a very ancient festival in honour of Athena Polias and Erechtheus (A.
Mommsen, Heortologie der Athener,
14 ff., 37 ff.), said to
have been founded by Erechtheus or Erichthonius 729 years before the first
Olympiad (C. I. G.
2374, cf. p. 325), called at first
Athenaea, but after the συνοικισμὸς
Theseus Panathenaea (Plut. Thes. 24
s. v. Παναθήναια
). Pisistratus renewed it
with increased splendour, and attached more especial importance therein to
the worship of his protecting divinity, Athena.
1. The Greater and Lesser Panathenaea.
The Greater Panathenaea was a πεντετηρὶς
celebrated every fourth year, and was merely an extended and more
magnificent performance of the Lesser Panathenaea, which was always from
of old held every year (cf. Hom. Il.
). As each fourth year came round the Lesser was
incorporated in the Greater. The procession and the hecatomb always
remained the basis of the latter, but the chariot-race also appears to
have been considered as belonging to the original festival. Erechtheus
is said to have ridden at it himself (C. I. G.
Pisistratus may be virtually considered as the second establisher of the
Greater Panathenaea (Schol. on Aristid. p. 323), though we hear that the
performance under the Archon Hippoclides in 566 B.C. was attended by a
large concourse of strangers and was widely celebrated, especially as on
that occasion gymnastic contests were first introduced. Indeed
Marcellinus (Vit. Thuc.
§ 3) says the
Panathenaea was established in the archonship of Hippoclides. The
increased splendour of the Greater festival of course diminished the
importance of the Lesser: so, though the adjective μεγάλα
is often found attaching to the Greater
(C. I. G.
380, 1068; Boeckh,
still generally Παναθήναια
used for the Greater, the Lesser one being styled μικρά.
The statement in the Arg. to Dem. Mid.
510, that the
Lesser festival was a trieteris, is disproved both by such evidence as
τὰ κατ᾽ ἐνιαυτόν
814, 32) and also by the fact that inscriptions on vases point to
Panathenaea having been held in every single Olympic year (Mommsen, pp.
119, 125). The Greater Panathenaea were celebrated every third Olympic
year (e.g. C. I. G.
1.251, by the Archon Charondas in
110. 3; Lys. Accept. Mun. Def.
§ 1, by the
Archon Glaucippus in 92. 3: see other confirmatory arguments in Mommsen,
pp. 120, 121); therefore they were held in the same years as the Pythian
games. Solon, we know, took a Pythian calendar to regulate the Athenian
one, and Pisistratus in many points followed closely in Solon's steps
2. The date of the Panathenaea.
The principal day was the third from the end of Hecatombaeon (about
August 13th). Proclus (in Plat. Tim.
p. 9) says so
expressly of the Greater: and this agrees with Schol. on Hom. Il. 8.39
, where Athena is said to have
been born on that day. But Proclus says that the Lesser Panathenaea came
immediately after the Bendideia [BENDIDEIA
], accordingly on the 21st of
Thargelion (about June 8th). But the Greater and Lesser Panathenaea are
undoubtedly connected in that the former is but an amplification of the
latter so that à priori
there is a
presumption that they are held at the same time. Further C. I.
157 obviously follows the calendar, and it puts the
Panathenaea after the sacrifice to Eirene on Hecatombaeon 16th.
According to Demosthenes (Timocrates,
709.28), the Panathenaea are just approaching on Hecatombaeon 11th; but
these are certainly the Lesser Panathenaea (Schaefer,
1.334; Wayte on Dem. Tim.
§ 26), as the year is 01. 106. 4, not 106. 3. The argument that
the list in Lysias (op. cit.
§ 4) is
necessarily in chronological order is disproved by such lists as Isaeus
(de Dicaeog. hered.
§ 36), and [Andoc.]
§ 42, which can be seen from
comparison to be certainly not both in chronological order.
The evidence for a Panathenaea in the spring is Himerius, who gives as a
title to his third speech, εἰς Βασίλειον
Παναθηναίοις, ἀρχομένου τοῦ ἔαρος
: cf. [Verg.]
21 ff. (probably composed in
Hadrian's time); but this refers to the Roman Quinquatria, which were
called Panathenaea after the disappearance of the older festival (Dionys. A. R. 2.70
3. The Musical Contest.
This was only held at the Greater Panathenaea. Pisistratus was of the
of the Philaidae, who lived in
Brauron, where there was a contest of rhapsodes [p. 2.325]
from of old (Schol. on Aristoph. Birds
). Hence he but transferred to the capital the custom of
his village. He introduced recitations of the Homeric poems, which were
better regulated by Hipparchus: cf. Plat. Hipp.
Ael. V. H.
. 8.2. (For the meaning of ἐξ ὑποβολῆς
see Mahaffy, Hist. of Greek
1.29, note.) The poems were now sung in much
longer portions than before, and probably both
the Iliad and the Odyssey as the Neleidae are especially celebrated in
the latter (cf. Mommsen, p. 138). In later times other poets (e. g.
Choerilus of Samos, fl. 420 B.C.) obtained the privilege of being
recited at the Panathenaea (Suidas, s. v. Χοίριλος
The musical contest proper was introduced by Pericles, who built the new
Odeum for the purpose (Plut. Per. 13
Previously the recitations of the rhapsodes were in the old unroofed
Odeum. There is a very important inscription (C. I. A.
2.965 = Rang. 961) concerning these musical contests. The part referring
to the rhapsodists is probably lost. Then follow five prizes for the
For the first an olive
crown set with gold (στέφανος θαλλοῦ
), value 1000 drachmas and 500 drachmas in silver: for
the second, probably a crown value 700, for the third 600, for the
fourth 400, and for the fifth 300 (see Rangabé, ii. p. 673).
Next two prizes ἀνδράσι αὐλῳδοῖς
for the first a crown value 300, for the second one value 100. Next
: for the
first it appears a crown valued at 500 drachmas, or 300 drachmas in
money; for the second probably 200, and for the third 100. The fact that
we find ἀνδράσι
added proves that
there were contests of boys too (cf. C. I. G.
i.). The αὐλητὰ
also got prizes, but
the inscription does not record what they were. Note that the prizes in
the musical contests are reckoned in money, not in kind, as in the older
gymnastic and equestrian contests. The first who won a victory in these
musical contests was Phrynis in Ol. 83. 3 (446 B.C.): see Schol. on
Aristoph. Cl. 971
). Plutarch appears to have written a
treatise on the Panathenaic music (de Mus.
8). There were not any dramatic representations at the Panathenaea. When
we consider the long recitations of the rhapsodes and the musical
contests proper, we may allow perhaps three days for this part of the
ceremony on a liberal computation, certainly not less than one and a
half days (Mommsen, p. 202).
4. The Gymnastic Contest.
There is frequent mention of this contest at the Greater Panathenaea
(C. I. G.
251, Rang. 849, 18; Dem. de Cor.
p. 265.116--a passage, by the way, which shows
that proclamations in honour of benefactors were made at the Greater
Panathenaea at the gymnastic contest), none for the Lesser: besides, it
had nothing to do with the ritual; it was a purely secular and late
addition, said to have been first made by the Archon Hippoclides in 566
B.C., or perhaps Pisistratus himself (cf.
§ 1). The inscription referred to above, C. I.
2.965 (= Rang. 960), also gives details as to the gymnastic
contests. The competitors were divided into παῖδες, ἀγένειοι,
those from 12 to 16 years of age, the ἀγένειοι
from 16 to 20, and the ἄνδρες
above 20. Thus neither a παῖς
nor an ἀγένειος
could compete as such twice. In later times (Rang. 964) the παῖδες
were still further divided e. g. into
τῆς πρώτης ἡλικίας, τῆς
(cf. C. I. G.
1590, παίδων τῶν πρεσβυτέρων, παίδων τῶν
), the παῖδες τῆς
being doubtless the ἀγένειοι.
There is then an event ἐκ
which means an all-comers' race, but for boys, as
is plain from its position before ἄνδρας.
The boys and striplings had their events first:
then there was an interval (if a whole night did not intervene); and on
re-assembling the men's events took place. According to C. I.
2.965, the παῖδες
contests,--στάδιον, πένταθλον, πάλη,
According to Rang. 963 (belonging to
the late period of the Diadochi), the παῖδες
have six, while the ἀγένειοι
still have only five. Perhaps the δόλιχος,
which was added, was for all below
the class of ἄνδρες.
contests were, according to ξ. ι. α.
(= Rang. 962), of 190 B.C.,
δόλιχος, στάδιον, δίαυλος, ἵππιος
(=a double δίαυλος
), πένταθλον, πάλη, πυγμή, παγκράτιον,
(= race in armour). Note the order of the events,
though in Plato's time the στάδιον
8.833 A): cf. C. I. A.
The races were run in heats (τάξεις
four each (Paus. 6.13
); the victors in the heats afterwards running together. There
were prizes for the first and second in the deciding heat in the ratio
of 5: 1 (= ox: sheep, cf. Plut. Sol. 23
see C. I. A.
l.c. The prizes consisted of oil from the
in the Academia [OLEA
p. 263 a], given in
special prize amphorae, which were called ἀμφορεῖς Παναθηναϊκοί
). The oil was meant to be sold, and could be exported
free of duty (οὐκ ἔστι δ᾽ἐξαγωγὴ ἐλαίου ἐξ
Ἀθηνῶν εἰ μὴ τοῖς νικῶσι,
Schol. on Pind. N. 10.64
). The number of amphorae
given, according to the inscription referred to, was about 1450, and the
value (1 amphora worth 6 drachmas) about 1 talent 2700 drachmas (see
Rangab, ii. p. 671). The gymnastic games probably lasted two days,
certainly not less than one (Mommsen, 202).
5. The Equestrian Contest.
There is plenty of evidence for an equestrian contest at the Greater
Panathenaea, none for the Lesser; though there may have been a kind of
ceremonial race, more as a matter of worship than as a contest in which
the victors got substantial prizes. None of the evidences for
Athlothetae (cf. § 11) at the Lesser Panathenaea are absolutely
conclusive, yet we may perhaps suppose that there was an equestrian
contest on a small scale at this festival (Mommsen, 124-127). To
understand thoroughly the many events of this division at different
times, the reader must study the inscriptions in C. I. A.
965 b=Rang. 960 (380 B.C.), 966 = Rang. 962 (190 B.C.), 968 (166 B.C.),
969 (162 B.C.), C. I. G.
1591 (250 B.C.), and above all
the elaborate table of the comparison of these inscriptions in Mommsen
(Taf. IV.). The multifarious details can only be set forth in such a
table, and any one who wants to study them very closely must be referred
to it. Here we can merely give an idea of the plan, noticing that the
events appear to have increased in number as time went on. The first and
chief event, the one which legend said Erechtheus introduced, was that
of the ἀποβάτης
(cf. τῆς ἀπήνης καὶ τῆς κάλπης δρόμος
Olympia in Paus. 5.9
and 2). [p. 2.326]
A charioteer (ἡνιόχος ἐγβιβάζων
or ζεύγει ἐβιβάζων
) and a companion, as in
the Iliad, occupy the chariot. The companion (here called ἀποβάτης,
) leaps out (hence his name) and again up
(hence sometimes we find him also called ἀναβάτης
), partly helped by the driver (who thus gets
his title ἐγβιβάζων
), partly by kinds
of wheels called ἀπσβατικοὶ τροχοί
(Mommsen, p. 154). The son of Phocion (Plut.
) took part in this contest, so it must not be
inferred from its absence in C. I. A.
2.965 that it did
not exist in 380 B.C. It is really broken off the inscription. The
second division in Mommsen's table is. ordinary riding and driving,
without any relation to ritual or war. Here the horses are divided into
foals and full-grown horses; they are yoked either singly, or two or
four together; and the races are divided into δίαυλοι
Then there are various permutations and combinations that may be made of
these (e.g. συνωρίδι πωλικῇ, κέλητι τελείῳ,
in C. I. A.
there is no δίαυλος
ever for a single
horse, only for a yoke or a pair, and not even for these in the case of
foals. The third division consists of what we may call military
competitions, and they are much the same as the second division, only
there do not appear so many combinations (e.g. ib. ἅρματι πολεμιστηρίῳ, ἵππῳ πολεμιστῇ
). There is
no need to suppose that these contests were exclusively confined to the
cavalry (Mommsen, 161-2). The fourth refers to the procession in honour
of Athena, and always consisted of four horses ζεύγει πομπικῷ δίαυλον
The fifth was of javelin-throwers from
horseback, a contest which soon disappeared. Notice further that several
events are for all comers (ἐκ πάντων
cf. C. I. A.
968, 42 ff., as opposed to those for
Athenians only (τῶν πολιτικῶν
The inscription C. I. A.
2.965 b, of which the beginning
is lost containing the ἀποβάτης,
the following, which Mommsen classifies thus:--
(It is specially noted in the inscription that these are πολεμιστηρίοις.
(In brackets we have given the number of jars of oil awarded for first
and second prizes.) The amateurs who took part in the contests of the
second class are the best rewarded; and it was to encourage them to
spend their money on keeping horses that these events were made the most
distinguished. In C. I. A.
2.966, 41, king Ptolemy
Epiphanes appears as victor among them in the δίαυλος
with a chariot.
The place for both the gymnastic and equestrian contests was perhaps the
Eleusinium (Köhler to C. I. A.
2.2, p. 392), or
the deme Echelidae, W. of the Piraeus (Steph. Byz. s. v. Ἐχελίδαι
: Etym M.
340, 53; Mommsen, 152.
Yet cf. Milchhöfer in Baumeister's
s. v. Peiraieus,
1200). It took up a day probably, though possibly only half a day (ib.
6. The Smaller Contests.
) That called Euandria
) was a
means by which the leaders of the procession were chosen. It was a
§ 42, and he who performed it chose out of
his tribe a certain number--perhaps about twenty--four, the number of a
chorus--of the tallest and best looking members, and arrayed these with
proper festal garments. A member of another tribe did the same, and
probably only two tribes contended, as no second prize appears in
C. L. A.
2.965. From this contest strangers were
expressly excluded (Bekk. Anecd.
257, 13). Sauppe and
Köhler consider that there were two companies who contended in
each case in the Euandria, one of seniors, the other of juniors; perhaps
the contest of the seniors was called εὐανδρία
in the special sense, and that of the juniors
: cf. Rang. 964 and
) The Pyrrhic
], performed at
both the Greater and Lesser Panathenaea (Lys. Accept. Mun.
§ § 1, 4). With the Euandria and the
Lampadedromia it belonged to the more strictly religious part of the
festival (cf. Aristoph. Cl. 988
Schol.). Athena was said to have danced the Pyrrhic dance after her
victory over the Giants (Dionys. A. R.
). As belonging to the religious part of the festival, the
prize was an ox for sacrifice, and bore the special title of νικητηριον
(cf Xen,. Cyr.
33, where the ox alone is called νικητήριον,
not the goblets: also Mommsen, 163;
Rangabé, ii. p. 671). There were Pyrrhic dancers of all three
A relief published by
Beulé (L'Acropole d'Athènes,
last plate but one) presents eight armed youths performing the Pyrrhic
dance. A full body of Pyrrhicists would then be twenty-four, the number
of a comic chorus. They wear a light helmet, carry a shield on their
left arms, but are otherwise naked. How the victory was gained in the
Pyrrhic dance and the Euandria is not stated; probably by decision of a
judge. The. figure on the left of the relief may be perhaps. the judge.
) The LAMPADEDROMIA
the prize of which in C. I.
2.965 was a hydria of oil (cf. Schol. in Pind. N. 15.61
), value 30 drachmas.
7. The Pannychis.
This was the night of the 28th (the day being reckoned from sunset to
sunset). The Lampadedromia was the first event in it. Then followed
during the greater part of the night litanies (ὀλολύγματα
) by the elder priestesses, which were
originally prayers and thanksgivings for the harvest, and subsequently
songs of joy for the birth of Athena. Mommsen (p. 171, note) thinks that
possibly the conclusion of the Eumenides
may have reference to the ceremonies of the Panathenaic pannychis. There
were also dances by the younger priestesses, and towards morning songs
by cyclic choruses (cf. Lys. op. cit.
2) of youths and men (νέων τ᾽ἀοιδαὶ χορῶν τε
779, a passage
comprising many features of the Panathenaea, which, however, must not be
taken as expressing the order in time, only the order in importance of
the several [p. 2.327]
events). The kind of songs the men
sang may perhaps be partly seen in the dithyramb of Lamprocles in Bergk
iii. p. 554: cf. Aristoph. Cl. 967
and Schol.). The
got next to nothing for
the expenses of the Pannychis, only 50 drachmas, and this had to
compensate much other outlay besides (Rang. 814, 27-30, and his
8. The Procession and Sacrifices.
The procession was most splendid. It comprised the victors in the games
of the preceding days, the πομπεῖς
leaders of the sacrifices, both Athenian and those of strangers (for the
colonies and cleruchies used to send sacrifices to the Panathenaea, e.
g. Brea, C. I. A.
1.31), a large quota of cavalry (for
i. p. 47.26, speaks of ἵππαρχοι
: cf. Schol. on Aristoph. Cl. 386
), the chief officers
of the army, ταξίαρχοι
dignified elders (θαλλοφόροι,
Xen. Symp. 4
, 17), bearing
olive branches (θάλλοι
), doubtless with
following, in later times the ephebi
splendidly equipped: while of women there was a long train of κανηφόροι
[CANEPHOROS], with the wives and daughters of the μέτοικοι
as their σκιαδηφόροι
[METOECI]: then the
Athenian people, generally marshalled according to their demes. Though
the frieze of the Parthenon reproduces some points, especially the
genuine Athenian element of the Panathenaic festival, still it must not
be supposed that it reproduces all the details; e. g. the μέτοικοι,
of whom we have most specific,
evidence, do not appear. For another service of the female μέτοικοι
at the Panathenaea, see HYDRIAPHORIA
One of the most striking features of the procession was the Peplus,
worked by ἐργαστῖναι,
superintended by two ἀρρηφόροι
and certain priestesses, which was destined
for the ancient statue of Athena Polias, according to certain
prescriptions of the Delphic god. Pisistratus probably intended that a
new peplus should be brought every four years; the Elean maidens wove a
peplus for the goddess only once in every four years (Paus. 5.16
in republican Athens a new peplus was made each year (Schol. Aristoph. Kn. 566
). In the time of the
Diadochi portraits of some of these were placed where the figures of the
gods should have been (Plut. Demetr.
). The peplus was suspended like a sail from the yards on the
mast of the Panathenaic Ship (Schol. on Hom.
), which was an actual ship, very large and
beautiful. The marvellous appearance of a ship going through the streets
was effected by subterranean machines (Philostr. Vit.
2.1, 5, p. 236 Kayser; Paus.
), of which we should very much
like to have further information. The Athenians had become a seafaring
people, and they wished to signify it: the time of the agrarian Athena
was passed (Mommsen, 188). On the peplus were represented the ἀριστεῖα
of the goddess, especially her
victory over Enceladus and the Giants (Schol. on Eur. Hec. 466
; Suidas, s. v. Πέπλος
). It was considered a great sight for the populace
The procession, marshalled mainly in the ,outer Ceramicus, partly inside
the town, passed through the market-place to the Eleusinium at the east
end of the Acropolis (cf. Schol. to Aristoph. Kn. 566
), turned round this to the left, and
passed along the Pelasgicon, north of the Acropolis, and so reached the
Propylaea (Philostr. l. c;
cp. Xen. Hipp. 3
, 2). Then some of
the members performed the sacrifice to Athena Hygiaea, while others
offered a prelimiuary sacrifice on the Areopagus. Prayers accompanied
these offerings, and we hear of prayers being offered for the Plataeans
at the Greater Panathenaea (Hdt. 6.111
entering the Acropolis, which was only allowed to genuine Athenians,
there was the sacrifice of one cow to Athena Nike (Rang. 814, 20); after
this followed the. hecatomb to Athena Polias, on the large altar in the
eastern part of the Acropolis. In earlier times the hecatomb was offered
at the Erechtheum. After the procession followed the ἑστίασις.
The flesh of the victims was
given, according to demes, to a certain fixed number out of each deme.
supplied bread and
9. The Boat-race
The boat-race was a supplementary event on the 29th of Hecatombaeon, the
day on which ships are to be drawn down to the sea (Hes.
815). It was held every four years in the Piraeus in
honour of Poseidon (identified with Erechtheus) and Athena. The
difference of locality forbids our associating it with the Sunian
regatta, though this was also held only once in four years (Hdt. 6.87
; Lys. op.
§ 5). In connexion with this part of the festival the
orator Lycurgus, in whose family was the priesthood of Poseidon
Erechtheus, established three cyclic choruses (Westerm, Biogr.
273, 50) in honour of that god, with valuable
10. The Calendar of the Panathenaea.
For the Lesser Panathenaea (which was the nucleus of the Greater) the
chief day of the festival was the 28th of Hecatombaeon; it comprised the
pannychis, the procession, the sacrifices, and the feasting: and the
27th sufficed for the horseraces (when there were any), the Euandria and
the Pyrrhic dances. At the Greater Panathenaea these days were allotted
to the same events. But the day on which the festival began will vary
according as we allow a longer or shorter period for the three chief
contests: thus the Musical contest might last three days or 1 1/2 days,
the Gymnastic two days or one day, and the Equestrian one day or half a
day. According, then, to the longer period, the Panathenaea would begin
on the 21st; according to the shorter, on the 24th. The longer period
has the advantage that it leaves the afternoons free for prelections (K.
F. Hermann, Gr. Alt.
54, 24) or dinner-parties (Xen.
init.). The shorter will suit Thuc. 5.47
better; cf. Mommsen, 204, 205.
11. The Officials of the Festival.
(1) The ten Athlothetae,
one chosen from each tribe. They
held office for four years, and their function, as Pollux says (8.93),
was to arrange the musical, gymnastic, and equestrian contests at the
Panathenaea. We find in inscriptions that they received subsidies from
of the sacred chest of
Athena (C. I. A.
1.188). (2) The
managed the Lesser Panathenaea (Rang. 814, 32). They appear to have had
nothing to do with the specially Greater festival (Etym.
p. 469, 4). (3) The Gymnasiarchae
], who [p. 2.328]
especially superintended the LAMPADEDROMIA
], who marshalled the people in demes for the
procession and for the ἑστίασις
(Schol. on Aristoph. Cl. 37
s. v.). Concerning those who had perquisites in connexion with the
festival, such as the μάντεις
archons in the κρεανομίαι,
12. Panathenaea outside Athens
Panathenaea outside Athens may perhaps be inferred from Παναθήναια ἐν Ἀθήναις
in C. I.
1068. We are told that Themistocles established
Panathenaea in Magnesia (Ath. 12.533
in Teos there was a guild of Panathenaistae (C. I. G.
3073). The cleruchs no doubt celebrated the festival abroad.
(The principal works on the Panathenaic festivals are Meursius,
in Gronovius's Thesaurus,
vii. p. 83 if.; H. A. Müller,
1837; M. H. E. Meier,
in Ersch and Gruber, 3.10, 277-294; K. F.
Hermann, Gottesd. Alt.
§ 54, pp. 358-367;
Krause, s. v. Panathenaea
in Pauly, 5.1105-1111; August
Mommsen, Heortologie der Athener,
Rangabé, ii. pp. 667-696.) [L.C.P
. The statement
(p. 327 b
) that the officials of the
greater festival were the Athlothetae,
Hieropoioi, is confirmed by cc. 54 and 60. In 100.49 it is mentioned
that the selection of weavers of the sacred πέπλος
(p. 327 a
) was first
in the hands of the βουλή,
afterwards of a δικαστήριον