The Continvance of the Annales of Scotland, from the Death of the Regent Matthew Earle of Leneaux.THE earle of Lineaux slaine and buried at Stearlinge (as the state of that same 1572. Lesleus lib. 10. pag. 387. Buchan. lib. 20. troblsome time wold so permit) the noblemen which were there present of that faction, taking part with the king, assembled themselues for the creating of a new regent, to which function they named thrée, and those first by oth compelled to yeeld to the voices of the nobilitie. The thrée appointed by them were Gilspec Cambell earle of Argile, Iames Colen. The earle of Mar made regent of Scotland. Dowglasse earle of Mourton, and Iohn Areskine earle of Mar. But in the end, vpon consultation which of these for most causes (both beneficiall and honorable to the realme and king) were méetest to wéeld so troublesome and dangerous an office; in the end it was laid vpon the shoulders of the last of the thrée, to whome (they wholie inclining) gaue full authoritie to execute the office of a regent. At the first entrance into which place, this Areskine, hauing nothing more déere or desired to and of him, than the besieging and recouerie of the castell and town of Edenbrough (out of the hands of the queens faction) to the vse of his maister and pupill (whervnto the last calends of October he was appointed, with a sufficient armie by the last decessed regent his predecessor) he was now hindered therof by sudden (and vnlooked for) turmoiles of the estates of the realme. Wherevpon for that instant, the same was proroged to the ides of the said moneth of October. Which delaie was after occasion of great impediment for the recouerie thereof, bicause it ministred time, power, substance, and succor to the citizens and capteins, to mure and strengthen the castell and towne, when the sharpe winter, the long nights, the hard carriage for the wars, preparation, and the want of sufficient furniture therefore (at the same time with the said turmoiles) occasioned departure from thense, without dispatch of that for which he came. Certeine moneths after that the regent was gone from thense, there were some few and small excursions and skirmishes vsed amongst them, the victorie inclining to neither part. For the frée sight & watch out of the castell of Edenborough (towards euerie part of the countrie) so wrought, that the quéenes faction should neither come to handstrokes, nor Skirmishes about Edenborough. yet (being vnprouided) should be intrapped with the deceits of their enimies: bicause by a priuie token (giuen out of the highest towre of the castell) they were easilie warned to recoile and draw homeward in conuenient time. All which notwithstanding, they once felt the smart of the enimie, when all the horsse and footmen were come out of the towne to intercept a part of the kings armie. For the kings faction (hauing first laid an ambush in An ambush laid by the kings faction. the vallie) did with the rest come before the castell, in hope to traine the towne garrison vpon them out of the wals of their defense, which their expectation was not deceiued. For the said Edenburgers made hast out of the towne, to pursue the said part of the kings armie, which feined a spéedie flight, to draw the other part further from defense of the castell. By means wherof, they of the towne did so egerlie pursue them so flieng, that in the end they went so far after their enimies, that they drew néere the ensignes of the other ambush, now shewing themselues out of the vallie to rescue their fellowes put to this feined flight. Which thing being well perceiued by the watch of the castell of Edenborough, foorthwith it The quéenes part warned by the watch of Edenborough castell. gaue the appointed signe, whereby those on the quéenes part (before that they came neere to the place in which they were laid for) began fearfullie to recoile for their better safetie; whose flight was the more troublesome to them, bicause they knew they were in danger, and could not suspect from whense or how their hurt should come, although they were before warned therof by the said watch of the towre. In which recoile of the quéenes part, the few horssemen which had before feined the flight (to draw on the other) returned, and They which laie in ambush pursue those that came foorth to set vpō the kings part. made such hast on the backe of the footmen, that the footmen were inforced (with all the spéed that might be) to flie vnto the citie, the next waie that euerie man could find for his best defense: at what time yet manie of them were wounded, and manie taken prisoners, as well capteins and gentlemen of armes, as others. Whilest these things were thus slowlie performed, in that the towne of Edenbrough was with no more heat sought to be recouered, a miserable misfortune happened in an other part of Scotland: for a great slaughter was in the north end of the realme occasioned by this means. There were in that countrie two families of great power and authoritie, both A conflict betwéene the Gordons and the Forboises. valiant and wise, both harboring deadlie food of long rooted betwéene them. These two were of the sier-names of Gordon, and of Forboise, whereof the first liued with great concord and amitie amongst themselues, and by the kings sufferance had manie years gouerned the people adioining vnto them, whereby they purchased both strength amongst themselues, and the helpe of other men towards them: when contrarie, the Forboises were at wars one The Forboises disagrée among themselues. with another, dailie impaired their owne strength by their owne slaughters, and in the end wrought their owne confusion, for euerie diuided kingdome cannot long continue. But yet though this secret rancor did still remaine amongst these families, they did not in manie yeares before attempt anie open warres the one against the other; rather liuing in secret emulation, than open enuie, bicause they had (in waie of some shew of reconciliation) by marriage intermingled both their families togither. Among these Forboises there was one called Arthur (a man of singular wit, and of no lesse readie hand to performe his deuise) Arthur Forboise. who had alwaies followed the kings part to his vttermost, from the first time of these discords. This man therefore supposing this to be the time (now or neuer) wherin he must honor himselfe and his name, increase the substance of that part which followed him, & suppresse the rage of the Gordons, first laboured to bring his familie to vnitie and mutuall loue, for all vertue gathered into it selfe is greatest strength. The which if he might compasse (as by anie possible meanes he would leaue no stone vnturned that might further it) he was then in so good safetie as he desired. For then was there not anie faction or familie in those parts whatsoeuer, whose wealth or strength he doubted, and whose state or authoritie he did feare. For furtherance of which vnion, when daie and place was appointed to assemble the Forboises togither, Adam Gordon, the brother of the earle of Huntleie (deuising by all policie Adam Gordon disappointeth the vnion of the Forboises. he might to hinder the same, and hauing priuie intelligence thereof by his kin, fauourers, and followers) came with a great power of armed men vnto the same place (at the time appointed for the assemblie of the Forboises) to breake off their vnion. And although there were two troopes of the Forboises, which presentlie appéered in their sight, yet before they could ioine their strengths, Adam Gordon speedilie set vpon the one armie (not readie to be succoured by the other) and in the middle thereof did kill this Arthur Forboise; who Arthur Forboise slaine. being the hope of all that race and now slaine, his death did so amaze the other, that foorthwith the rest were soone ouerthrowne, scattered, and fled each one as he might best shift The Forboises put to flight. for himselfe. In which vnhappie conflict some persons of name were presentlie killed, and manie others taken and reserued for ransome. Whervpon the residue (fearing more crueltie should be vsed vpon the prisoners, loath to haue anie more of their race to be cut awaie, and giuing place to the time present) withdrew themselues from the fight, and neuer attempted anie thing afterward in the reuenge of their ouerthrow. Which feare and wise suppression of reuenge grew not without iust cause, supposing that their aduersaries (if they The house, great bellied wife, and children of Alexander Forboise burnt. were further vrged) would shew no more mercie to such as they had prisoners, than they did to the house of Alexander Forboise before time, which they burnt with his great bellied wife and the other of his children. The eldest brother of Arthur (who was the chiefe of that familie) hauing his house so spoiled, and himselfe hardlie escaping from his enimies hands, hastned to the court, from whense (though the matter was in great extremitie) he was by the king to he releeued. For which cause there were appointed two hundred footmen to such of the nobilitie as fauoured The Forboises receiue aid from the king. and followed that faction, with letters to the adioining nobilitie to associat themselues to the part of the Forboises. These thus confederat and come togither to the rest of the Forboises, with certeine other families of their affinitie & neighbours, so aduanced the spirit of this Alexander, that he sow thought himselfe sufficientlie fensed against all the forces of his aduersaries. But as their number increased, so there wanted amongst them one person sufficient to inioy the place of a capteine, whome the rest might follow, sith all the principals and heads of the families were almost yoong men, and scarse one better than others in degrée of calling. Wherefore the assemblie being drawen into diuerse companies (for they The Forboises follow seuerall leaders. Iohn Keth departed. Alexander Forboise goeth to A erden. were inforced to follow seuerall leaders) Iohn Keth with fiue hundred horssemen departed to his house not far from thense. Alexander Forboise with his retinue and two hundred footmen went to Aberden, to expell Adam Gordon from thense, and to repare his armie in the iournie. Adam Gordon (not sléeping his affaires, knowing the preparation of the Forboises, and vnderstanding the approch of his enimie so néere with so small companie) assembled his people, led them out of the towne, and compelled the citizens to follow, to make the number of his armie to séeme the greater. Shortlie after, in a field next adioining to the towne, The Forboises ouerthrowen besides Aberden. the two companies met, and a sharpe conflict was committed betwéene them. In which the kings footmen (appointed to the Forboises) desirous (more hastilie than wiselie) to fight, and aduenturing further in following of the Gordons (than their shot of powder would continue) they went so far, that in the end (being out of the reach of defense or helpe of their companie) they were put to fearfull flight by the bowmen of the Gordons, who pursued them egerlie, and continued the battell vntill night. At what time there were not manie of the vanquished slaine, but mostlie taken and reserued as prisoners, amongst which was the said Alexander Forboise taken, after that he had long and valiantlie defended himselfe against his enimies in the same conflict, to the perpetuall glorie of that house. After the suppression of the Forboises in the north parts, the quéenes fauourers were highlie incouraged to attempt greater matters. Wherefore assembling their power out of Iedworth defended from assault. diuerse parts of the kingdome, they bend their minds to the suppressing of Iedworth, a towne which after the manner of the countrie is vnwalled and vnfensed, but onelie with the strength of the inhabitants: which towne (certeine yeares past had stronglie resisted the force of the quéenes faction. Neere vnto this towne were neighbours Thomas Car of Thomas Car. Walter Scot. Ferniherst, and Walter Scot, both which besides their owne retinue had ioined vnto them the people of the next countries, being Lidesdale, Euian, and Eskine, alwaies troubled with robberie and giuen to spoile, who at that time by the libertie of war fréelie without restreint, did wander into further countries, to preie, spoile and catch what they could. Besides whom there were also in Teuiot (aswell by the infection of these countries, as by the custome of spoiling in the wars, for these things were by vse made an other nature and priullege, as it were from the note and paine of sin) great families defamed with such theft and rapines, and not these alone (sith this poison had crept almost ouer all the land) but certeine Buchan. li. 20. of the next English paie (being allured with hope of preie, and supposing all things lawfull in ciuill warres) ioined togither; and (to make their number the greater, and their power the stronger) called from Edenborough one hundred and twentie harquebushers, chosen out of the chéefest souldiers, to be assistant vnto them. The inhabitants of Iedworth (not ignorant of their intent, and considering wherevnto all this preparation tended) with spéedie & fearefull messengers signifie vnto Iohn Areskine earle of Mar & regent, the present danger wherein they stood, crauing some succor of light furnished souldiers to be sent to them, which foorthwith was granted accordinglie. Wherevpon Walter Car of Stefford, being called before the regent for that cause, had the charge of such Walter Car sent to defend Iedworth. aid granted vnto him, as a person who both for valure & experience was of sufficiencie to discharge anie such matter laied vpon him. Besides which, a conuenient number of sufficient souldiers, gathered out of the countries adioining, for that season assembled themselues in defense of the towne, & ioined their armie with them at Iedworth. At what time also to strike more feare in the one part & to aduance the courage of the other part, it was noised amongst both armies that William Ruthwine with a hundred shot and certeine horsmen (wherof he William Ruthwine with a power comming to Driburge. brought part with him, and part he gathered out of the marches adioining) were at the same time comming to Driburge with the said Ruthwine. All which notwithstanding, the queenes faction trusting to their owne strength consisting in multitude (for they were in number thrée thousand men) did earlie in the morning draw towards the towne, to preuent the comming of such succours as both were promised, looked for, and then almost at hand. Which being by Ruthwine partlie before suspected, he hastened the people with more spéed to follow them at the héeles, and by continuall shot weried the taile of his aduersaries with often assaults and skirmishes. Walter Car also ioining vnto him and to his complices the townes men (readie to Walter Car ioineth with William Ruthwine. defend their titles, their goods, their wiues, and their children) tooke the direct waie towards his enimies, to the end the better to suppresse them and their vnited force. Which when the aduerse part perceiued, foorthwith they retired to places of more defense, lest they shuld incounter their enimies with doubtfull battell; and least being set vpon before and behind, they might be suddenlie inclosed, before they could be able to turne themselues, either to escape, or to preuent the approching enimie. At what time such as sought after spoile, and were allured to that warre with hope of gaine, being now by that means defrauded of their preie, when they saw the towne manfullie defended, and the kings part readilie and The quéenes faction flie awaie. stronglie come foorth to battell, left the field, and departed euerie man to his owne house, as it was néerest to the place where they then remained. Whose sudden flight, without any occasion of danger, being vnderstood of the chiefe of the rest of such as were of the queenes faction (supposing at the first nothing lesse than that the enimie would make vpon them) they also followed after the others, raised their campe, and departed to Hawike with the rest of their followers and companie of footmen, hoping thereby to escape all danger, by resson of the sharpenesse of the winter and late fall of the snow, which would staie the following of the enimie. But Ruthwine, iudging it best to vse the opportunitie of time, did before dale so spéedilie Ruthwine with his armie commeth to Hawike. lead his armie to Hawike, that he was within a mile of his enimies, before they could by anie means be certified of his comming. Whose spéedie and vnlooked for approch did strike such extreame feare into the hearts of those which possessed Hawike, that there was no place left for anie consultation; but presentlie that euerie one should shift for himselfe as well as hée might. Wherevpon suddenlie bringing foorth their horsses and footmen, and following the course of the next riuer, they attempted to withdraw into places of more safetie The quéens faction ouer-throwne and dispersed at Hawike. for themselues, and further from their enimies. But the horssemen of Ruthwine spéedilie following at their héeles, so preuented their deuise, that forsaking their footmen, they fled ouer all the countrie to the places best knowne vnto them. Vpon which the footmen being thus left to the spoile and preie of their enimies, did (for their more safegard) hide themselues in a little wood adioining to the said riuer. In which, being on euerie side beset with the force of their aduersaries (fullie determined to preie vpon them) they did in the end wholie yéeld themselues with submission to their courtesie. Whervpon (sith they were not able like prisoners, for their number was ouer great to be caried about from place to place in that sharpe winter) they were (vpon their oth to returne and become true prisoners) suffered harmelesse of bodie, and losselesse of furniture to depart, some few being still reteined in that place as pledges for the others departed companie. But when the time of their returne approched, Kircawdie, deceiuing their faith Kircawdie causeth the prisoners not to returne at their daie appointed. with his light promises, forbad them to returne at their daie appointed, and made them incurre the note of periurie. The rest of the winter, and all the next spring was passed foorth with light skirmishes on both parties of the kings and quéenes factions, in which few lost their liues, and of that few more on the quéens than kings part. For the quéenes fauourers, remaining in the mounteins next adioining to the citie, whilest they would take occasion and aduantage to performe anie thing well, would (scarse entring into the danger of the conflict) for the most part retire, and flie into the citie for more defense. In the meane time, while these things were thus ordered, there came manie ambassadors Ambassadors out of England. out of England, to pacifie these discords growne to these great extremities, betweene the king and the imprisoned quéenes factions. But the same ambassage so well meant by the quéene of England, and reiected by the seditious of Scotland, sorted not to that end which was meant, nor as the state of Scotland required. Wherefore these ambassadors returned home without anie such dispatch as might answer their trauels their mistresse care and loue, and the vnities of that quarelsome people: by reason that the Frenchmen fauouring the cause of the banished queene, did not onelie hinder the peace and quiet of the Scots, for the benefit of the realme; but also sought warres for the destruction of the naturall subiects, and to bring in their owne gouernement; who for the furtherance thereof, did with great promises interteine the apt minds of the quarrelling faction, to kindle and mainteine the fire of continuall warre, vntill such time as by force they had gotten the vpper hand, and brought the kings fauourers to destruction. For the better support whereof, the French The French king sendeth monie into Scotland. king sent some portion of monie, which being of it selfe not great, or such as their necessitie required, seemed rather sufficient to nourish an hope of abilitie to mainteine the warres, than fullie to dispatch or defraie the charges or the affaires therein; and that the rather, bicause some part of that monie was euer deuoured by such as had the cariage thereof. Amongst these things there still continued, for a few moneths, certeine light skirmishes to little purpose betwéene the aduerse parties. But the greater companie, who could not satisfie their eagles minds with litle flies, absteined not from robbing and burning the countrie. For Adam Gordon, entring into Angus, besieged the house of William Dowglasse of Adam Gordon entreth Angus, and besiegeth the house of William Dowglasse. They of Dundée craue aid out of Fife. Glemberuie: but after that long besiege, perceiuing that the man whome he sought for, was not to Be found there, he cruellie destroied all whatsoeuer there was left, consuming it with fire and sword. Which tyrannie did strike such fearfull impression into the harts of those of Dundée, that they despairing of their owne abilitie to resist them, called their neighbours of Fife vnto their aid, sith they were next adioining vnto them, vnto whom also Gordon was a persecuting enimie continuallie in all that possiblie he might, bicause they constantlie and subiect like did in all dutie support the kings part. At which time Blackenesse being betraied to the Hamiltons by the kéeper of that castell, Blacknesse betraied. did greatlie hinder the traffike and passage betwéene Leith and Sterling. For which cause the regent as a person that heedfullie looked into the dangers of that time, and with wise forecast sought to preuent following euils, brake downe all the mils about Edenburgh, Edenburgh mils broken. furnished all the noble mens houses and places of defense with garrisons néere vnto the towne, and closed vp all passage to and from the citie. For now there was fresh skirmishing, and manie on both parts, as well of the king as of the deposed queene were taken Prisoners taken both on the king and quéens part. prisoners, put to their ransome, compelled to abiure their faction, kept in continuall prison, or else presentlie slaine. These things thus depending, and the king and the deposed quéenes faction contending still to support their parts, the matter did dailie more and more grow to great slaughters: which being well perceiued by forreine nations (pitieng the present calamities, and seeking to prouide to staie the following dissention of that countrie which was like to be at hand vpon these ciuill and vnnaturall warres, if better order were not taken therefore) the quéene The quéene of England & the French king send ambassadors into Scotland. of England as the kings next and louing neighbour, and the French king also the confederat of Scotland, sent their ambassadors into the realme, to sée what qualification might be had in these troublesome and dangerous times of the kings minoritie; hoping either to set a finall end to these inconueniences, or at least to mitigate and staie that furie, that it should not at that present, or during the kings minoritie passe anie further. For the accomplishment whereof, sir William Drurie knight, and Thomas Randolph esquier, were sent from the queene of England: and monsieur de Croque, who had also béene ambassador out of France into Scotland before that time, was now againe sent thither from the French king. These much about one time arriuing in Scotland, and ioining togither concerning the execution of their ambassage, dealt so effectuallie therein, that in the end they concluded an An abstinence of warre for a time. abstinence of warre to be had betweene the parties of the king and quéenes faction, from that time which was about the first of August, to continue vntill the first of December following: and so brought both the parties in conclusion to relie and abide the full determination of all quarels to be set downe by the queene of England, and the French king. Which being done the ambassadors returned home, monsieur Croque into France, and sir Sir William Drurie and maister Randolph go into Scotland. The death of the earle of Marre. William Drurie and maister Randolph into England. In October following died the earle of Marre, regent of Scotland, of a lingering sicknesse (as some affirme) but Lesleus saith lib. 10. pag. vltima, that morte repentina concidit) being buried in Allowaie a place of his owne, situat foure miles from Sterling, to whom in the eriedome succéeded Iohn erle of Marre, who after fled into England, as in this following discourse shall appeare. Which Iohn Areskine earle of Marre the regent did marrie Annable Murrie daughter to the lard of Tullebarton, by whom he had issue this Iohn, which succeeded him in the earledome of Marre (as is before said) and one daughter which was married to Archibald Dowglasse now earle of Angus: but she died without issue. Of which decessed Areskine earle of Marre, Buchanan composed these verses commendatorie, expressing the nature, vertues, qualities, and valour of the said earle in this forme and manex following:
Si quis Areskinum memoret per bella ferocem,Vpon the death of which earle Marre the regent, there happened long consultation for the election of a new regent to succéed in his place, that might in all respects defend the kings person and the realme, as he had doone before. Wherefore the noble men, assembling for that cause, did in the moneth of December, one moneth and more after the death of that last regent, elect by one consent the earle Morton to that office, a man no lesse Earle Morton made regent. wise than prouident, and such a person, as both for the nobiltie of his birth, good seruice to the realme and to the king, did well merit the same. After whose election, the two princes, the English quéene, and the French king, minding to make a full conclusion of peace and amitie, and to settle the kingdome of Scotland in due obedience and vnitie, did in the meane time that the abstinence of warre before named continued, send their ambassadors to the regent and states of Scotland. Which ambassadors were maister Henrie Killigrew esquire for England, and monsieur de Veracke for France. But as monsieur de Maister Henrie Killigrew sent into Scotland. Veracke was dislodged from the coasts of France, and vpon the sea in his iourneie to Scotland; he was apprehended and taken, before he could atteine to the shore of Scotland: whereby he neuer came on land amongest the Scots to performe his ambassage. Which being knowne to the Scots, and they finding that their most aid & surest friendship would come foorth of England from that prince, whome religion, bloud, afinitie, and neighborhood had moued to like and follow, did in the end resolue themselues, that both the affection, aswell of the yoong king, and of the imprisoned quéene, should referre themselues to the queene of England, to make a finall conclusion of all controuersies and troubles which were then amongst them. Wherevpon she said Henrie Killigrew made a quiet end and pacification of all matters & debates betwéene all the lords of Scotland after this maner. In Februarie following the new creation of this regent Morton, there assembled at Perth, or saint Iohns towne (by An assemblie at saint Iohns towne. especiall edict therefore) the greatest part of the nobilitie of Scotland, as the regent, the earles of Huntleie, Argile, Atholl, and others: who pitieng the miserie of their countrie, condescended that the quéene of England should by hir ambassador, set a quiet end and order amongest them. Which the said Henrie Killigrew did in all points accordinglie, extending the same vnto all the nobilite of Scotland, except such as were in the castell of Edenborough: which were the lord Hume, the lord of Grange, secretarie Lidington, the lord Rastalrege, and others: who rather desirous of warre than peace, as persons méetelie well inured therewithall, would not consent to anie peace, other than such as might stand with their owne liking, and support of the imprisoned quéenes faction, which they earnestlie followed, as after shall more appeare. But before this finall agreement, as I haue beene crediblie informed, there was a parlement 1573. A parlement at Edenborough. called at Edenborough to begin the fifteenth of Ianuarie, in which were assembled the earle Morton regent, the earles of Angus, Argile, Glencarne, Cassels, Eglinton, Mountrosse, and yoong Marshall, for the earle Marshall his father: the lords of Ruthwen, Lindseie, Glarnes, Simple, Boid, Maxwell, Herris, Graie, Olliphant, Sincleir, Forbois, Cachart, Ochiltrée, Somerwell, and others: with the commissioners of the borows of Edenborough, Striueling, Perth, Dundie, saint Andrews, Glascow, Lithgo, and Couper. Out of which number of this assemblie were chosen for to be lords and iudges, to determine the articles propounded in that parlement, the earles of Argile, Glencarne, and Mountrosse, the lords Ruthwen, Lindseie, Boid, Simple, and Herris, with the bishops of saint Andrews & Orkeneie, the abbats of Aberborth, Dunfirmiling, Canbuskineth, and Newbottle, besides the prior of saint Marie ile and Portiniake, which were also adioined vnto them: all which persons so passed, named, and appointed, determined, ratified, & passed these articles following.
Pace grauem nulli, tempore vtroque pium:
Si quis opes sine fastu, animum sine fraude carentem,
Rebus in ambiguis suspicione fidem,
Si quis ob has dotes, s$aouis iactata precellis,
Figit in illius patria fessa pedem:
Vera quidem memoret, sed non & propria: laudes
Qui pariter petet has vnus & alter erit:
Illud & proprium est, longæ quòd in ordine vitæ
Nil odium aut liuor, quod reprehendit, habet.
During the time of which session of this parlement, manie occurrents deseruing remembrance happened after the said fiftéenth of Ianuarie. For Edenborough castell being Skirmishes about Edenborough. somewhat distressed, the castilians were put from sallieng out of the castell gate, where capteine Craiford, and capteine Hume laie with their bands to keepe them in. Notwithstanding all which, they within repaired vnto a posterne in the northside of the castell besides saint Cutberts church, and saint Margarets well, where they issued and fet water at their pleasure: which being espied by their enimies, capteine Michaell and his band came from Dondiske to stop their passage thereto. Who within thrée daies after such his approch, destroied their well, and inforced them to kéepe within the wals of the castell: at what time the regent aduanced his trenches made against the castell, from the bulworke or spurre of that castell to the west part: and from thense, to saint Cutberts kirke: so that with the water lieng on the southwestside, and the regents power on the other side, the castell was wholie inuironed. During which siege, the sixteenth of the same moneth, the castilians, to feare such as were assembled in the forenamed parlement kept within the towne of Edenborough, bestowed fourescore and seuen great shot vpon the towne, which harmed not anie one creature, but a poore dog that was slaine before the doore of the regents house: although men, women, and children did dailie frequent and passe the stréets of the towne. Which was a rare matter, but yet not more strange than this: that there was not slaine on the regents part (from the first of the moneth of Ianuarie vntill this time, either by great or small shot in the towne or trenches, skirmishes or otherwise) aboue six persons, and within the castell but three, with as manie hurt betweene the tolbooth and the spurre of the castell. The cause whereof grew by reason of thrée trauerses made ouerthwart the streets to saue the people, besides the other trenches made against the castell: at what time also the tolbooth and the church was fensed with a rampier forced of turffes, fagots, and other stuffe fit for that purpose. Whereby the lords of the parlement did as safelie assemble and sit in the tolbooth, and the people went as quietlie and safelie to the church to heare diuine seruice, as they at anie time did before the warres began, and before that the castell was besieged. During which dooings in the castell & the towne, there was an abstinence granted at An abstinence of war granted. the sute of the ambassadors of England for the duke and his adherents, vntill the foure and twentith of Februarie: in which meane time, certeine lords were appointed to confere with the said ambassadors for an accord to be had betwéene the king and imprisoned quéenes faction. Wherevpon sir Iames Balford came to the regents grace, obteined pardon for his Sir Iames Balford submitteth himselfe to the regent. Officers created. offense, and earnestlie laboured to further this agréement. The earle of Argile was aduanced to the honour of the chancellorship. And Alexander Areskine maister of Marre was appointed to haue the kéeping of the kings person vpon certeine conditions, for the performance whereof he was to find foure suerties, lords of the parlement, to be bound for him bodie and lands, hauing fifteene daies appointed vnto him to consider thereof, whether he would enter into so great a charge or no. And if in case he should refuse to accept the same, it was further resolued and concluded, that the earles of Glencarne and Buquhan, the lord Glanes, and master Marshall should haue the kéeping of the king quarterlie one after another. And if anie of the foure should happen, during the time of his quarterlie gouernement, to be sicke, or not able to execute that function; that then the lord Lindseie should be assistant to him in that gouernement, during that time. Which being Iames Kircawdie entreth Edenborough castell. thus on all parts concluded, Iames Kircawdie arriued in the Blackenesse in a small pinnesse, and entred the castell of Edenborough, with such monie as he had prouided to bring thither. Which occasioned the castell of Edenborough to be reasséeged and inuironed both by sea and land, and was the cause that capteine Bruse sallieng foorth with other of his companie to forage the countrie, and to prouide vittels, were taken by the regents companie. Notwithstanding all which, yet the others within the castell continued their purpose, and defended the same against the regent and his companie, farre otherwise than was supposed that either they could or would doo. Wherevpon the regent of Scotland solicited the quéene of England, in the behalfe, and 1573. for the succor of the yong king of Scots hir cousine, thus grieuouslie molested with the warres of his owne people. So that the quéene of England sent a power of fiftéene The taking of Edenborough castell by the English and the regent of Scotland. hundred Englishmen to the siege of Edenborough castell, ouer whome sir William Drurie knight and marshall of Berwike was made generall, with such capteins as follow; which were sir Francis Russell knight, third sonne to Francis erle of Bedford with other capteins, as Read, Yaxleie, Wood, Brickwell, Pikeman, Gam, Case, Carew, Errington prouost marshall, Astoll, Stéerleie capteine of the pioners, and capteine Barton. To whom also to serue at their owne frée will these gentlemen of name, sir George Carie, sir Henrie Leie knights, Thomas Cicill eldest son of the lord tresuror of England, William Knolles, Sutton, Cotton, Kelwaie, Dier, Tilneie, William Killegrew, & manie other gentlemen of good estimation did associat themselues with conuenient number to attend vpon them. These with their generall passed from Berwike to Leith, where they met with maister Henrie Killegrew the quéene of Englands ambassador, whose care, trauell, & furtherance at that time deserued no small commendation; and with the Scotish nobilide, & such as they had assembled to ioine with the English in the behalfe of the yoong king against such as tooke part with the deposed quéene. Which Scotish nobilitie and gentlemen of Scotland were the earle Morton regent, and such other earles and gentlemen as were tied and alied to him by kindnes and kinred, and such as fauoured the yoong king, distressed by the deposed quéene, as was pretended. After the ioining of these two nations, they on the fiue and twentith of Aprill marched towards Edenborough: and the same daie sir William Drurie the generall summoned the castell of that towne in forme as followeth. "
" This letter by the lord Grange capteine of the castell thus in due sort receiued, he not regarding the contents thereof, nor considering the mild disposition of such as went about to spare their bloud, did vtterlie denie the surrender of the castell, and with all force determined to defend themselues. Wherewith the English generall greatlie grieued, did incortinently redeliuer such answer to the said lord Grange as wrought an vtter discontent and mislike in the man. By meanes of which the pioners attending their charge, with expedition applied the casting of trenches and erecting of mounts or fortresses to piant the artillerie therevpon against the castell. After which euerie one hastening the cause of his comming, & ioining their force togither, began to inuiron the towne, & to laie siege to the castell in fiue seuerall places, where were fiue seuerall fortresses erected for that cause, intituled by these names. The first mount allotted to the regent, had the name of the kings mount, the second the generall thereof the English sir William Drurie did possesse, the third was in charge of sir George Carie, the fourth was called sir Henrie Leies mount, and the fift fell to the gouernement of Thomas Sutton maister of the ordinance in the north parts of England. The whole number of which armie vnder paie was two thousand, wherof fiftéene hundred were English, and the other fiue hundred Scots: besides the nobilitie and gentlemen with their companie, and the citizens of Edenborough defended with thirtie péeces of artillerie conteining six canons, nine demicanons, nine culuerings, and six sacres. Whilest the armie without was thus preparing for to assaile the companie within, the capteine of the castell (to hinder their worke) liberallie saluted the pioners & other souldiors with such artillerie as they had within the castell, and vpon and about the walles thereof; whereby manie were hurt, some slaine, but more hindered before the trenches and mounts might be brought to their due perfection, for defense of the assailants, and offense of the assailed. In which action also the aduerse part forgot not to requite the castillians, but mostlie after that the pioners and laborers had finished the mounts. At what time they gaue vehement and sharpe assault to the castell, although that the extreame heat thereof began not vntill the seauentéenth daie of Maie following. In which siege on the said seauentéenth daie of Maie, the castell was most roughlie assailed by thirtie shot of canon discharged against the same. At what time those peeces so well performed their parts against Dauids tower, that the force of the English canons was easie to be then and long after seene therein. Which assalt continued vntill the one and twentith daie of Maie following, on which daie the whole batterie began not againe as before against part, but wholie round about on ech side of the castell. For vntill then Dauids towre was onelie the marke of the enimie: but after that daie they laid out their power in euerie place, offending and defending ech others soldiors, as well within the castell as within the mounts and trenches in that sharpe conflict hurting and killing manie of the English and Scots. Wherevpon the diligence of the English began to be so great, that they forthwith displaced the ordinance in the castell, and stroke one of their greatest péeces iust in the mouth: whereby the same was broken, and the castillians force somewhat abated. After this on the six and twentith daie of the said moneth of Maie, there was a fresh assault giuen at seuen of the clocke in the morning to the Spurre (a place of defense or blockehouse before the said castell) which by the assailants was taken, & forthwith vpon the entrance therin was the banner of the generall displaied and set vp, to declare who possessed the same, to the great discomfort of them in the castell. For although before they had lost the vse of one of their great péeces, that their walles were battered, that some of their men were slaine, & that they had almost all their water taken from them: yet would they not yéeld, neither did anie whit begin to despaire of kéeping the castell, or repelling the enimie; vntill such time as the English had now gotten the possession of the Spurre. Now, during the time that these gaue the assault to the Spurre, there was an other band of Englishmen and Scots, that had in charge to make shew of a fresh assault, at the west part of the castell; to the end that such as laied batterie to the Spurre, might with more ease to themselues, and lesse suspicion of the aduerse part, obteine the said Spurre. But this last named band, ouer hastilie putting themselues in aduenture beyond the limits of their charge, were repelled and driuen to the recoile, with the hurt and losse of thirtie persons, or thereabous. All which notwithstanding, the castillians (perceiuing their chiefest defense the Spurre to be lost, and not greatlie reioising of this small victorie ouer those which assailed them on the west side) did the same daie by a drumme demand parlee: which they obteined with truce of peace from that daie, vntill the eight and twentith of Maie next following. For which cause the lard of Pittadrow, was let downe by a rope from the castell, and after him the lard of Grange, capteine of the said castell, with Robert Meluine; all which came to haue conference with the generall sir William Drurie, & such other persons as were chosen to accompanie him about the same. In the end, vpon much conferrence had betweene the Scotish lards and the generall, the castell was the same eight and twentith daie (in which the truce ended) deliuered vp into the hands of the said sir William Drurie, which he kept in his possession for a certeine time; during whose abode in the castell, he set vp and spred his ensignes and banners vpon sundrie parts of the wals of the same. This doone, the generall (after quiet possession had, not determining to reteine it vnto his nistresse vse, sith he was onelie appointed by hir to aid the king of Scots, and such of the nobilitie as tooke his part) did after (according to his commission) deliuer ouer the same castell to the vse of the yong king of Scots; for which cause not meaning vtterlie to spoile the castell, he gaue but part of the spoile to the vse of the soldiers, leauing the canons and other artillerie to the kings pleasure. For before the surrender of the castell, it was agréed, that if the Englishmen had by force taken it, as they obteined it by composition, that then they should wholie haue inioied the full spoile by the space of thrée daies, the artillerie onelie excepted, which should be carried awaie by the English. But sith for these causes following, the same could not abide anie long siege, but must of necessitie yéeld it selfe, there was euerie part of the said spoile giuen vnto the souldiers vpon the deliuerie of the same castell to sir William Drurie. The causes of which surrender were manie. First, for that they were depriued of water, bicause the well within the castell was chokedwith the ruines of the castell wals; & the other well without could not serue them, bicause there was a mount made to hinder them. An other water there was (which was vnknowne to such as were without the castell) and was taken from them by the losse of the Spurre, out of which they were woont to haue a pint a daie for euerie souldier. The other causes of surrender were these. Secondlie, diuerse persons were sicke, especiallie thorough drinke of the water of saint Margarets well without the castell on the north side, which had béene poisoned by some of their enimies. Thirdlie, diuerse others were hurt. Fourthlie, not manie to mainteine the castell, and they not able to take anie rest, being so plied and dailie wearied with batterie. Fiftlie, diuerse of the souldiers diuided in opinions. Sixtlie, some were no souldiers at all. Seauenthlie, that no aid was to be looked for by the waie of France. The eight and chiefe cause was, that the regent and his forces planted in the strengths round about, and the horssemen dailie and nightlie watching and riding, which held and tooke from them all vittels, and had brought them to great scant of food before the siege began. All these eight causes mooued the said surrender of the castell. After that the castell was thus gotten, the sixtéenth daie of Iune following, the prisoners were deliuered by the said sir William Drurie, in the presence of sundrie Scots & Englishmen, vnto the regent; and that doone, the same daie sir William Drurie departed with his power to Berwike. The names of the prisoners were these; sir William Kircawdie lard of Grange, and capteine of the castell of Edenborough, the lord Hume, William Metellan, lord of Lethington secretarie, the lard of Pittadrow constable of the castell, the countesse of Argile, the ladie of Lethington and the ladie of Grange, with others. But yet the priuat soldiers & others of meaner sort were suffered to depart with bag and baggage. Thus was the castell of Edenborough woone, as you haue heard, which by the common opinion of men was impregnable, and not to be taken by force; insomuch as manie thought it tooke the name of the maiden castell, for that it had not béene woone at any time before except by famine or practise. Which opinion being common is so much the falser, in that the common sort doo imbrace it, for that they iustlie incline to common fables. For this castell was not surnamed the maiden castell, bicause it was neuer taken by force: but bicause the princes children were there nourished, as maie well appeare by that which I shall set downe touching the antiquitie of this towne & the name thereof; of which there be diuerse opinions. For some will haue it to be built by Eboracus, of some called Ebrancus king of Britaines, called also in British Castle mynid Agnes, the castle of saint Agnes hill, afterward the castell of virgins. But Lesleus will haue it built long after the time of H. Lhoid, by the space of six hundred foure score and foure yeares, for thus he writeth. Humfred. Lhoid. in breu. Brit. I. Stow. Lesleus lib. 2. pag. 84. Campdenus in Scotia saith ab Ebranco Britanno aut at Heiho Picto Edinburgum deducere quid aliud estquàm seriò ineptire? "Chrutnæus Camelodunum primariam Pictorum vrbem & Agnedam postea Ethinburgum ab Etho quondam rege dictam, cum puellarum castro, vbi regis & nobilium Pictorum filiæ dum nuptui darentur, seruari, & præceptis ad humanitatem & virtutem informari solebant, condidit." A little before which, the said Lesleus writeth that Fergusius died "Anno ante Christi in carnem aduentum 305," & that "Hoc tempore Esdadus Britonum & Chrutnæus Camelonus Pictorum imperium tenebant." Now this king Chrutneus that built Agneda, liued before Christ three hundred and fiue yeares by the Scots account, and Eborac or Ebranke liued nine hundred foure score & nine yeares before Christ: so that the Englishmen make this towne more ancient than the Scots. But as Lesleus hath mistaken himselfe, following Boetius, to place Camelodunum in Scotland: so hath he appointed Edenburgh to be built by the Scots, being built by the Britaines. But true it might be that Eborac first builded it, & that being in the space of six hundred foure score and foure yeares wasted and vtterlie decaied, the same was afresh erected by Chrutneus, and after repared by Ethus. The castell of which towne, being sometime appointed for the bringing vp of the daughters of the noblemen of the Picts, vntill they were mariageable, was for that cause (and not bicause it was neuer woone by force) called the maiden castell, as the said Lesleus affirmeth. But after, when christianitie came into Scotland, it was called (as I coniecture) Agneda, bicause it was the castell that stood on saint Agnes hill, & not before the comming of Christ so called Agneda, as hitherto it hath béene set downe, but not rightlie; as I maie with reuerence speake vnder correction of such as by better authoritie can disprooue that I saie. But here let vs a little leaue the countrie soile of Scotland, and such things as were there 1574. The tragicall historie of the warres of the low countries lib. 3. then doone; and talke somewhat of the persons of that realme, who performed matter of valure in forren countries. Whilest the towne of Leiden was stronglie besieged (in the moneth of Iune) and that the townesmen (hauing a néedfull and héedfull care) were altogither imploied about making of prouision of all such things as were déemed necessarie for the defense of the same towne; the principall part of the commandators armie arriued in Bommell quarters, Gorcun, and Lowiestein. Howbeit the prince and the estates of the low countries made no great account therof, by reason that Bommell (which was well furnished of all things necessarie for the wars) was vnder the custodie of capteine Baufoure, coronell of The Scots repelled their enimies at Bommell. the Scotishmen who had there attending on him the number of seauen Scotish ensignes. Which Scots desirous to performe some matter of valure, dailie sallied out of the towne with some of the citizens and gentlemen Hollanders; in which often issuing they valiantlie skirmished with the enimies. Whereby in the end amongest their sundrie conflicts there were manie warlike exploits performed by the Scots, which deserued not to be forgotten: as well for that they often repelled the enimie, and kept their strength togither; as for that they being few in number, aduentured (beyond the hope of good hap, by incountering with a greater troope of such as came against them, than they were themselues) either to returne victors, or to loose their liues. After which also the same Scots, continuing in those low countries, performed manie other matters of martiall exploits, which I will set downe in this place. For sith I haue 1576. The Sots denie their furtherance to the writing of the an nales of Scotland. béene denied of some of the Scots (whom these annales chiefelie concerne) such things as might supplie the default of sufficient matter of Scotland to furnish the same; and for that I haue béene defrauded of the performance of promise made vnto me by manie others of that nation, who for dutie vnto that countrie ought, and for clearing some sinister opinion conceiued against them of their actions in their owne countrie should haue sought to further me in these my labours: I must leaue things done in Scotland, and turne my pen to other places; producing matter to helpe my barren discourse, which inforced therevnto dooth deliuer an action performed by the Scots in the same low countries; where they which were then in seruice against the Spaniards, vnder the paie of the prince of Orenge, did that which deserueth not to be forgot. These Scots therefore remaining in those countries, seruing vnder the conduct of their The tragicall historie of the low countries lib. 4. The Scots put to flight besides Leige. coronell surnamed Baufoure, did in Ianuarie set foorth & meet with the Spaniards at a place called the Footbale, distant not much more than a mile frō Leige, where was a long and sharpe conflict betwéene these two nations. In which by the successe of battell (for the most part yéelding victorie vnto the stronger side) a great multitude of them were left dead in the place, and the rest driuen to saue themselues by flight from their enimies: who yet felt not this ouerthrow so swéet and gainefull, but that they lost manie of their people before the Scots were put to the worst. But leauing these Scots in the midle of the wars of these countries vnder the prince of Orenge, we are to come to other matters following by succession of time, which hath deliuered to vs that Margaret the daughter & heire of Archibald Dowglasse earle of Angus, died in England the tenth of March in the yeare of our redemption 1577, beginning the 1577. Some part of the life of Margaret Dowglas. yeare at the Annuntiation of the virgin. Which ladie being borne at Harbotell castell in England in the yeare of Christ 1515, was afterward brought vp in England; and then being priuilie affianced in the eight and twentith yeare of king Henrie the eight, being the yeare of Christ 1536, to Thomas Howard yoongest brother to the duke of Northfolke, she was that yeere committed prisoner to the tower; but after set at libertie the last of October, in the nine and twentith yeare of king Henrie the eight, in the yeare 1537, & maried to Matthew Steward earle of Lennox by the consent of Henrie the eight king of England, in the yeare of our saluation 1544. After which, being tossed with both fortunes, sometime in aduersitie, & sometime in prosperitie, she was notwithstanding alwaies honorablie interteined in England, as both hir birth in respect of hir kinglie bloud, and hir calling in respect of hir place, did worthilie deserue. In the end, to cut off all hir other aduersities, and to draw to things falling in mine owne knowledge, she was on the two and twentith of Aprill in the yeare 1565 (vpon the mariage of hir sonne Henrie Steward lord Darneleie vnto Marie Steward quéene of Scots) commanded by the quéene of England first to kéepe hir chamber in the Whitehall the princes court and palace, where she remained vntill the two and twentith daie of I. Stow. Iune next insuing; and was then by sir Francis Knolles (one of the priuie councell and vicechamberleine to the queene of England) and by some other of the gard conueied to the towre of London by water; in which place she remained prisoner vntill that hir sonne the said Henrie Steward was miserablie and traitorouslie slaine by the earle Bothwell and his complices (as some affirme, but how trulie I know not) vpon the twentith of Februarie one thousand fiue hundred three score & six. In which yeare, on the two and twentith of the same moneth, the said ladie Margaret was discharged out of the towre and set at libertie, who still remaining in England did (as before is said) in the thrée score & second yeare of hir age, and in the sixt yeare of hir widowhood, surrender hir soule to God, being most honorablie buried & answerablie to hir calling in the great chapell of Westminster (built by Henrie the seuenth king of England) among the kings of that realme in an inward chapell standing on the right & the southside of the said great chapell. The yeare before whose death hir sonne Charles Steward earle of Lennox (hauing before maried Elisabeth the daughter of sir William Candish, by whome he had issue-Arbella) did also depart this life. Ouer the bodies of both which persons, Thomas Fowler executor to the said ladie Margaret, did with the goods of the said ladie erect a costlie and statelie toome of rich stone and curious workemanship, with the picture of that ladie, as liuelie, and as well coloured as art might afford it, about which monument is grauen this memorable epitaph declaring hir nobilitie, as insueth.
Which honourable toome, with these superscriptions, was erected for the said ladie, and finished in the yeare of our redemption 1578, being begun and almost perfected in the life of the said ladie Margaret. This ladie being (as before is shewed) countesse of Lennox and Angus, it will not be amisse to declare in this place, what became of both the said earledoms, as well in hir life, as after hir and hir sonne Charls his death. Touching Angus, this ladie Margaret, vpon the mariage of hir son Henrie lord Darneleie, which was solemnized the nine and twentith daie of Iulie 1565, to Marie queene of Scots, did giue the said earledome with all the rights and members thereof vnto the said queene Marie, to dispose as fell best vnto hir liking. Wherevpon the said quéene bestowed that honour and earledome vpon Archibald Dowglasse cousine to the said ladie Margaret: who being exiled, was here in England at the writing hereof. The earledome of Lennox, after the slaughter of Matthew earle of Lennox (husband to this Margaret) which was in Sterling the fourth of September, in the yeare of our redemption 1571, but 1572 as hath Lesleus, was inuested in Charles Iames the sixt king of Scotland, heire in bloud to the said Matthew earle of Lennox, father to Henrie lord Derneleie (that maried the queene) father to the said Iames the sixt. Wherevpon the yoong king, mindfull of the aduancement of his vncle Charles sonne to the said Margaret, did inuest the said Charls with the honour of the said earledome of Lennox, which Charles died in the life of his mother Margaret without heire male, by reason whereof the said earledome reuerted to the crowne. But here leauing the title and succession of the earles of Lennox to an other place following (sith I am entered into the discourse of such of the earles & countesses of Lennox as be dead) I thinke it better in this place, than not at all, to mention the epitaph of Matthew earle of Lennox slaine at Sterling (as is before touched) in the yeare of Christ 1571. For although the same matter would more aptlie haue béene placed before at the end of the historie of Scotland, written by Holinshed, or at the beginning of my continuance of the annales of that countrie, when I mention the death of the said earle: yet sith the note of that epitaph came not vnto my hands, vntill I had thus farre proceeded in the historie; and the same also at that time passed the print (whereby I could not set it downe in due place) I will here (hauing so good occasion therfore) intreating of the toome of his wife (whose charge also wanted not in erecting of this toome of hir slaine husband, and for that this dooth also touch some part of hir epitaph) insert the same in this place after this maner, as it is written vpon the statelie toome of the said Matthew Lennox, and now standing in the chapell within Sterling castell, being as hereafter foloweth.
Thus setting end to the liues & deaths of this Matthew Steward erle of Lennox, of Margaret Dowglasse his wife, to their honourable epitaphs, and to their sumptuous sepulchres, we will come backe againe to such others, either generall or speciall, accidents as haue fallen in the kingdome of Scotland, and which will touch the vniuersall gouernement, or the particular occurrents as well of Scotish as of other forren affaires managed by them at home, or in other countries, therwithall ioining the discourse of such things as haue béene performed by other nations in that kingdome. Amongst which accidents in Scotland this rarelie happened, that the earle Morton surrendered his protectorship or regentship of the king and kingdome of Scotland. Which I maie worthilie count rare, sith men in so great authoritie of commanding all persons, can hardlie be brought to giue ouer such honour, and to yéeld themselues to the commandement of others, bicause "Qui primatus sui authoritatem Gl. super ill. eccles. 23 melius est vt filij. perdit, in despectionem & angustiam se mittit: qui autem locum suum sapienter custodit, se ac suos ad profectum dirigit." And Bias the philosopher knew, that it was a most hard thing of all other, and onelie fauouring of great magnanimitie and wisedome, "Fortiter ferre mutationes rerum in deterius." But he being verie wise, feared not the alteration of his estate, but rather desired to be rid thereof, considering the weightinesse and danger which depended therevpon, and remembring that notable saieng of Gregorie in his Morals, declaring the singular good of such, which doo shun the gouernement of temporall things, in these words. "Quasi quodam iugo seruitutis premunt prospera, dum appetuntur; premunt aduersa dum formidantur. At si quis semel dominationem desideriorum temporalium à collo mentis excusserit, quadam iam etiam vitæ libertate perfruitur, & dum nullo desiderio fœlicitatis afficitur, nullo aduersitatis errore coarctatur." This earle Morton (I saie) surrendred his office (as before is touched) in the moneth of The earle Morton surrendred his regentship. March, in this yeare of our Lord one thousand fiue hundred seuentie & seuen, at what time also Robert Bowes esquier was then in Scotland for hir maiestie of England. Vpon the remouing of which erle Morton there were no more regents in that countrie, but the king tooke vpon him to rule the realme by himselfe & by such curators as he shuld appoint therfore. For the king now about the twelfe yéere of his age thought he might aswell take vpon him the gouernment of the countrie by himselfe, and such as he appointed at those yeares, as manie of his ancestors had doone before in their yoong yeares; notwithstanding the opinion of manie of the better sort of the presbiterie, which mainteine that he cannot absolutelie rule, or perfectlie establish anie thing by the customes of their countrie, vntill he come to the age of fiue and twentie yeares. But we find in their owne histories The kings of Scotland take on them to rule the realme without procurators being within age. Lesleus li. 8. pag. 295. of Scotland, written euen by men of best iudgement, that Iames the second of that name king of Scots, did in the fouretenth yeare of his age, in the seuenth yeare of his reigne, and in the yeare of our Lord one thousand foure hundred fortie and foure, put Alexander Leuinstone knight from his regentship, and tooke vpon him himselfe the absolute gouernement of the kingdome, of whom thus writeth Lesleus. "Gubernatoris cancellarijque concilio & iussu factum est, vt omnium ordinum comitijs Striueling indies diceretur. An. Dom. 440, mense Ianuarij, omniumn assensu est constitutum, vt rex suum regnum lustrans, contentiones sopiat, causas decidat, controuersias dirimat, reliquáq; reipublicæ negotia præsens procuret. Multi nobiles sese comites itineris adiungunt, qui in illius societatem se penitus immergentes, odij cancellarij ac gubernatoris elati, persuadent regi, vt aliorum seruituti se premi diutius non sinat: sed vt omni iugo excusso, ipse sibi reipublicæ gubernandæ partes assumat. Is iuuenili quodam regnandi ardore incensus, illorum voces tanquam Syrenum cantum in suas aures effluere liberalissimè patiebatur. Decimum iam quartum annum ageas, in regium solium præceps irruit, ac vt publicis comitijs solus præsset, omnes ordines Striuelingum vocat, 4 Nouembris 1444." After which, about fiue yeares following, the same Iames, to shew his absolute and sufficient gouernement, did in the yeare of Christ 1449, in the ninetéenth yeare of his age, and the twelfe yeare of his gouernement create Alexander Seton lord Gourdon earle of Huntleie, and George Lesle a baron earle of Rothseie. Iames the fourth of that name king of Scotland, being but sixtéene yeares of age when he came to the crowne, in the yeare of Christ one thousand foure hundred foure score & eight, administred the realme by himselfe without any procurator, as I gatherr out of Lesleus. Iames the fift the king of Scots, in the yeare of our Lord one thousand fiue hundred twentie and eight, in the seuentéenth yeare of his age, & about the fiftéenth yeare of his gouernment, remoued the earle of Angus from the regentship, and tooke vpon himselfe the gouernment of the kingdome. And Marie the mother of the now liuing king of Scots, did in like sort in the yeare one thousand fiue hundred fiftie and two, in the tenth of hir age, and as much of hir gouernment of Scotland appoint procurators to gouerne the realme, whilest she remained in France with the French king hir husband. But enough of this, sith Lesleus in his 9. booke pag. 429, and also in his 10. booke pag. 517, hath liberallie argued on both parts, at what yeares the kings of Scotland may assume to themselues the gouernement of the kingdome, after that they haue atteined to the crowne in those yeares, which are ouer tender and vnfit to dispose of the sword and scepter. Wherefore to passe ouer the same, I thinke it not vnméet in this place, sith we haue mentioned this Morton which was the last regent, gouernour or protector of the kingdome, to set downe a catalog of all such regents and gouernours of that realme, as haue come to my knowledge, after the same sort as I haue doone in England at the end of the gouernement of the duke of Summerset, who was the last protector of that realme: into the discourse whereof I enter as followeth.