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Καπύη). A rich and flourishing city, the capital of Campania until ruined by the Romans. Its original name was Vulturnum, which was changed by the Tyrrheni, after they became masters of the place, to Capua. This latter name was mythically derived from that of their leader Capys, who, according to Festus, received this appellation from his feet being deformed and turned inward. The name is not of Latin, but probably of Oscan origin. The Latins, however, pretended, notwithstanding, to ascribe the foundation of the city to Romulus, who named it, as they stated, after one of his ancestors. Capua was the chief city of the southern Tyrrheni, and even after it fell under the Roman dominion continued to be a powerful and flourishing place. Capua deeply offended the Romans by opening its gates to Hannibal after the victory of Cannae (q.v.), though the luxury and debauchery of the place did much to impair the energy of his troops who wintered there. The vengeance inflicted by Rome upon the Capuans was, however, of a most fearful nature, when, five years after, the city again fell under its dominion. Most of the senators and principal inhabitants were put to death, the greater part of the remaining citizens were sold into slavery, and by a decree of the Senate the Capuani ceased to exist as a people. The city and territory, however, did not become thereupon deserted. A few inhabitants were allowed to remain in the former, and the latter was in a great measure sold by the

Ruins at Capua.

Romans to the neighbouring communities. Iulius Caesar sent a powerful colony to Capua, and under the emperors it again flourished. But it suffered greatly from the barbarians in a later age; so much so, in fact, that the bishop Landulfus and the Lombard, Count Lando, transferred the inhabitants to Casilinum, on the Vulturnus, and this is the site of modern Capua.

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