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[240] Federal lines than there was in the field and hospital service. The wholesale and retail dealers in drugs and medicines throughout the South usually kept large stocks on hand. The more prudent and far-seeing added to their usual stock in many of the larger cities and towns as the war-cloud darkened. These stocks were largely drawn upon by the medical purveyors, State and Confederate, and were supplemented by supplies from across the Atlantic, notwithstanding the rigid blockade of all Southern ports.

In connection with the ordnance bureau, an agency was established in London, with instructions to purchase and forward much-needed supplies for both Ordnance and Medical departments by every blockade runner, the vessels on their return trips carrying cotton to defray the expense. A separate agency for the Medical Department was established at Nassau. The cotton for the use of the Medical Department was purchased by special agents of the department, who were very active in the discharge of their duties, and supplies were shipped with commendable regularity.

From the time of the occupation of New Orleans by the Federals until the closing of the Mississippi River by the surrender of Vicksburg, considerable amounts of quinine and morphia were brought out of the Crescent City, at night, by fishermen in their small canoes or dugouts. The following incident is quoted from Dr. C. J. Edwards, of Abbeville, Louisiana:

Many and daring were the attempts of the distressed Confederates to obtain medicines during the war. In 1863, when Grant was besieging Vicksburg and his gunboats patrolling the Mississippi had cut the Confederacy in twain, my father was detailed from Wright's Arkansas cavalry, an independent command, to procure some quinine, calomel, and opium. He crossed the Mississippi River at Greenville, Mississippi, and proceeded with a buggy and horse to Canton, where he obtained the supplies. He made the return trip safely to the Mississippi River, only to find a gunboat in close proximity and no means of traversing the mighty stream, then bank-full. After considerable search he found an

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