(ἡ τῶν Παλίκων λίμνη
: Lago di Naftia
), a small volcanic lake in the inteterior of Sicily, near Palagonia,
about 15 miles W. [p. 2.534]
It is a mere pool, being not more than 480 feet in circumference, but early attracted attention from the remarkable phenomena caused by two jets of volcanic gas, which rise under the water, causing a violent ebullition, and sometimes throwing up the water to a considerable height. On this account the spot was, from an early period, considered sacred, and consecrated to the indigenous deities called the Palici, who had a temple on the spot.
This enjoyed the privileges of an asylum for fugitive slaves, and was much resorted to also for determining controversies by oaths; an oath taken by the holy springs, or craters as they are called, being considered to possess peculiar sanctity, and its violation to be punished on the spot by the death of the offender.
The remarkable phenomena of the locality are described in detail by Diodorus, as well as by several other writers, and notwithstanding some slight discrepancies, leave no doubt that the spot was the same now called the Lago di Naftia,
from the naphtha with which, as well as sulphur, the sources are strongly impregnated.
It would, however, seem that in ancient times there were two separate pools or craters, sometimes termed fountains (κρῆναι
), and that they did not, as at the present day, form one more considerable pool or lake. Hence they are alluded to by Ovid as “Stagna Palicorum ;” while Virgil notices only the sanctuary or altar, “pinguis et placabilis ara Palici.” (Diod. 11.89
; Steph. Byz. s. v. Παλική;
58; Macr. 5.19
; Strab. vi. p.275
; Ovid, Ov. Met. 5.406
; Verg. A. 9.585
; Sil. Ital. 14.219
; Nonn. Dionys.
The sacred character of the spot as an asylum for fugitive slaves caused it to be selected for the place where the great servile insurrection of Sicily in B.C. 102 was first discussed and arranged; and for the same reason Salvius, the leader of the insurgents, made splendid offerings at the shrine of the Palici. (Diod. 36.3
There was not in early times any other settlement besides the sanctuary and its appurtenances, adjoining the lake of the Palici; but in B.C. 453, Ducetius, the celebrated chief of the Siculi, founded a city close to the lake, to which he gave the name of Palica (Παλική
), and to which he transferred the inhabitants of Menaenum and other neighbouring towns.
This city rose for a short time to considerable prosperity; but was destroyed again shortly after the death of Ducetius, and never afterwards restored. (Diod. 11.88
.) Hence the notices of it in Stephanus of Byzantium and other writers can only refer to this brief period of its existence. (Steph. B. sub voce l.c.;
Polemon, ap. Macrob. l.c.)
The modern town of Palagonia
is thought to retain the traces of the name of Palica, but certainly does not occupy the site of the city of Ducetius, being situated on a lofty hill, at some distance from the Lago di Naftia.
Some remains of the temple and other buildings were still visible in the days of Fazello in the neighbourhood of the lake.
The locality is fully described by him, and more recently by the Abate Ferrara. (Fazell. de Reb. Sic.
3.2; Ferrara, Campi Flegrei della Sicilia,