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ething more potential than mere promises to protect them from human depravity and human ambition. That they did so is to be found in the debates both of the general and the state conventions, where state interposition was often declared to be the bulwark against usurpation. At an early period in the history of the federal government, the states of Kentucky and Virginia found reason to reassert this right of state interposition. In the first of the famous resolutions drawn by Jefferson in 1798, and with some modification adopted by the legislature of Kentucky in November of that year, it is declared that, whensoever the General Government assumes undelegated powers, its acts are unauthoritative, void, and of no force; that to this compact each State acceded as a State, and is an integral party; that this Government, created by this compact, was not made the exclusive or final judge of the extent of the powers delegated to itself; since that would have made its discretion, and not t
Chapter 8: The Kentucky resolutions of 1798-‘99 their influence on political affairs Kentucky declares for neutrality correspondence of Governor Magoffin with the President of the Unitously with her mother in the assertion of the cardinal principles announced in the resolutions of 1798-‘99. She then by the properly constituted authority did with due solemnity declare that the govebe henceforth a state; that none other than the people of each state could, by the resolutions of 1798-‘99, have been referred to as the final judge of infractions of their compact, and of the remedy d threats of coercion if any state attempted to exercise the rights defined in the resolutions of 1798-‘99. If, however, any such hope may have been entertained, but few moons had filled and waned beto the principles of 1776 and 1787, and the declaratory affirmation of them in the resolutions of 1798-‘99. About the same time others of great worth and distinction, impelled by the feeling that
n Dred Scott case, 70-71. K Kane, George P., 290. Kansas, 12, 23, 24, 31. Settlement, 26, 27. Speech of Davis on President's message relative to Lecompton constitution, 465-69. Kansas-Nebraska bill, 23, 24-25, 33, 71. Terms, 25-26. Kearsarge (ship), 408. Keitt, Col. Lawrence M., 206. Kelley, General, 392. Kennedy, —, 292. Kenner, Duncan F. Extract from letter concerning Davis, 205. Kentucky, 10, 42. Right of state interposition, 160. Resolutions of 1798-99, 332. Position of neutrality, 333-37, 341-45. Correspondence with Gen. Polk, 337-41. Gov. Magoffin's reply to U. S. call for troops, 354. King, Rufus, 136. Remarks on sectional interests, 158. Know-nothing party (See American party). Knox, General, 139. L Lafayette, General, 139. Lamon, Colonel, 234-35, 243, 244. Lane, General, 365, 370. Gen. Joseph, 43, 44. Extract from speech on right of secession, 216-17. Laurel Hill, Battle of, July 12, 1861, 293-94
the United States government. I should deem an apology due my readers, in offering for their perusal such insane extravagances, under a constitutional government of limited powers, had not this doctrine been adopted by the United States government and subsequently made the basis of some most revolutionary measures for the emancipation of the African slaves and the enslavement of the free citizens of the South. One must allow that the Chamber of Deputies of the French National Assembly of 1798 had some claims to a respectable degree of political virtue when compared with the Thirtyseventh Congress and the Executive of the United States. The specious argument for this tremendous and sweeping usurpation, designated as the war power, as presented by its adherents, may be stated in a few words, thus: the Constitution confers on Congress all the specific powers incident to war, and then further authorizes it to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execu
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Adams, John Quincy, 1767- (search)
England and France and returned home with him early in 1785. After his graduation at Harvard, he studied law with the eminent Theophilus Parsons, practised at Boston, and soon became distinguished as a political writer. In 1791 he published a series of articles in favor of neutrality with France over the signature of Publius. He was engaged in the diplomatic service of his country as minister, successively, to Holland, England, and Prussia from 1794 to 1801. He received a commission, in 1798, to negotiate a treaty with Sweden. At Berlin he wrote a series of Letters from Silesia. Mr. Adams married Louisa, daughter of Joshua Johnson, American consul at London, in 1797. He took a seat in the Senate of Massachusetts in 1802, and he occupied one in that of the United States from 1803 until 1808. when disagreeing with the legislature of Massachusetts on the embargo question, he resigned. From 1806 to 1809 he was Professor of Rhetoric in Harvard College. In the latter year he was a
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Alabama. (search)
he followers of De Soto (q. v.). In 1702, Bienville. the French governor of Louisiana, entered Mobile Bay, and built a fort and trading-house at the mouth of Dog River. In 1711 the French founded Mobile, and there a colony prospered for a while. Negro State seal of Alabama. slaves were first brought into this colony by three French ships of war in 1721. By the treaty of 1763 this region was transferred by France to Great Britain. Alabama formed a portion of the State of Georgia, but in 1798 the country now included in the States of Alabama and Mississippi was organized as a Territory called Mississippi. After the Creeks disappeared the region of Alabama was rapidly settled by white people, and in 1819 it entered the Union as a State. The slave population increased more rapidly than the white. In the Democratic National Convention that was held at Charleston in 1860 the delegates of Alabama took the lead in seceding from the convention. In October of that year, Herschell V.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Alien and Sedition laws, (search)
Alien and Sedition laws, Up to 1798 the greater part of the emiigrants to the United States since the adoption of the national Constitution had been either Frenchmen, driven into exile by political troubles at home, or Englishmen, Scotchmen, and Irishmen, who had espoused ultra-republican principles, and who, flying from the n of pure lives and noble aims, but many were desperate political intriguers, ready to engage in any scheme of mischief. It was estimated that at the beginning of 1798 there were 30,000 Frenchmen in the United States organized in clubs, and at least fifty thousand who had been subjects of Great Britain. These were regarded as dangerous to the commonwealth, and in 1798, when war with France seemed inevitable, Congress passed acts for the security of the government against internal foes. By an act (June 18, 1798), the naturalization laws were made more stringent, and alien enemies could not become citizens at all. By a second act (June 25), which was limi
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Allen, Ira, 1751-1814 (search)
t, and took a distinguished part in public affairs in Vermont, his adopted State, where he served in the legislature, and was secretary of state, surveyor-general, and a member of the council. He was a military leader in the war for independence, and was one of the commissioners sent to Congress to oppose the claims of neighboring provinces to jurisdiction in Vermont. He effected an armistice with the British in Canada in 1781, and by so doing brought about a settlement of the controversy with New York. As senior major-general of the State militia in 1795, he went to Europe to purchase arms for his commonwealth, and on his way homeward with muskets and cannon he was captured, taken to England, and charged with being an emissary of the French, and intending to supply the Irish malcontents with arms. After long litigation the matter was settled in Allen's favor. He wrote a National and political history of Vermont, published in London in 1798, and died in Philadelphia, Jan. 7, 1814.
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Anderson, Alexander, 1775- (search)
e was driven from the city by the British in 1776. At the age of twelve years young Anderson made quite successful attempts at engraving on copper and type-metal, and two or three years later he began the study of medicine. In 1796 he received the degree of M. D. from Columbia College, writing for the occasion a thesis on Chronic mania. He Alexander Anderson. practised the profession for a few years, and engraved at the same time, liking that employment better. After the yellow fever in 1798 had swept away nearly his whole family, he abandoned the practice of medicine and made engraving his life profession. Having seen an edition of Bewick's History of quadrupeds, illustrated with wood-engravings by that master, Anderson first learned that Wood was used for such a purpose. He tried it successfully; and from that time he used it almost continuously until a few months before his death, in Jersey City, N. J., Jan. 17. 1870. A vast number of American books illustrated by Anderson
Harper's Encyclopedia of United States History (ed. Benson Lossing), Bache, Hartman, 1798-1872 (search)
Bache, Hartman, 1798-1872 Engineer; born in Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 3, 1798; was graduated at West Point in 1818, and while in the army served continuously as a topographical engineer, on surveys for harbor and river improvements, coast defence, roads, and canals. On March 3, 1865, he was promoted to brigadier-general, the highest rank in the engineer corps, and in 1867 was retired. His most important engineering works were the construction of the Delaware breakwater and the successful application of iron screw-piles in the building of foundations of light-houses upon coral-reefs and sandy shoals. He died in Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 8, 1872.
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