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The self-mutilation and subsequent lament of Attis, a priest of Cybele. The centre of the worship of the Phrygian Κυβέλη or Κυβήβη, was in very ancient times the town of Pessinus in Galatian Phrygia, at the foot of Mt. Dindymus, from which the goddess received the name Dindymene. Cybele had early become identified with the Cretan divinity Rhea, the Mother of the Gods, and to some extent with Demeter, the search of Cyhele for Attis being compared with that of Demeter for Persephone. The especial worship of Cybele was conducted by emasculated priests called Galli (or, as in vv. 12 and 34, with reference to their physical condition, Gallae). Their name was derived by the ancients from that of the river Gallus, a tributary of the Sangarius, by drinking from which men became inspired with frenzy (cf. Ov. Fast. 4.361ff.). The worship was orgiastic in the extreme, and was accompanied by the sound of such frenzy-producing instruments as the tympana, cymbala, tibiae, and cornu, and culminated in scourging, self-mutilation, syncope from excitement. and even death from hemorrhage or heart-failure (cf. Lucr. 2.598ff.; Varr. Sat. Men. 131 Büch.ff.; Ov. Fast. 4.179ff.). The worship of the Magna Mater, or Mater Idaea, as she was often called (perhaps from identification with Rhea of the Cretan Mt. Ida rather than from the Trojan Mt. Ida), was introduced into Rome in 205 B.C. in accordance with a Sibylline oracle which foretold that only so could ‘a foreign enemy’ (i.e. Hannibal) be driven from Italy. Livy 29.10, Livy 29.14) gives an interesting account of the solemnities that accompanied the transfer from Pessinus to Rome of the black stone that represented the divinity, and of the establishment of the Megalensia; cf. also Ov. Fast. 4.247ff. The stone itself was perhaps a meteorite, and is thus described by Arnobius Adu. Gent. 7.46: lapis quidam non magnus, ferri manu hominis sine ulla impressione qui posset; coloris furvi atque atri, angellis prominentibus inaequalis, et quem omnes hodievidemusindolatum et asperum.” Servius (Aen. 7.188) speaks of it as acus Matris Deum, and as one of the seven objects on which depended the safety of Rome.

The early connection of Attis with the Mother of the Gods seems to point to the association of an original male element with an original female element as the parents of all things. But in the age of tradition Attis appears as a servant instead of an equal, and the subordination of the male to the female element is further emphasized by the representation of Attis, like the Galli of historic times, as an emasculated priest. Greek imagination pictured him as a beautiful youth who was beloved by the goddess, but wandered away from her and became untrue; but being sought and recalled to allegiance by her, in a passion of remorse he not only spent his life in her service, but by his own act made impossible for the future such infidelity on his part, thus setting the example followed by all the Galli after him (cf. Ovid Fast. l. c.). Catullus departs from this form of the Attis myth, and makes Attis a beautiful Greek youth who in a moment of religious frenzy sails across seas at the head of a band of companions to devote himself to the already long-established service of the goddess (vv. 1-3). On reaching the shores of Trojan Ida he consummates the irrevocable act of dedication (vv. 4-5), and with his companions rushes up the mountain to the sanctuary of the goddess (vv. 6-38). But on awaking next morning he feels the full awfulness of his act (vv. 39-47), and gazing out over the sea toward his lost home, bewails his fate (vv. 48-73), till the jealous goddess unyokes a lion from her car and sends him to drive her wavering votary back to his allegiance (vv. 74-fin.). The story is told with a nervous vigor and swing of feeling that are unequalled in Latin literature, and to it the galliambic meter (Intr. 85), the one traditionally appropriated to such themes, lends great effect. The date of composition is uncertain, but Catullus may have found his immediate inspiration in his contact with the Cybelian worship in its original home during his residence in Bithynia in 57-56 B.C. (see Intr. 29ff.). Or it may have been found in his studies in the Alexandrian poets; for Callimachus certainly used the galliambic meter, though no distinct title of a poem by him on this theme is extant. Caecilius of Comum was also engaged on a poem based on the worship of Cybele (cf. Catul. 35.13ff.), and Varro and Maecenas both exercised their talents in the same direction (cf. Varr. Sat. Men. l. c.; Maec. in Baehr. Bragm. Poet. Rom. p. 339).

The poem abounds in rhetorical devices to add to its effect; such are the frequent employment of alliteration (vv. 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, etc.), of strange and harsh compounds (vv. 23 hederigerae, 34 properipedem, 45 sonipedibus, 51 erifugae, 72 nemorivagus), and the repetition of words of agitated movement and feeling (eg. rapidus three times, citatus four times, citus twice, rabidus three times, rabies once).

celeri: indicating his eagerness for arrival.

[2] Phrygium nemus: that clothing the slopes not of Dindymus but of Ida (cf. vv. 30, 52).

[2] citato cupide pede: emphazing the eager haste of the traveller, rather than indicating a land journey after reaching the shores of Asia (cf. vv. 47, 89), the poet is not writing as a geographer. Cf. v. 30 properante pede.

[3] opaca: cf. v. 32. The mad rush of the new devotees is contrasted with the silent mysteries of the abode of the goddess.

[4] ibi: thereupon; cf. vv. 42, 48, 76; and Catul. 66.33; Catul. 8.6n.

[4] furenti rabie: cf. v. 38 rabidus furor.

[4] vagus animis: the plural to indicate his divided, distorted emotions; cf. Verg. A. 8.228ecce furens animis aderat Tirynthius” .

[5] ili: genitive from the stem ilio-, a rare but legitimate variant for the more frequent ili-; cf. Cels. 4.1iliis” (dat. plur.); Gloss. Labb.ilium λαγών” ; Marc. Emp. 36[ilium]” .

[6] sine viro: i.e. sine virilitate.

[7] terrae sola: (plural, as in v. 40 sola dura): cf. Lucr. 2.592nam multis succensa locis ardent sola terrae.

[8] niveis manibus: cf. v. 10 n. teneris digitis. Adjectives descriptive of feminine beauty are employed to accord with the change of gender under which Attis is now spoken of, and himself speaks of his companions (vv. 12 Gallae, 15 exsecutae, 34 rapidae Gallae); cf. Hor. Carm. 2.4.3niveo colore” (of Briseis); Hor. Carm. 3.27.25 niveum latus (of Europe); Verg. A. 8.387niveis lacertis” (of Venus).

[8] citata: Attis is from henceforth a notha mulier (v. 27), and is described by feminine adjectives; cf. vv. 11 adorta, tremebunda, 31 furibunda, 32 comitata, etc.; but when he returns to himself and thinks with sorrow and loathing upon his condition, the masculine adjective is resumed; cf. vv. 51 miser, 78 hunc, 88 tenerum, 89 ille. The emendations by which all these later masculines (except v. 78 hunc) have been transformed to feminines are based on incorrect feeling.

[8] lene: the tympanum is probably called leve because it is cavum (v. 10).

[8] typanum: Gr. poet. form τύπανον metri gratia (cf. v. 21, etc. tympanum, Gr. τύμπανον); from representations in vase- and wall-paintings, an instrument like the modern tambourine, but with the rattling disks of metal suspended at intervals from its edge by short cords.

[9] tubam Cybelles: as the blare of the tuba is the summons and incitement to warriors, so is the beat of the tympanum to the votaries of Cybele; the phrase is further explained by tua initia. The famous norm of Bentley (on Lucan 1.600) that when the penult is short, the form Cybele should be written, but when it is long the form Cybebe, Cybelle being discarded altogether, is not well supported by either Greek or Latin usage. Cybelle (Gr. *ku/bella) is found in many good MSS.

[9] mater: Cybele was the Magna Mater Idaea of the Romans, as well as mater deorum; cf. intr. note; Hymn. Cyb.μήτερα μοι πάντων τε θεῶν, πάντων τ᾽ ἀνθρώπων” .

[9] initia: technically used only of the mysteries of Demeter (cf. Varr. RR 3.I.5initia vocantur potissimum ea quae Cereri fiunt sacra” ), but here of the symbol of the secret worship of Cybele, perhaps by reason of the popular confusion of Cybele with Demeter.

[10] teneris digitis: cf. v. 8 n. niveis manibus; Ov. Ib. 456[ut Attis] quatias molli tympana rauca manu” ; Ov. Fast. 4.342feriunt molles taurea terga manus.

[10] cava: the word tympanum also denoted a kettle-drum with a hemispherical resounding cavity and a single head of hide, and so cava, which would properly characterize it, is here used of its cognate instrument, the tambourine; cf. Ov. Fast. 4.183inania tympana tundent” ; Aus. Epist. 29.21cava tympana.

[11] tremebunda: in the quivermg of nervous excitement.

[12] agite: cf. Catul. 61.38n.

[12] Gallae: cf. v. 34, and intr. note.

[12] Cybeles: Gr. Κυβέλη; cf. v. 9 n. Cybelles.

[13] Dindymenae dominae: cf. v. 91; Catul. 35.14.

[13] vaga: of the purposeless wanderings of the crazed devotees; cf. vv. 18 erroribus; 25 vaga cohors; 31 vaga vadit.

[13] pecora: cf. Ov. Ib. 457pecus Magnae Parentis” (of the Galli)

[15] sectam meam exsecutae: under my rule; Attis acts as recruiting officer, and then (duce me) guides the new devotees to their place of service. comites implies here a certain subordination as in the case of the comites of a provincial governor; cf. Catul. 28.1 Catul. 11.1. Apparently exsequi is used with sectam only here, though Cicero uses sectam persequi (Cic. Verr. 2.5.70.181), and sectam sequi is frequently found (cf. Livy 29.27.2qui meam sectam secuntur” , a formal expression in an invocation).

[16] rapidum: of the rushing waves of the sea, as explained in truculenta pelagi; cf. Catul. 64.358rapido Hellesponto” .

[16] truculenta pelagi: with the construction cf. Verg. A. 9.81pelagi alta” ; Hor. Carm. 4.4.76acuta belli” ; with the sentiment, Hor. Carm. 1.3.10truci pelago” .

[18] hilarate, etc.: i.e. haste to gladden the heart of the goddess by the presence of this new accession of enthusiastic votaries.

[18] erroribus: the rabidus furor animi (v. 38) would lead the band, not directly to the temple, but in Maenad-like tortuousness of course.

[21] cymbalum: cymbala were hollow hemispheres of metal a few inches in diameter, held one in each hand by the aid of small rings or thongs attached to the center of their convex surfaces. Struck together, they gave a sharp, clanging sound that fitted well with that of the tympana and tibiae; cf. Catul. 64.262tereti tenuis tinnitus aere ciebant” ; Ov. Fast. 4.184aera tinnitus aere repulsa dabunt” ; Ov. Fast. 4.189sonus aeris acuti” ; Aus. Epist. 24.23tinnitus atinnitus aëni.eumlaut;ni.

[21] reboant: cf. Aus. Epist. 24.21tentis reboant cava tympana tergis” .

[22] Phryx: the tibiae were said to be a Phrygian invention; cf. Catul. 64.264; Lucr. 2.620Phrygio stimulat numero cava tibia mentis” ; Tib. 2.1.86obstrepit et Phrygio tibia curva sono” ; Ov. Fast. 4.181inflexo Berecyntia tibia cornu” .

[22] curvo calamo: the tibia was originally made of a reed. The curved variety appears from bas-reliefs to have been shaped sometimes like the lituus, straight and of uniform diameter from the mouth-piece till near the bell, where it curved sharply back upon itself, but sometimes to have had a gentle double curve and an increasing diameter from mouthniece to bell, like a cow-horn. The straight varieties, more commonly used, were generally played in pairs, one with each hand, being often supported in position at the player's mouth by a band admitting the two mouth-pieces and fastened at the back of the head.

[22] graue: cf. Stat. Theb. 6.113signum luctus cornu grave mugit adunco tibia” .

[23] maenades: the poet borrows for the priests of Cybele the name appropriate to the frenzied maidens that attended upon the similar rites of Dionysus.

[23] capita vi iaciunt: frequent wall-paintings and engraved gems show the bacchanals beating the tympana and swaying the head violently back and forth; cf. Catul. 64.255capita inflectentes” ; Maec. frag. 4 Baehr.sonante typano quate flexibile caput” ; Varr. Sat. Men. 132 Buech.semiviri teretem comam volantem iactant” ; Ov. Met. 3.726ululavit Agave, collaque iactavit, movitque per aera crinem” .

[23] hederigerae: ἅπαξ λεγόμενον.

[24] acutis ululatibus cf. v. 28 Maec. frag. 5 Baehr.comitum chorus ululetOv. Fast. 4.341exululant comites” , Met. l. c.

[25] illa: the demonstrative characterizes as well known the whole statement; in this use ille corresponds closely to our definite article.

[25] volitare vaga: so of Bacchus in Catul. 64.251, Catul. 64.390.

[25] cohors: i.e. comites; cf. v. 11 and 28.1 Pisonis comites, cohors inanis.

[26] tripudiis: of the wild, rhythmic dance connected with the worship.

[27] simul: sc. atque; cf. v. 45 and Catul. 22.15n.

[27] notha mulier: cf. Ov. Fast. 4.183semimares” (of the Galli); Ov. Ib. 453nec femina nec vir” (of Attis); Varro Sat. Men. 132 Buech.semiviri” (of the Galli).

[28] thiasus: of a band of raving devotees, as in 64.252, and often, of the attendants of Iacchus.

[28] trepidantibus: as v. 11 tremebunda, of the quivering of nervous excitement; cf. Verg. A. 7.395aliae tremulis ululatibus aethera complent” (of the Bacchic worshippers).

[28] ululat: cf. v. 24 n.ululatibus”.

[29] leve tympanum: cf. v. 8 leve tympanum.

[29] recrepant: the word apparently occurs only here and in Ciris 108lapis recrepat Cyllenia murmura pulsus” .

[30] viridem Idam: cf. v. 70; Culex 311iugis Ida patens frondentibus” ; Ov. AA 1.289sub umbrosis nemorosae vallibus Idae” ; Ov. Fast. 6.327in opacae vallibus Idae” ; Ov. Met. 11.762umbrosa sub Ida” ; Stat. Silv. 3.4.12pinifera Ida” .

[30] properante pede: cf. v. 34 properipedem.

[31] animam agens: to be explained from anhelans of the almost fainting condition resulting from haste, excitement, and exhaustion, gasping. It usually means ‘to give up the ghost’; cf. Cic. Fam. 8.13.2Q. Hortensius, cum has litteras scripsi, animam agebat.

[32] comitata: usually with an ablative of person instead of thing when, as here, it has a personal subject.

[33] veluti iuvenca: etc. the comparison is usually employed by the poets of the yoke of love; cf. Catul. 68.118n.

[35] domum Cybelles: apparently the shrine of the goddess on the mountain-top.

[36] Cerere: cf. Cic. ND 2.23.60fruges Cererem appellamus, vinum autem Liberum; ex quo illud Terentisine Cerere et, Libero friget Venus” (from Ter. Eun. 732).—The fasting in this case was probably not due to a requirement of ritual, but simply to the utterly exhausted condition of the new Galli.

[38] quiete molli: etc. cf. v. 44.

[38] rabidus furor: cf. v. 4 furenti rabie.

[39] oris aurei: doubtless to be construed with Sol rather than with oculis; cf. Lucr. 5.461aureamatutina rubent radiati lumina solis” ; Verg. G. 1.232sol aureus” ; Ov. Met. 7.663iubar aureus extulerat sol” .

[39] radiantibus oculis: cf. Ov. Trist. 2.325radiantia lumina solis” ; and with the figure in oculis, F. W. Bonrdillon, “the night has a thousand eyes and the day but one.”

[40] lustravit: surveyed, rather than ‘illumined,’ as the figure in oculis shows.

[40] aethera album: etc. the adjectives album, dura, ferum describe permanent characteristics and not those peculiar to the morning, and hence album must be understood not merely of the sky brightened by dawn, but of the bright, fiery aether; cf. Cic. ND 1.13.33caeli ardorem” ; Cic. ND 2.15.41in ardore caelesti qui aether vel caelum nominatur” .

[40] sola: plural, since the sun views every region of earth.

[40] dura: solid, to distinguish the earth from the fluid aether and sea.

[40] feram: a traditional epithet of the sea; cf. v. 16 n.

[41] sonipedibus: first in Lucil. 15.15. Muel.Campanus sonipes” ; also in Cic. De Or. 3.47.183paeonsicutsonipedes” ; and frequently in later poets.

[42] ibi: temporal, as in v. 4 (see note).

[42] Somnus: etc. the morn having come, Somnus is released from duty and flies eagerly (citus) back to Pasithea, whose reciprocal eagerness of longing is indicated by v. 43 trepidante sinu. Pasithea was one of the lesser Graces, and was promised to Sleep as a wife by Hera in Hom. Il. 14.267ff.

[45] simul: cf. v. 27 n.simul”.

[46] liquida mente: of passionless calm; cf. Pl. Epid. 643animo liquido et tranquillo's: tace!Pl. Ps. 232nihil curassis: liquido's animo: ego pro me et pro te curabo” .

[46] sine quis: cf. v. 5.

[46] ubique: the quantity of the penult shows the equivalence to et ubi.

[47] animo aestuante: contrasted with liquida mente; there was but a moment of clear and calm mental vision succeeded by the torture of recollection.

[47] rasum: so sometimes in earlier Latin (including Lucretius) for later rursus.

[47] reditum tetulit: cf. v. 79 uti reditum ferat; Catul. 61.26aditum ferens” ; Catul. 61.43 aditum ferat. On the archaic form of the verb cf. v. 52; Catul. 34.8n.

[48] maria vasta: cf. Catul. 31.3mari vasto” ; Catul. 64.127pelagi vastos aestus” .

[49] miseriter: for misere, as puriter for pure in Catul. 39.14; Catul. 76.19.

[51] miser: while under the influence of his mad enthusiasm, Attis gloried in his emasculation, but now, in his recovered senses, he speaks of his condition only with loathing, using feminines (v. 68) to point this feeling, but of course not using a feminine adjective in this expression of passionate longing for his home.

[52] tetuli: see 34.8 n.

[53] ferarum gelida stabula: cf. Verg. A. 6.179itur in antiquam silvam, stabula alta ferarum” . On the lengthening of the final syllable before initial st see Intr. 86g.

[55] reor: indicative present with future meaning; cf Catul. 1.1n. dono.

[56] pupula: cf. Cic. ND 2.57.142acies ipsa, qua cernimus, quae pupula vocatur.

[56] derigere: so, rather than dirigere, of the fixed gaze in a single direction; cf. Catul. 22.8derecta plumbo” .

[57] carens est: for caret; cf. Catul. 64.317n. fuerant exstantia.

[59] genitoribus: i.e. parentibus; cf. Lucr. 2.615ingrati genitoribus” (of the Galli).

[60] foro: the poet here employs the corresponding Latin word for the Greek ἀγορά.

[61] miser ah miser: cf. Catul. 61.139.

[61] etiam atque etiam: cf. Pl. Trin. 674te moneo hoc etiam atque etiam” ; Ter. Eun. 56etiam atque etiam cogita” ; and often in later writers.

[62] figurae: under the word is the Greek feeling for the beauty of the human form that had made Attis the object of so much adoration; cf. Cic. ND 1.18.47ff.

[63] mulier: starting with the torturing thought of his present hateful condition, he retraces the steps of his former career as the passionate admiration of a whole city.

[63] adulescens: cf. Catul. 12.9n. puer; Censor. Die Nat. 14.2[Varro putat] usque annum XV. pueros dictosad tricensimum annum adulescentesusque quinque et quadraginta annos iuvenisadusque sexagensimum annum senioresinde usque finem vitae senes” .

[63] ephebus: cf. Censor. Die Nat. 14.8de tertia autem aetate adulescentulorum tres gradus esse factos in Graecia prius quam ad viros perveniatur, quod vocent annorum xiiii. παῖδα, μελλέφηβον autem xv., dein sedecim ἔφηβον,tunc septemdecim ἐξέφηβον.

[64] gymnasi flos: with the figure cf. Catul. 17.14n.

[64] olei: i.e. palaestrae, as the contestants were well rubbed with oil before the sports; cf. Cic. De Or. 1.18.81 nitidum … genus verborum … sed palaestrae … et olei.

[65] ianuae frequentes: devoted admirers flocked to his doors by day.

[65] limina tepida: finding no entrance, his lovers spent the night in complaints on his door-stone; cf. Plat. Symp. 183aοἱ ἐρασταιποιούμενοικοιμήσεις ἐπι θύραις” ; Aristaenetus 2.20ὅτε μὲν γὰρ αὐτοὶ ποθεῖτε, ἀστρώτους καὶ χαμαιπετεῖς κοιμήσεις ἐπὶ θύραις ποιεῖσθε” ; Hor. Carm. 3.10.20non hoc semper erit liminis patiens latus” , Prop. 1.16.22tristis et in tepido limine somnus erit” ; Ov. Met. 14.709posuit in limine duro molle latus” .

[66] corollis: the door-posts and threshold were decorated with garlands by the lovers in token of their devotion; cf. Lucr. 4.1177at lacrimans exclusus amator limina saepe floribus et sertis operit” ; Ov. Met. 14.708interdum madidas lacrimarum rore coronas postibus intendit” ; Prop. 1.16.7mihi non desunt turpes pendere corollae” .

[67] linquendum ubi: etc. the proudly careless boy affected so completely to disregard the attentions of his lovers as to be aware of them only as he left the house in the morning for the stadium and palaestra.

[67] esset: only one earlier instance of the subjunctive of repetition with ubi can be cited (Pl. Bacch. 431). In the silver age the construction becomes more frequent; cf. Hor. Carm. 3.6.41sol ubi montium mutaret umbras.

[68] deum ministra: not specifically a servant of the general pantheon, but simply a temple servant, an unknown priest instead of the beloved of a city: the needful specification follows in Cybeles famula; cf. Tac. Ann. 1.10.5; Tac. Ann. 4.37.5effigie numinum” .

[68] ministra, famula: not content with the contrast between the lord of a cityful of lovers and the slave of a mysterious divinity, Attis brands his present disgrace by using the feminine form.

[69] maenas: cf. v. 23 n. maenades.

[70] viridis Idae: cf. v. 30 n.

[71] altis Phrygiae columinibus: the following verse makes it clear that mountain-summits are meant, though the form appears to be used only here in that sense; but the form culmen is so used by Caes. BG 3.2 and by Suet. Dom. 23, and perhaps columinibus is here used metri gratia.

[72] silvicultrix, nemorivagus: each adjective is ἅπαξ λεγόμενον, though Verg. A. 10.551 uses silvicola, and Lucr. 2.597montivagum” .

[73] iam iam: with the repetition cf. Cic. Phil. 2 34.87iam iam minime miror te otium perturbare” ; Verg. A. 12.875iam iam linquo acies” .

[73] iam iamque: not = et iam iam, for the passionate exclamation of sorrow demands an asyndeton; the phrase rather = iam et iam; cf. Cic. Att. 7.20.1at illum ruere nuntiant et iam iamque adesee” ; Cic. Att. 16.9iam iamque video bellum” : and in Catullus himself Catul. 38.3 and Catul. 64.274magis magis” beside Catul. 68.48magis atque magis” .

[74] roseis labellis: the youthful beauty of Attis is thus contrasted with the intensity of his suffering and the bitterness of his plaint; cf. Catul. 45.12n. purpureo ore.

[75] geminas: cf. Catul. 51.11gemina teguntur lumina nocte” (where, however, there is a transfer of epithet); Culex 150geminas aures” ; Verg. A. 5.416temporibus geminis” ; Ov. Fast. 2.154geminos pedes” ; Stat. Silv. 4.4.26geminas aures” ; Mart. 10.10.10geminas manus” .

[75] deorum aures: somewhat loosely said, as if Cybele were not alone on the summit of Ida, but in the company of the other gods.

[75] nuntia: the neuter singular in the sense of ‘news’ is very unusual, and the neuter plural in the same sense is still more rare; cf. however Sedul. 2.474grandia nuntia” .

[76] iuga resolvens: while unfastening the lion from the yoke she addresses him. Cybele is often depicted by the poets as riding in a chariot drawn by yoked lions; cf. Lucr. 2.600hanc veteres Graium docti cecinere poetae sedibus in curru biiugos agitare Ieones” ; Verg. A. 3.113et iuncti currum dominae subiere Ieones” ; Verg. A. 10.253biiugi ad frena leones.

[77] laevum: the ‘nigh’ lion; the specification is doubtless introduced for the sake of increasing the realistic effect of the lion's attack by details of word painting.

[77] pecoris hostem: probably with reference to the Greek descriptions of the lion as ταυροβόρος (Anth. Plan. 94), ταυροκτόνος (Soph. Phil. 400), ταυρολέτωρ (Man. Chron. 252), ταυροσφάγος (Lyc. 47), ταυροφόνος (Orph. Hym. 14.2); for pecus indicates neat cattle as well as sheep; cf. Varro RR 2.1.12de pecore maiore, in quo suntboues, asini, equi” .

[77] stimulans: probably not with a goad, but with her words.

[78] agedum, age: with the repetition cf. Ter. And. 310