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NICEPHO´RIUM (Νικηφόριον, Strab. xvi. p.747; Ptol. 5.18.6; Steph. B. sub voce a place of considerable importance in Mesopotamia, on the river Euphrates. According to Isidorus (Mans. Parth. i. ed. Müller) and Pliny (5.24. s. 21, 6.26. s. 30), it owed its foundation to Alexander the Great; according, however, to Appian, to Seleucus I., which is much more likely (Syriac. c. 57). It is mentioned by Dio Cassius (40.13) and by Tacitus (Tac. Ann. 6.40), but simply as one of many towns founded by the Macedonians. Strabo calls it a town of the Mygdonians in Mesopotamia (xvi. p. 747). Nothing is known of its intermediate history; but Justinian erected a fortress here (Procop. de Aedif. 2.7); and the emperor Leo, who probably added several new works to it, is said to have changed its name to Leontopolis. (Cf. Hierocl. p. 715; and Chron. Edess. ap. Assemani, i. p. 405.)


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