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anvil has a groove across its face, in which a bar of metal is swaged to the level of the plane surface of the anvil, thereby acquiring a triangular shape in cross-section, and forming a rod from which sharpened calks may be cut. See anvil, pp. 121, 122. Horse′shoe-clamp. (Shipbuilding.) An iron strap by which the gripe and fore-foot are attached. See stem. Horse′shoe-ma-chine′. A machine in which bar-iron is converted into horseshoe blanks or horseshoes. Burden of Troy, New York, patented a machine for this purpose in November, 1835, which had segmental reciprocating dies to shape a straight blank by giving it the requisite thicknesses at the respective parts, and the creases for the nail-heads. The piece rested on a rocking anvil-bed. His patent of September 10, 1843, described a reciprocating rectilinear movement, cutting off from a heated rod a straight blank and impressing by dies, which made the fullering and nail-holes. His patent of June 20, 1857, was
in the head and stem of the rails. The same depth is preserved, about five inches. Length. Rails are made in England from 15 to 21 feet long, the latter being usual. One railroad is said to be furnished with rails of 30 feet. A Welsh rolling-mill furnished a Barlow rail 52 1/2 feet long, but it was done as a trophy. Wrought-iron rafters were rolled at Phoenixville, Pa., for the United States Capitol, having a length of 51 1/6 feet. Iron plates for the Collins steamers were rolled at Troy, N. Y., 60 feet in length, from piles of 700 pounds weight. Depth. The depth of the most lasting English rails is stated to be from 4 1/2 to 5 1/2 inches, mostly 5 inches. The Sandwich rail is made with a depth of 8 inches, the web being very deep, and from 1/4 to 3/8 inch thick. It is prevented from lateral deflection by side sleepers which clamp the web, and the head of the rail rests on the side supports. The great depth saves the rail from vertical deflection, and the longitudinal
thern. That already traversed is for the most part mica gneiss and mica schist. The estimated cost is $10,000,000. The work is to be finished within eight years. The boring-machines used are those of Dubois and Francois, the general mode of working being similar to that at Mont Cenis, and the daily progress made appears to be rather more than double. It is feared now (1876) that this work will be abandoned. The Hoosac tunnel, through the mountain of that name, on the railway between Troy, N. Y., and Greenfield, Mass., having a length of 4 3/4 miles, is the longest tunnel in the United States. It is cut through strata of mica slate of varying hardness, and was originally commenced about 1856. In 1859, when about 1,200 feet had been excavated, the work was suspended, recommenced in the following year, and again suspended, recommenced again in 1863, and continued until finally completed in November, 1873. The profile of the mountain through which it passes exhibits two peaks,