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ve their swords, pens, etc., in their left hands in the impressions, instead of the right. Had they been engraved for the purpose of printing, the figures would have been reversed on the plate, so as to print right. Euclid was printed with diagrams on copper in 1482. The copperplate roller-press was invented in 1545. Etching on copper by means of aqua-fortis invented by F. Mazzuoli or Parmegiano, A. D. 1532. Mezzotinto engraving invented by De Siegen, 1643; improved by Prince Rupert, 1648; and by Sir Christopher Wren, 1662. Mr. Evelyn showed me most excellent painting in little [miniature]; in distemper, in Indian incke, water-colours : graveing; and, above all, the whole secret of mezzo-tinto, and the manner of it, which is very pretty, and good things done with it. — Pepys's Diary, Nov. 1, 1665. At Gresham College, the Royal Society meeting, Mr. Hooke explained to Mr. Pepys the art of drawing pictures by Prince Rupert's rule and machine and another of Dr. Wren's [Sir C
-blast ovens in 1837. The experiment at Mauch Chunk was repeated, with the addition of the hot blast, in 1838, 1839, and succeeded in producing about two tons per day. The Pioneer furnace at Pottsville was blown July, 1839. The first iron-works in America were established near Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619. In 1622, however, the works were destroyed, and the workmen, with their families, massacred by the Indians. The next attempt was at Lynn, Massachusetts, on the banks of the Saugus, in 1648. The ore used was the bog ore, still plentiful in that locality. At these works Joseph Jenks, a native of Hammersmith, England, in 1652, by order of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, coined silver shillings, sixpences, and threepences, known as the pine-tree coinage, from the device of a pine-tree on one face. Of the special processes for treating and purifying, a few may be cited:— Smelting by blast with charcoal, pit-coal, and coke, and with the addition of limestone or shells as
y of lead an tin was used. Pliny refers to the use of lead for ruling lines on papyrus. La Moine cites a document of 1387 ruled with graphite. Slips of graphite in wooden sticks (pencils) are mentioned by Gesner, Zurich, in 1565; he credits England with the production. They were doubtless the product of the Borrowdale mine, then lately discovered. In the early part of the seventeenth century, black-lead pencils are distinctly described by several writers. They are noticed by Ambrosinus, 1648; spoken of by Pettus, in 1683, as inclosed in fir or cedar. Red and black chalk pencils were used in Germany in 1450; in fact, fragments of chalk, charcoal, and shaped sticks of colored minerals had been in use since times previous to all historic mention. Painting of the body, face, and limbs is an accomplishment in all countries where clothing is scanty, and some tribes have ingeniously contrived to make it permanent by tattooing. This art is both ancient and modern, and has its prof
(Shoemaking.) A small slip of wood used to fasten the upper to the sole, and the soles to each other. See Fig. 3568, page 1648. Shoe-pegs are said to have been invented by Joseph Walker, of Massachusetts, about 1818. They are made by machinery in which the tool is securely clamped to a plate capable of motion in one or several directions by means of screws. In 1648, engravings published at Rome by Maignan show lathes for turning the surfaces of mirrors, in which the tool was guided by ith their families, massacred by the Indians. The next attempt was at Lynn, Massachusetts, on the banks of the Saugus, in 1648. The ore used was the bog ore, still plentiful in that locality. At these works Joseph Jenks, a native of Hammersmith, Eins unaffected by ordinary atmospheric changes. It was first observed by Von Helmont, in 1640, and was subsequently, in 1648, made by Glauber from potash and silica, and by him termed fluid silica. It is employed as a fire-proof coating for var
rmed by coating the metal with silver, which is then drawn down to a great tenuity, after which the silver coating is removed by nitric acid, leaving an almost invisible interior wire, which has been so attenuated that a mile in length weighed only a grain. L. Chelot, a Belgian manufacturer, makes a pentagonal wire. Threaded wire — cable wire — for boots and shoes, made under patents:— Prosser, 116,218, June 20, 1871. Wickersham, 118,318, August 22, 1871. See also Fig. 3568, page 1648. The modern uses of wire are almost innumerable:— Telegraphy, cables for suspension-bridges, ropes for ships' rigging, hoisting, etc.; fences, strings for musical instruments, hoop-skirts, pins and needles, shoe-sole fastenings (see Fig. 7263), are some of its manifold applications. Twined broom-wire is a considerable item. Culinary and table utensils are extensively made from white-wire. It is used in the manufacture of cards, heddles, reeds for looms, and when woven, is employed i