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We have received Philadelphia papers of Friday last, the 8th instant, and the Washington Chronicle of the same date. We give a summary of the news they contain:

The Confederate "raid" into Maryland--great alarm at the North--a Levy on Hagerstown — the raid "very formidable," &c.

The papers are filled with accounts of the Confederate advance into Maryland. The raid seems to be turning out an "invasion," The Washington Chronicle in a two column editorial estimates the Confederate force at 30,000, and expresses the opinion that it is very formidable. The Philadelphia Inquirer thinks that up to this time the raid has all the symptoms which usually precede a great invasion, and it is the part of wisdom to be prepared for it. The Washington telegrams to the Northern press, say the invading force consists of Longstreet's and Ewell's corps, and put the strength of the two at 30,000 (!)--the object of the movement is announced to be the capture of Baltimore and Washington. As our readers are ignorant of the forces that are creating so much alarm in Yankeedom, we copy for their benefit the following telegram, dated.

Harrisburg,July 7.--A rebel prisoner captured in a skirmish at Hagerstown, states that the present raid is not only to procure horses, but crops and provisions; that it is headed by Lee and composed of Ewell's and Longstreet's corps, and is an effort to invade Pennsylvania and other Northern States--The capture of Baltimore and Washington are also aimed at.

While Lee is thus operating against Washington city, Beauregard has been left in command at Petersburg, where he has sufficient force, so our rebel informant states.

Another telegram says:

‘ Parties who have a fair reputation for veracity, and who have lately arrived here, state that Bushrod Johnson had crossed the Potomac with about three thousand men, the advance of a column of forty thousand under Ewell. One gentleman, who is well known hereabouts, goes so far as to state that he shook hands with Gen. Johnson at Williamsport.

’ Another, from Washington city, settles the matter in this off hand style:

The cry of wolf has been sounded so often that, should he ever come, it would be difficult to convince people that there was real danger until "the cannon's opening roar" was heard at the gates. Washington is absorbed in the great work of "money getting," and its denizens are not to be turned from their worship of Mammon. It is very difficult to get at the exact truth of all the rebel movements in the vicinity of Harper's Ferry. Most of their movements have been greatly exaggerated, and their whole force is probably not over ten thousand men, and more likely not exceeding seven thousand.

Telegrams from York, Harrisburg, and the Cumberland Valley, state that the excitement among the people is more intense than during any previous invasion. Hundreds of men, women and children have passed through York on their way to the Susquehanna, and the roads were lined with horses, cattle, and wagons, loaded with goods and provisions, being driven in the same direction. Many have hidden their stores and cattle in the mountains. The excitement at Chambersburg this morning, on hearing that Hagerstown was occupied, and that the rebel cavalry were advancing on Greencastle, is represented as most intense. Gov. Curtin had started for Gettysburg on the 7th, but was telegraphed to return when about fifteen miles from Carlisle, as the road was not safe. Whoever the Confederate General in command may be, it would seem from the following telegrams that he is levying on the towns and "raiding" on the roads pretty heavily:

Philadelphia,July 7.--A man from Hagerstown, just arrived at Greencastle, says McCunsland's command; formerly Jenkins's, 10,000 strong, cavalry and mounted infantry, and one battery, entered Hagerstown yesterday, and left at 11 o'clock by the Frederick turnpike, where the main body had all gone.

A requisition was made on the people for fifteen hundred outfits and twenty thousand dollars, under threats of burning the town, which was paid.

Baltimore,July 7--12:15 P. M. --The rebels at Harper's Ferry have destroyed all the railroad property there, including the telegraph and ticket offices. They have also burned a large quantity of forage.

Nothing definite is known as to the damage done to the road beyond Harper's Ferry and Martinsburg, though it is believed that its destruction was one of the main objects of the raid, and it is to be presumed that they have accomplished all within their power.

The papers are filled with a confused mass of excited telegrams, which throw very little light on the movements of the Confederates. On the 7th they left Hagerstown, a portion moving on the road to Frederick, and another portion on the Baltimore peace. On the same day they appeared before Frederick, and the latest telegram, which is dated Baltimore, midnight, of the 7th, says heavy cannonading was heard at Frederick that evening, and that Gen. Wallace had repulsed every effort of the Confederates to take the town. A telegram from Sunday Book, dated the night of the 7th, says the bridge over the Shenandoah was in flames.

Hunter is moving from Western Virginia, Couch is organizing the Pennsylvania militia, and Wallace is defending Frederick.

Great excitement in Harrisburg — the New invasion — Stampede from Maryland.

A special correspondent at Harrisburg, July 5, writes:

‘ On the breath of sulphurous vapors and "villainous saltpetre," were bore tons of rumors of invasion, and "war's alarums" filled the city with a thousand rumors yesterday, adding a zest to the excitement which — would otherwise have been missed. But Harrisburg, and no doubt all the towns in the Cumberland Valley, have got used to these alarms, which are becoming quite familiar to our ears; so that nerves are by no means "unstrung" now that new alarms greet us from the border, and we are told the rebels are again advancing northward.

’ During Sunday evening last there was considerable excitement here; but this was owing to the suddenness of the intelligence. Yet the papers made the most of the occurrence, and bulletins announced to eager crowds news highly exciting, and so confused and contradictory in details that it was impossible to obtain a true idea of the reality of affairs.

At one time the rebels were represented as having crossed the Potomac and on their way to Hagerstown and Greencastle, full tilt. The next hour brought an official dispatch from Major General Couch, denying there were any rebels this side of the Potomac. One dispatch from the border would exaggerate the forces of the enemy to ten or fifteen thousand, which subsequent official dispatches would reduce to three or four thousand guerillas.

The facts seem to be as telegraphed you last night, that at six o'clock on Sunday morning Sigel was driven from Leetown and Dartville by a superior force of the enemy, whose cavalry numbered some twenty-six hundred all told, but whose infantry seem to be involved in much obscurity, so far as ascertaining their numbers is concerned. Falling back on Martinsburg, Sigel was again obliged to retreat, this time to the fortifications at Harper's Ferry. Our losses in men cannot be great, because of the insignificance of the force under Sigel at the time of the attack.

That the forces of the enemy cannot be very great is pretty well indicated in the fact that, with all the forces of cavalry they are represented as having, Sigel escaped with but very few captures. It is hardly probable that more than one-third or one-half of the forces sent against Hunter, at Staunton and Lynchburg have advanced northward with this mythical "host."

Sigel now has a sufficient force to help himself if he will. He holds Harper's Ferry, and there is little doubt but that his forces are able to keep the place against all attacks. A few rebel scouts have been seen in the vicinity of Williamsport, Hagerstown and McConnelsburg; and this has given rise to reports of the approach of the main body. We have communication with Hagerstown to-day.

In the meantime hundreds of negroes, from Chambersburg and the border, have passed through here and other places, for the North, to escape reenslavement. Horses and cattle, of all kinds, are being removed northward from the valley.

Mosby at Point of Rocks.

A dispatch gives the following intelligence about Mosby:

‘ Yesterday afternoon, about two o'clock, a party, numbering several hundred of Mosby's guerrillas, crossed the Potomac, from the Virginia shore, and occupied the Point of Rocks, stealing and destroying everything that come within their reach, and capturing several soldiers and citizens, among whom were Lieut John L. Sullivan, of Company G, First Maryland Regiment, and Mr. R. B. Means, Adams' Express agent, stationed at Point of Rocks.

’ These gentlemen were, we understand, tied to horses and carried off by Mosby's men. George Michael, of company H, 1st Maryland regiment, was shot in the face and thigh while disputing the passage of the rebels across the river. The guerillas crossed the river in regular line of battle, it being easily fordable at the Point of Rocks, and were protected by three pieces of artillery stationed on the Virginia shore, and commanding everything on this side. The movement was entirely unexpected by the small force we had stationed at the Point of Rocks; and, being entirely without artillery. It became necessary for them to retire towards Frederick City.

After remaining at Point of Rocks for three or four hours, and gobbling up everything within reach, the scoundrels beat a hasty retreat across the river.

From Grant's army.

A dispatch from Washington to the Philadelphia Inquirer says that Grant will soon startle the country with another "brilliant movement"--over the left, we suppose. A telegram from Grant's army says:

‘ Fires are occurring frequently in Petersburg — They have stopped calling upon the fire department to assist in conquering the flames. The firemen now occupy the trenches. We are at this moment fighting the whole rebel population.

’ Every day a regular ration of shells is impartially distributed among the various wards of Petersburg. The right of the fifth and Ninth happen to have their line of battle in close proximity to the rebel works. This brings the skirmishers near each other, and the line is continually embroiled in some little skirmish.

A refugee and two deserters from Richmond, who left there several days ago, represent that there is great distress for food, owing to the cutting of the rebel means of obtaining supplies.

Yankee account of the sinking of the Alabama — Description of the fighting on board the Kearsage.

A correspondent of the New York Herald, writing from Cherbourg, gives the first Yankee account we have seen of the fight between the Kearsage and Alabama. His information is derived from Yankee officers aboard the former vessel. The writer says:

‘ The fight took place on Sunday, the 19th. On the 15th, the day after the arrival of the Kearsage off the port, Captain Winslow received from Mr. Liala, the consular agent of the United States here, a note containing an extract from a letter written by the rebel agent at Cherbourg and purporting to quote a letter of Capt. Semmes to the rebel agent. Captain Semmes stated that he considered the presence of the Kearsage in the vicinity of the port an insult to him and the rebel flag; that he was desirous of doing so, and intended giving her a fight, and "begged that the Kearsage would remain off the port, where he hoped not to detain her long — no longer than to-morrow, or next day at farthest"

To this boasting irony of course Capt Winslow made no reply, but prepared his ship for the coming combat. Capt Semmes, however, did not detain him two days longer than he promised.

Nothing more was heard of the Alabama until Sunday morning, the Kearsage in the meantime continuing her cruise off the port.

A little after ten o'clock on this beautiful, bright, sunshiny Sabbath morning, the Kearsage, then lying about four miles off the port, the Alabama was discovered steaming towards her, through what is known as the "eastern passage" The men were immediately beat to quarters, and every man sprang to his place, eager for the commencement of the fray.

In order to put beyond the shadow of a doubt any question about a violation of neutral territory Capt. Winslow, immediately upon discovering the Alabama, headed his vessel out to see and steamed away from the port until he had reached a distance of about seven miles, the Alabama following in her wake, at a distance of a mile and a half, the rebel flag flaunting sanctify in the breeze of morning.

After reaching an offing of about seven miles, the Kearsage slackened speed, and turned her port side toward the Alabama, slowly, allowing the latter to approach her. While bringing her port side to bear upon the Alabama, for the purpose of fighting the battle on that side, the Kearsage, reserving her fire, and a deathlike silence prevailing on board, permitted the Alabama to approach with in a distance of twelve hundred yards. The Kearsage had five guns with which she fought the battle mounted on the port side, her crew not being sufficiently large to work the whole seven guns upon one side.

When the Alabama had arrived within the distance above mentioned she opened the combat with a broadside fired at the Kearsage. The Alabama fought seven of her guns, two more than were used by the Kearsage, and also on her starboard side. None of the shots struck the Kearsage, one or two passing over and the rest falling short. The reverberations of the cannon and the wicked, whizzing sound which the shot made in passing through the air, however, excited the men, who were anxious to return shot for shot.

Capt. Winslow, however, deemed it wise to allow his antagonist, evidently flushed with the hope of a speedy and easy victory, to approach still nearer.

The Alabama, still approaching, slowly fired a second and a third broadside, none of the shots, however, taking effect, before the Kearsage returned a shot.

When the proper distance seemed to be obtained, Capt. Winslow opened his batteries upon the rebel, and poured broadside after broadside into her as rapidly as the gunners could load and fire.

After the Kearsage opened her batteries upon the Alabama, a rapid and continuous fire was kept up from both sides. Each vessel of course kept her steam up, and each was sailing in a circle in a direction opposite to the other, keeping the star board battery bearing upon her antagonist.

Spectators describe the manœuvring of both the vessels as beautiful. They continued approaching each other until, towards the end of the fight, a distance of but about five hundred yards separated them.

The Alabama fired much more frequently than the Kearsage, and wasted a great deal more powder and ball. Generally her shots were evidently badly aimed, wild and high. Evidently her forte was to attack and awe into surrender unarmed merchant vessels; but from the first the firing from her showed that she was not competent to grapple with the trained and disciplined crew of a vessel of war.

Many of the shots, however, struck and cut the riggings of the Kearsage, without inflicting, however, any serious damage — the shrill whistle of every one, as it flow over their heads, exciting the crew of the Kearsage and rendering them more than ever determined to conquer.

The fight commenced at twenty minutes past ten o'clock, and lasted just one hour and five minutes.

During this time four shots lodged in the hull of the Kearsage.

Eight shots in all struck her hull. One rifle shot passed entirely through her smoke-stack; another rifle shell through the starboard side, below the main rigging, near the shear plank, bursting and wounding three men, causing the only casualties to the crew of the Kearsage during the fight.

One of these, a man named Dempsey, had his arm taken off, and the others received fractures of the legs. Another rifle shell struck under the stern and lodged in the rudder post, without exploding; another carried away the starboard life buoy; another scratched the hammock nettings aft.

Three thirty-two pounders passed the port side, opposite the ward-room hatch. Another carried away one of the cranes over the ward-room hatch, and, taking a slanting direction upward, passed through the bottom of the cutter on the port side. Another rifle shell struck the top of the engine room skylight, cutting clear across it like a saw, and finally passed through the skylight window.--Several struck the starboard light, but their force was broken by chains hung on the side to cover and protect the boilers. These, therefore, caused no damage. Shots were continually whizzing through the rigging like hailstones, and it seems almost a miracle that more casualties did not occur.

The first shot noticed as producing any effect upon the Alabama struck her amidships, in her upper works, making a perceptible gap but doing little or no serious damage. About half way through the fight an eleven inch shell exploded on the Alabama's deck, near one of the divisions killing fifteen out of the nineteen men, and scattering bones and flesh in all directions and cutting one man entirely in two.

One of the Alabama's crew says the scuppers literally "ran blood" Third Lieutenant Wilson, also taken prisoner, says he was knocked down four times, but escaped without a wound.

From the deck of the Kearsage it could be plainly seen that her effective and destructive fire was seriously injuring the Alabama, and as each-shot struck her side loud cheers went up from the crew of the Kearsage, more than ever enthusiastic by a speedy prospect of success. During the entire fight the men (whose first baptism with fire this was) acted with great coolness and determined courage, not a single one of them showing the "white feather"

One hundred and seventy-four rounds were fired during the fight from the Kearsage, and it is computed that the Alabama fired at least twice that number.

At a quarter past eleven it was observed that Captain Semmes had altered his opinion in relation to the prowess and skill of his Yankee antagonist, and arrived at the conclusion that discretion was the better part of valor; had, in slight as our President once elegantly expressed it, decided to "turn tail and run." He veered round and commenced steaming in the direction of the French coast, evidently desirous of placing himself as speedily as possible within the limits of the "marine league" which marks the boundary between the French territory and the common ocean.

The Kearsage immediately followed, the Alabama continuing to fire her stern gun. Finding that the speed of the Kearsage, who was rapidly gaining on her, was superior to hers, the Alabama slackened speed, and it was reported that she had struck her flag, and seemed to be settling; but her boats were not lowered, because, as was afterward learned, they had been shattered by the shot from the Kearsage. No white flag being seen from the Kearsage, she delivered another final broadside, which did more damage than all the previous ones.

The white flag was then run up from the Alabama, and about from her approached the Kearsage.

The firing then finally ceased. The boat was under the command of an English officer, belonging to the Alabama, who informed Capt. Winslow that the latter was in a sinking condition, and asked for boats to rescue the men.

All the available boats of the Kearsage were now lowered and manned; but before a single one could reach her the Alabama went down — down clear and straight to the bottom of the ocean — She was at this time about six miles outside the port, and about five hundred yards distant from the Kearsage.

The men, as she was sinking, jumped overboard Many were doubtless drowned — how many is not yet known.

She had about the same sized crew as the Kearsage, and seventy were all that were saved by the available boats of the Alabama and taken from the water by those of the Kearsage. Fifteen of those they saved were wounded. Two of these died after being rescued, and the carpenter of the Alabama, one Robinson, was picked up dead and perfectly naked.

A new character now appeared upon the scene. An English yacht steamer belonging to the Royal Yacht Squadron, named the Deerhound, and owned by a gentleman in Liverpool, came in sight of the Kearsage immediately upon the disappearance of the Alabama. It seems she had been at anchor during the early part of the action; but towards its close weighed anchor and steamed away outside of the Kearsage, afterwards passing under her stern. Capt. Winslow hauled her, and asked her assistance in rescuing the drowning men of the Alabama. She proceeded toward them, lowered her boats, which were seen to pick up a few men, and then, without approaching the Kearsage again, steamed away, and, spreading her canvas, headed toward the English coast. Among others rescued by her were two English officers, who came on board the Kearsage to surrender the Alabama and several other officers who had been permitted to leave with their boats to rescue their own crew, but who, it appears, deserted them and sought refuge on board their English tender. It is generally supposed that Capt Semmes escaped in this yacht, although among the officers of the Kearsage this is by no means considered positive.

One of the men taken prisoner asserts that the last he saw of the Captain, just before the ship went down, he was going into his cabin, while another asserts that he saw him alongside of him in the water. It is proven that Mr. Kell, the first lieutenant and executive officer of the Alabama did escape in one of the boats of the Deerhound.

It has since been stated and believed, that the yacht, which had been two days in port, was alongside the Alabama shortly before her departure, and that Capt Semmes put on board of her his chronometer and other articles of value. It is thought she might have saved a dozen men altogether — These, in good faith and legally, should have been delivered to Capt. Winslow. When they were taken the Alabama had struck her flag and surrendered, and these men were legitimately prisoners. Capt. Winslow would have been perfectly justified in firing into the yacht. It is probable they had remained at Cherbourg expressly for the purpose of aiding in the escape of Semmes in case, as he did, he should get the worst of the fight. Another instance of the fair and honorable dealing of "perfide Albion."

A few scattering men were picked up by some French pilot and fishing boats and taken to Cherbourg. After saving all the men she could find the Kearsage took a pilot and came into Cherbourg, arriving here about two o'clock, without, it is believed, any serious damages, although it will require her some two works probably to repair.

Capt. Winslow, giving as a reason that he had no room to keep them in, immediately paroled the prisoners--five officers and sixty-two men — and they went on shore.

The officers thus paroled were Surgeon Gulf, formerly of the United States Navy. Third Lieutenant Wilson, Third Engineer Pandt, Chief Engineer Freeman, and the boatswale. Several other officers, whose names I have not yet been able to ascertain, were picked up by French boats.

It is doubtful whether the action of Capt. Winslow, in paroling the prisoners, will meet with the approbation of the Government. It is equivalent, so far as his act can make it to the recognition of the "belligerent rights" of this British pirate, who has never yet entered a rebel port. It may have the effect to seriously complicate the question of claims which our Government will make upon Great Britain for property destroyed by this vessel, built, armed, equipped and manned in an English port. It was certainly in opposition to the instructions of Mr. Dayton, to whom Capt. Winslow applied as to whether or not he should parole the prisoners Mr. Dayton's answer by telegraph, however, did not arrive until after the men were paroled. It is certainly in opposition to the feelings and wishes of his officers. As to the matter of room, Mr. Dayton informed me before I left Paris that he had telegraphed to Capt. Winslow that the St. Louis would arrive at Cherbourg in a few days from the Mediterranean, and could take most of the prisoners on board. That Captain Winslow believed he was acting for the best of course I firmly believe. Still I think he acted very unwisely and injudiciously.

The fifteen wounded men are in the hospital, and are attended to by the surgeon of the Kearsage and by the surgeon of the Rappahannock, who came over from Paris yesterday. I have not yet seen them, but shall do so to-day, and by the next mail will give you much further particulars.

Some of the paroled officers have gone to Paris to-day, and the men are walking about the streets.

I met Captain Winslow last evening in company with the surgeon and purser Smith, at the American Consular Agent's. I am greatly indebted to all these gentlemen, and particularly to the purser, who has sat up with me nearly all night detailing the particulars which I have given you.

The officers are of course in high spirits. Capt. Winslow is evidently as modest as he is brave and determined. He is a short, thick set, good natured looking man, of about fifty, and is looked upon by the people here as a great hero.

Another strong letter from the Northwest--a Look into the future.

Judge J. C. Robinson, member of the Federal Congress from the 11th District of Illinois, has written a letter to his constituents, declining a re-election. In it he characterizes Lincoln's administration as "much more than a failure"--It is infamous, imbecile, and corrupt. There is but one hope for "the country — a feeble hope, if is true — and that is a change of administration." The election of Lincoln; or a man who endorses his policy, renders re-union impossible. He says:

‘ Every dollar now being expended by the President is treasure thrown away; every soldier who falls beneath our country's flag, from this time forward dies in vain. Every step which the Government has taken for nearly two years past has but increased the obstacles to Union and peace. And why? Because the civil and military policy of the Administration is now directed, not to the suppression of the rebellion and the restoration of the Union, but to its subversion and overthrow. This is not the language of me inference. I but repeat the avowal of the dominant party in Congress, and the official and other declarations of the President. Your ruler are tending to disunion with as much certainty as the leaders of the rebellion. The only difference is, that one party has drawn the sword of open rebellion, and marches straight forward to the unholy work of overthrowing the Constitution — the other, falsely pretending to be the defenders of the Constitution are now meanly intent upon subverting its plainest and most fundamental provisions, and erecting, by military power, a totally different government upon the ruins of the old. What signifies the passage of congressional laws for dividing the lands of the people of the South among their own slaves, or the slavish adherents of the President? What is the effect, in the rebellions States, of presidential edicts, abolishing slavery, arming the slaves, and placing them as guards over terrified women and children?

’ What, I ask, is the significance of these things to the thoughtful students of history? What the effect upon the great body of the people of the Southern States? Let our recent disasters in the South give an answer. Or, if you prefer it, inquire of those who fought at Murfreesboro', at Chickamauga and Olustee. And, if the voice which comes up from the ensanguined battle fields leaves you still in doubt, act for a while the part of the good Samaritan at some one of our over-crowded hospitals, and ask our sick, wounded and dying to account the murderous conflict of the last few days. These terrible battles have left a defiant foe in our front — a foe yet unconquered — in my judgment unconquerable — while folly, fanaticism and cupidity rule our councils. I repeat the war is no longer waged to put down rebellion and restore the authorities of the Federal Government over the rebellions States. Had this been continuously the sole purpose of the Administration, and means justly commensurate with such an end been adopted and continued, the war would long since have been over.

But a directly opposite course has been pursued — a course calculated, if not designed, to unite the great body of the Southern people in resisting a policy in which they beheld their total subjugation and enslavement. By this means thousands of the Union men of the South have been driven into rebellion, while those who are still out of the rebel armies execrate the very names of those by whose orders and connivance they are robbed and degraded under their country's flag. All classes are united in resisting what they regard as degradation and enslavement. Every heart is stirred by vengeance and hate. The old and the young have rushed indiscriminately into the front ranks of rebellion. Within the last few days I have seen among the prisoners we have captured mere striplings and aged; gray haired men, walking side by side to the prison house. I read in their features none of that suffering and despondency of which we have heard so much. Mingled scorn and defiance obscured the trace of these privations and sufferings which would appal the hearts of men less brave and sincere than they . They believe themselves right, and in this is the scorst of their power. In numbers they are a mighty nation; in area they are an empire. They are united as no revolutionary of rebellious people have ever been united before. The President and his friends, his policy and theirs, have thus united them. And now I ask you to point me to a page in all history which records the subjugation of a people thus numerous, thus sincere, thus united and brave.

Again, I say it is not now, as in the beginning, a question of subduing a rebellions faction — that was first rendered impossible, and then the purpose abandoned. It is now a war of subjugation, in which the Southern States are to be subverted, overthrown, and, if need be, erased from the map of the world; a war in which, if one-tenth of the people in particular localities — the meanest tenth--will swear fealty to the President or some of his satraps, like Andy Johnson, of Tennessee, fairly swear that they "ardently desire" the freedom of their own slaves, then, and in that event, this "one-tenth" (though heretofore the worst of rebels,) are to govern the remainder of the people. And those who advocate such an insane policy, and require our soldiers to fight and die for its enforcement, tell us they desire peace. The people of the South, I repeat, will suffer extermination before they submit to such degrading terms. They will fight with more than human courage before they quietly submit to the occupation of their homes by their own slaves, or the hungry jackals who are proposing to migrate from the North.--But suppose we so far succeed as to disperse their armies occupy their chief cities, apportion their lands and people their habitation, will these things bring peace?

Will we then have a restoration of that Union whose firmest and indispensable supports rested in mutual memories, forbearance and respect?--The voice of all history, the lesson of all experience, the plainest dictates of common sense answer with an emphatic no-- In every mountain gorge, on every hill top, in every valley, in every city and hamlet, the fires of hate will burn ever, while a badge of social or political inequality remains. Each and every neighborhood will team with invisible clansmen, who will teach their descendants the religion of undying hate for those they will regard as oppressors and foes. Every roadside will be the theatre of murders and assassination; every cavern will echo the bloody tradition of the past, and every occupant of an abandoned farm or sequestered home will die the moment a Federal guard is no longer at the door.--But I will not further enlarge upon a theme so suggestive of crime and blood. It shows, however, that when such terrible scenes are no distinctly visible in the immediate future we should not disregard the warnings which precede such calamities to public liberty, to civilization, humanity and religion throughout the world.

The danger, I repeat, is imminent. The clouds which precede the tempests of destruction are visible to us all — their thunders are distinctly audible to all those who are willing to hear. We all admit that safety is above party, the preservation of our country above all price. Our only reliance is upon the people; and when such momentous issues are involved, surely we cannot appeal to them in vain. Do not delude yourself with the belief that the taking of Richmond will end the war or facilitate peace. There was a time when such a result was of the first importance, but that time has passed. Our occupation of New Orleans, Newbern, Norfolk, Nashville, Memphis, Vicksburg, and Little Rock; has demonstrated the little importance of such surrenders in a war of such gigantic proportions. I do not fully share the general confidence so loudly expressed in the ability of Gen. Grant to take Richmond; but should he do so, the beginning of the end will, I fear, be as far off as before. But should he fall to take Richmond, and be driven north of the Rappahannock, what then? I repeat, what then? I have put the question, and will not shrink from the responsibility of essaying an answer. I doubt not, in that event, the President and the great body of his partisan supporters will become instantly the loud mouthed advocates of peace.

Their party cry will be "Peace and Separation" Even "miscegenation" will lose for the time its significance; and throughout the entire army of Abolitionists, contractors, and loyal leaguers the cry of peace and separation will be heard. The whole power of Government, I doubt not, will be exerted to this end, upon the idea that having failed to subjugate or exterminate the bar slaveholders of the South; it will be self-puritanical and sinful longer to live with them as equals and friends. You may believe me extravagant in my views, I assure you I but speak what I believe — they are the words of soberness and thirty--opinions deliberately formed, and expressed with all the seriousness which so grave a subject cannot fail to inspire.

Nor is the military situation the duty thing which arouses my apprehensions and fears. Financially, we are on the verge of ruin. Our public debt has reached a figure which almost become our powers of calculation. Four thousand millions!!!--History in vain attempts to unfold a page on which to trace its parade. And it is increasing at the railroad three millions per day! The hour of settlement must come. To think of payment presupposes an impoverished people in all coming time. Repudiation, though sustained by numerous precedents, will leave a blot upon our national escutcheon which no necessity can justify, which the roll of years can never erase. Bankruptcy repudiation! terrible words, and of what fearful import, when, as alternatives, they are presented to the honest child of toll. Before him files the dim domain of poverty; behind, the footstep of the tax gatherer is heard. But I forbear the attempt further to fill the veil of that future which lies beyond.

Again I say, our last earthly reliance is upon you — upon the people. Let good men of all parties join in one united effort to rescue our country from impending ruin. Believe not, that because I gladly return to that private life which, "when vice prevails and impious men hear away," is the post of honor, I shall be indifferent of insertive in the approaching conflict. In becoming again a private in the ranks of the party of the Constitution, I have lost none of my former ardor and zeal. The magnitude of the prize for which we struggle — the preservation of constitutional liberty — is enough to inspire us all with renewed energy, and with that courage which increases with the dangers to be encountered. Let us all be true to the Constitution of our country. Let its entire preservation be our sole motto. We will then deserve success, and to deserve is to be assured of victory.

Your fellow citizen,
J. C. Roninson,
Washington, June 1, 1864.


The hospitals at City Point have been cleared of the sick and wounded, and most of the members of the Sanitary Commission have returned home.

Baldy Smith has gone North on sick leave.

It is rumored that Sigel has been removed from his command.

Gen. R. E. Lee's personal property is all to be sold at Washington on the 19th.

Lincoln has appointed the 4th of August as a day of lasting, humiliation and player.

In the case of Gen. Dix, (for suspending the World and Journal of Commerce, we presume,) Gov. Seymour has given orders that the militia force of the State be increased 75,000 men. The Inquirer asks what will be the issue? Will Gov. Seymour order out the militia to execute his process and arrest Gen. Dix, and will the latter resist with the military power of the United States?

The Herald commenting upon causes for Yankee grief says:

‘ The budget of burdens now submitted to the people of the loyal States comprises a double income tax, heavily increased taxes of all other descriptions, direct and indirect, and upon everything useful or ornamental, excepting whiskey on hand — which seems to be harder to reach than Richmond — and then comes, perhaps, another draft for the army, without commutation and without escape, except through a substitute at his own price.

’ The following instance of quick promotion gives an idea of the great exhilaration of the Yankees over the fate of the Alabama:

The Secretary of the Navy has recommended to the President that Capt. Winslow, of the Kearsage, he promoted to the grade of Commodore.

Secretary Seward was struck by a rocket on the 4th instant, just above the eye. The escape was narrow, but Satan loved his own.

Mr. Fessenden took the oath of office as Secretary of the Treasury on the 5th.

The Herald says:

‘ The bill of Mr. Winter Davis for the restoration of the rebellions States has failed to receive the President's endorsement, probably because it required a majority vote of the people of any rebellious State to bring it back into the Union as a free State, while old Abe's plan fixes the business with one-tenth of the popular vote. With the experience, however, that he has had in this tinkering system of reconstruction, we do not suppose that many more such experiments will be made in the interval to December next.

’ Gold was quoted in New York on the 7th at 274½

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