocking table has lateral concavities furnished with agitating pins and vertical discharge-openings. The table has longitudinal and vertical motion from cranks on two shafts having different speeds, and connected by a belt over pulleys on said shafts. Shaking-table. Shal′LI. (Fabric.) A twilled cloth made from the hair of the Angora goat. Shal-loon′. (Fabric.) From Chalons, in France. A kind of worsted stuff, formerly used. In blue shalloon shall Hannibal be glad. swift. Shal′lop. (Nautical.) a. A light fishingves-sel with two masts and lug or fore-and-aft sails. b. A sloop. A one-masted, undecked, foreand-aft rigged vessel. c. A boat for one or two rowers. Sham′bles. (Mining.) Shelves, stages, or benches on to which the ore is thrown successively in raising. Sham′my. Properly chamois. A kind of soft leather, ori
is nothing like it. This leaves us all behind,--all, all, miles behind! M. Belloc said the reason was because there was in it more genuine faith than in any book; and we branched off into florid eloquence touching paganism, Christianity, and art. Wednesday, June 22. Adieu to Paris! Ho for Chalons-sur-Saone! After affectionate farewells of our kind friends, by eleven o'clock we were rushing, in the pleasantest of cars, over the smoothest of rails, through Burgundy. We arrived at Chalons at nine P. M. Thursday, 23, eight o'clock A. M. Since five we have had a fine bustle on the quay below our windows. There lay three steamers, shaped for all the world like our last night's rolls. One would think Ichabod Crane might sit astride one of them and dip his feet in the water. They ought to be swift. L'Hirondelle (The Swallow) flew at five; another at six. We leave at nine. Lyons. There was a scene of indescribable confusion upon our arrival here. Out of the hold
Margaret Fuller, Memoirs of Margaret Fuller Ossoli (ed. W. H. Channing), chapter 11 (search)
sent him your poems, and asked him to come and see me. He came, and I found in him the man I had long wished to see, with the intellect and passions in due proportion for a full and healthy human being, with a soul constantly inspiring. Unhappily, it was a very short time before I came away. How much time had I wasted on others which I might have given to this real and important relation. After hearing music from Chopin and Neukomm, I quitted Paris on the 25th February, and came, via Chalons, Lyons, Avignon, (where I waded through melting snow to Laura's tomb,) Arles, to Marseilles; thence, by steamer, to Genoa, Leghorn, and Pisa. Seen through a cutting wind, the marble palaces, the gardens, the magnificent water-view of Genoa, failed to charm. Only at Naples have I found my Italy. Between Leghorn and Naples, our boat was run into by another, and we only just escaped being drowned. Rome. Rome, May, 1847.—Of the fragments of the great time, I have now seen nearly all t
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