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Thrasydaeus (*Qrasudai=os). 1. A citizen of Elis, and leader of the democratic party there. When the Spartans under Agis invaded the Elean territory, in B. C. 400, the oligarchs of Elis, led by Xenias, made an attempt to overpower their political adversaries, and killed, among others, a man, whom, from the likeness between the two, they mistook for Thrasydaeus. The democratic party were hereupon much disheartened, but the mistake was soon discovered, and Thrasydaeus, who, at the beginning of the outbreak, was sunk in sleep from the influence of wine, put himself at the head of the people, and completely conquered the oligarchs. Agis, however, when he retired from Elis, left a Lacedaemonian garrison in Epitalium, and the Eleans were so harassed by the ravages it committed, that Thrasydaeus, in the following year (B. C. 399), was compelled to sue to Sparta for peace, and to purchase it by absolute submission. (Xen. Hell. 3.2. §§ 27-30; Paus. 3.8.) We may perhaps identify with the sub
Timanthes (*Tima/nqhs), artists. 1. The celebrated Greek painter, contemporary with Zeuxis and Parrhasius (about Ol. 95, B. C. 400; Plin. Nat. 35.10. s. 36.3), is said by Quintilian (2.13) to have been a native of Cythnos, but Eustathius (ad Il. 24.163, p. 1343. 60) makes him a Sicyonian : these testimonies may be reconciled by supposing him to have been a native of Cythnos, and to have belonged to the Sicyonian school of painting. Our information respecting his personal history is confined to the facts of his having contended with Parrhasius and Colotes; the works which he painted on those occasions will be mentioned presently. Native genius, power of expression and suggestion, and entire mastery of the resources of his art, seem to have been the chief qualities which characterised Timanthes. (Plin. l.c. § 6.) His pictures were distinguished, Pliny tells us, from those of all other painters by suggesting more than they expressed; and, striking as was the art displayed in them, the
10,000 were yet on their return home, Tissaphernes, as a reward for his great services, was invested by the king, in addition to his own satrapy, with all the authority which Cyrus had enjoyed in western Asia. On his arrival he claimed dominion over the Ionian cities, which, alarmed for their liberty, and fearing, too, the resentment of the satrap, whose rule they had renounced for that of Cyrus, applied to Sparta for aid. Their request was granted, and an army was sent under Thimbron, in B. C. 400, to support them. In the following year Dercyllidas superseded Thimbron, and, taking advantage of the jealousy between Pharnabazus and Tissaphernes, concluded a truce with the latter, who, to save his own territory, unscrupulously abandoned that of his fellow satrap to the invasion of the enemy. In B. C. 397, however, the Lacedaemonian forces threatened Caria, where the property of Tissaphernes lay. The two satraps now united their forces, but no engagement took place, and the negotiations
Titi'nius 3. L. Titinius Pansa Saccus, consular tribune, B. C. 400 and 396. (Liv. 5.12, 18; Fasti Capit.)
o guard the citadels. At Tarsus a large body of his soldiers and of those of Pasion the Megarian quitted their standards for that of Clearchus; and, Cyrus having afterwards allowed the latter to retain them, Xenias and Pasion abandoned the army at Myriandrus, and sailed away to Greece. (Xen. Anab. 1.1.2, 2. §§ 1, 3, 10, 3.7, 4. §§ 7, 8.) [PASION, No. 1.] 2 An Elean, of great wealth, who was a proxenus of Sparta, and was also connected by private ties of hospitality with king Agis II. In B. C. 400, during the war between Sparta and Elis, Xenias and his oligarchical partizans made an attempt to bear down their adversaries by force, and to subject their country to the Lacedaemonians. Sallying out into the streets, they murdered several of their opponents, and among them a man whom they mistook for Thrasydaeus, the leader of the democratic party. Thrasydaeus, however, who had fallen asleep under the influence of wine, soon rallied his friends, defeated the oligarchs in a battle, and dr
f it given by Pliny, who is our chief authority for the artist's life. (H. N. 35.9. s. 36.2.) He says that "The doors of the art, thrown open by Apollodorus of Athens, were entered by Zeuxis of Heracleia in the fourth year of the 95th Olympiad (B. C. 400-399) ... who is by some placed erroneously in the 79th Olympiad (or 89th, for the best MSS. vary; B. C. 464-4460 or 424-420), when Demophilus of Himera and Neseas of Thasos must of necessity have flourished, since it is doubted of which of themnd we have no other mention of the latter,--it appears to us that this passage, when cleared of a mistaké into which Pliny was led in a way which can be explained, contains the true period of Zeuxis, namely, from about Ol. 89 to Ol. 89,. B. C. 424-400 ; the mistake referred to, as made by Pliny, being the assumption of the period at which Zeuxis had attained to the height of his reputation, as that at which he began to flourish. And here we have the reply to the argument of Sillig in favour of
made to move, as if alive, by machinery under the floor, and to utter sounds by the action of air driven by water through small pipes, or by means of air rarefied by heat. His works are extant in Greek, and have been frequently translated. They contain many curious anticipations of modern devices, as well as many curious tricks and effects no doubt intended as a part of the machinery of the priests to amuse the speculative and astound the ignorant. Archytis's flying dove was made about 400 B. C. Friar Bacon's speaking head, 1264 A. D. An automatic coach, horses and passengers, was made by Camus for Louis XIV. when a child. Vaucanson made an artificial duck which quacked, ate, and drank; its food undergoing a change simulating digestion. Vaucanson also constructed a flute-player, 1738. The writing automaton was a pantograph; deceptively worked by a confederate, 1769. The automaton chess-player was also a deception, 1769. Maelzel made a trumpeter in 1809. An automaton speakin
owline is fastened to the leech of a sail. b. A mooring-hawser. 4. (Husbandry.) The piece on the forward end of a plow-beam, to which the draft-shackle is attached. The clevis. Also called the muzzle or plowhead. See plow. 5. (Fire-arms.) That piece in a gun-lock which serves to bind down the sear and tumbler, and prevent their lateral motion. Bri′dle-bit. Bridle-bits are of great antiquity, as is proved by the Egyptian and Assyrian paintings and sculptures. Xenophon (400 B. C.) describes several kinds, smooth, sharp, and toothed. The curb is a modern invention, and was introduced into England from the Continent in the reign of Charles I. The command exercised by the bit has led to the use of it in metaphor, as in a remarkable passage of James in his Epistle general:— Behold, we put bits in the horses' mouths that they may obey us. Etruscan and Grecian sculpture represent the bridle substantially as we yet have it. The Greeks had a severe bridle, arm
pair of masks which move over each other so as to expose an opening of any required size and proportions. Plaster-spreader. Fig. 3807 has a shield hinged to a block which has a concave upper surface. The leather is clamped between the shield and bed, and is exposed at the opening in the former. Plaster-spread. Perkins's patent, January 15, 1830, has a pair of rollers, between which the leather is run, flattening down the plaster upon it. Blisters were made by Hippocrates, 400 B. C. Cantharides are commonly found in Spain, and their use is ascribed to Aretaeus of Cappadocia, 50 B. C. Sticking-plaster is made as follows: Two solutions are first made: one, an ounce of isinglass in eight ounces of hot water; and the other, of two drachms of gum-benzoin in two ounces of rectified spirits. These solutions are to be strained and mixed. Several coats of this mixture, kept fluid by a gentle heat, are then to be applied with a camel's-hair brush to a piece of silk stretch
a cog-wheel. The character of a tine, or prong, is that of piercing, as in the familiar instance of the tines of a fork; as we say, a two-tined or twopronged fork. Tool-stay. The tooth of a wheel is better called a cog. Specifically: 1. A small, narrow, projecting piece, usually one of a set; as, 2. The tooth of a comb, a saw, a file, a card, a rake. See saw-tooth, etc. 3. A cog of a wheel. 4. A tine or prong of a fork. Tooth, Ar-ti-fi′cial. Hippocrates, about 400 B. C., refers to instruments for the extraction of teeth, and cites a mode of fixing them by gold wire. They were probably natural teeth artificially inserted. Celsus, about the Christian era, refers to filling carious teeth with lead and other materials. Soon after this we read of false teeth of bone and ivory. Actius, in the fourth century, describes the filling of carious teeth. Martial, in one of his epigrams, attributes the whiteness of Lecania's teeth to the fact of her wearing
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