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s Thessaly, and besieged Antipater at Lamia. But this was the turning point; for although, even after the fall of Leosthenes, the Greeks succeeded in destroying the army of Leonnatus, which came to the assistance of Antipater, yet they lost, in B. C. 322, the battle of Cranon. This defeat alone would not indeed have decided the contest, had not the zeal of the Greeks gradually cooled, and had not several detachments of the allied army withdrawn. Antipater availed himself of this contemptible dias, who hunted up the fugitives everywhere, arrived, Demosthenes, who was summoned to follow him to Antipater, took poison, which he had been keeping about his person for some time, and died in the temple of Poseidon, on the 10th of Pyanepsion, B. C. 322. (Plut. Dem. 29, Vit. X Orat. p. 846; Lucian, Encom. Dem.. 43, &c.) Thus terminated the career of a man who has been ranked by persons of all ages among the greatest and noblest spirits of antiquity; and this fame will remain undiminished so
i/a tw=n dw/rwn. (Dionys. de Admir. vi dic. Dem. 57, Ep. ad Amm. 1.12.) But Demosthenes was declared guilty, and thrown into prison, from which however he escaped, apparently with the connivance of the Athenian magistrates. (Plut. Dem. 26, Vit. X Orat. p. 846; Anonym. Vit. Demosth. p. 158.) Demosthenes quitted his country, and resided partly at Troezene and partly in Aegina, looking daily, it is said, across the sea towards his beloved native land. But his exile did not last long, for in B. C. 323 Alexander died, and the news of his death was the watchword for a fresh rise of the Greeks, which was organized by the Athenians, and under the vigorous management of Leosthenes it soon assumed a dangerous aspect for Macedonia. (Diod. 18.10.) Demosthenes, although still living in exile, joined of his own accord the embassies which were sent by the Athenians to the other Greek states, and he roused them to a fresh struggle for liberty by the fire of his oratory. Such a devotedness to the in
d the easternmost point of his expedition, Harpalus with the treasures entrusted to his care, and with 6000 mercenaries, fled from Babylon and came to Greece. In B. C. 325 he arrived at Athens, and purchased the protection of the city by distributing his gold among the most influential demagogues. The reception of such an open rebe)leuqeri/as *Peri\ th=s *(Rodi/wn e)leuqeri/as, B. C. 351. 16. *Peri\ tw=n pro\s *)Ale/candron sunqhkw=n *Peri\ tw=n pro\s *)Ale/candron sunqhkw=n, refers to B. C. 325, and was recognized as spurious by the ancients themselves. (Dionys. de Admir. vi die. Dem. 57; Liban. Argum. p. 211.) II. Judicial or Private Orations. 17. 56. *)/Efesis pro\s *Eu)bouli/dhn *)/Efesis pro\s *Eu)bouli/dhn, after B. C. 346. 57. *Kata\ *Qeokri/nou e)/ndeicis *Kata\ *Qeokri/nou e)/ndeicis, belongs to B. C. 325, but is probably the work of Deinarchus. (Dionys. Deinarch. 10; Argum. ad Orat. c. Theocrin. p. 1321; Harpocrat. s. vv. a)grafi/ou and *Qeokri/nhs; Schaefer, App
. 51. *Pro\s *Ka/llippon *Pro\s *Ka/llippon, spoken in B. C. 364. 52. *Pro\s *Niko/straton peri\ tw=n *)Areqousi/ou a)ndrapo/dwn *Pro\s *Niko/straton peri\ tw=n *)Areqousi/ou a)ndrapo/dwn, of uncertain date, was suspected by Harpocrat. s. v. *)Apografh/. 53. *Kata\ *Ko/nwnos abi)ki/as *Kata\ *Ko/nwnos abi)ki/as, B. C. 343. 54. *Pro\s *Kallakle/a peri\ xwri/ou *Pro\s *Kallakle/a peri\ xwri/ou, of uncertain date. 55. *Kata\ *Dionusodw/rou bla/bhs *Kata\ *Dionusodw/rou bla/bhs, B. C. 329. 56. *)/Efesis pro\s *Eu)bouli/dhn *)/Efesis pro\s *Eu)bouli/dhn, after B. C. 346. 57. *Kata\ *Qeokri/nou e)/ndeicis *Kata\ *Qeokri/nou e)/ndeicis, belongs to B. C. 325, but is probably the work of Deinarchus. (Dionys. Deinarch. 10; Argum. ad Orat. c. Theocrin. p. 1321; Harpocrat. s. vv. a)grafi/ou and *Qeokri/nhs; Schaefer, Appar. Crit. v. p. 473.) 58. *Kata\ *Neai/ras *Kata\ *Neai/ras, refers to B. C. 340, but is considered spurious both by ancient and modern writers. (Dionys. d
e gauntlet with the greater readiness, as he now had an opportunity of justifying his whole political conduct before his countrymen. Reasons which are unknown to us delayed the decision of the question for a number of years, and it was not till B. C. 330 (Plut. Dem. 24) that the trial was proceeded with. Demosthenes on that occasion delivered his oration on the crown (peri\ stefa/nou). Aeschines did not obtain the fifth part of the votes, and was obliged to quit Athens and spend the remainder oo B. C. 325, and was recognized as spurious by the ancients themselves. (Dionys. de Admir. vi die. Dem. 57; Liban. Argum. p. 211.) II. Judicial or Private Orations. 17. *Peri\ *Stefa/nou *Peri\ *Stefa/nou, or on the Crown, was delivered in B. C. 330. Editions There are numerous separate editions of this famous oration; the best are by I. Bekker with scholia, Halle, 1815, and Berlin, 1825, by Bremi (Gotha, 1834), and by Dissen (Göttingen, 1837). Further Information Comp. F. Winiewski,
etor The two orations against Onetor. See Schmeisser, de Re Tutelari ap. Athen., &c., Freiburg, 1829. The genuineness of these orations is suspected by Böckh, Publ. Econ. of Athens, Index, s. v. Demosthenes. 31. *Paragrafh\ pro\s *Zhno/qemin *Paragrafh\ pro\s *Zhno/qemin, falls after the year B. C. 355. 32. *Pro\s *)Apatou/rion paragrhrafh/ *Pro\s *)Apatou/rion paragrhrafh/, is of uncertain date. 33. *Pro\s *Formi/wna peri\ danei/ou *Pro\s *Formi/wna peri\ danei/ou, was spoken in B. C. 332. See Baumstark, Prolegom. in Orat Demosth. adv. Phorm., Heidelberg, 1826. 34. *Pros th\n *Lakri/tou paragrafh/n *Pros th\n *Lakri/tou paragrafh/n, is of uncertain date, and its genuineness is doubted by some of the ancients. See the Greek Argumentum. 35. *(Upe\r *Formi/wnos paragrafh/ *(Upe\r *Formi/wnos paragrafh/, belongs to B. C. 350. 36. *Pro\s *Pantai/neton paragrafh/ *Pro\s *Pantai/neton paragrafh/, falls after B. C. 347. 37. *Pro\s *Nausi/maxon kai\ *Cenopei/qh paragrafh
forth another insurrection of the Greeks. Thebes, which had suffered most severely, was foremost; but the insurrection spread over Arcadia, Argos, Elis. and Athens. However, with the exception of Thebes, there was no energy anywhere. Demosthenes carried indeed a decree that succours should be sent to Thebes, but no efforts were made, and Demosthenes alone, and at his own expense, sent a supply of arms. (Diod. 17.8.) The second sudden arrival of Alexander, and his destruction of Thebes, in B. C. 335, put an end to all further attempts of the Greeks. Athens submitted to necessity, and sent Demades to the king as mediator. Alexander demanded that the leaders of the popular party, and among them Demosthenes, should be delivered up to him; but he yielded to the intreaties of the Athenians, and did not persist in his demand. Alexander's departure for Asia is the beginning of a period of gloomy tranquillity for Greece; but party hatred continued in secret, and it required only some spark
in the fifth part of the votes, and was obliged to quit Athens and spend the remainder of his life abroad. All Greece had been looking forward with the most intense interest to the issue of this contest, though few can have entertained any doubt as to which would carry the victory. The oration on the crown was, in all probability, like that of Aeschines against Ctesiphon, revised and altered at a later period. Greece had in the mean time been shaken by new storms. The death of Philip, in B. C. 336, had revived among the Greeks the hope of shaking off the Macedonian yoke. All Greece rose, and especially Athens, where Demosthenes, although weighed down by domestic grief, was the first joyfully to proclaim the tidings of the king's death, to call upon the Greeks to unite their strength against Macedonia, and to form new connexions in Asia. (Plut. Dem. 23; Aeschin. c. Clesiph. § 161; Diod. 17.3.) But the sudden appearance of young Alexander with an army ready to fight, damped the enthus
ns. (Dem. de Coron. p. 299, &c.) This was the last grand effort against the growing power of Macedonia; but the battle of Chaeroneia, on the 7th of Metageitnion, B. C. 338, put an end to the independence of Greece. Thebes paid dearly for its resistance, and Athens which expected a similar fate, resolved at least to perish in a glor in Demosth. Orat. c. Timocrat., Berlin, 1823. 24 and 25. The two orations against Aristogeiton The two orations against Aristogeiton belong to the time after B. C. 338. The genuineness of these two orations, especially of the first, was strongly doubted by the ancients themselves (Dionys. de Admir. vi dic. Dem. 57; Harpocrat. s/rra, dhmopoi/htos, dieggu/hsen, *(/Ipparxos, and *Kwlia/s ; Schaefer, Appar. Crit. v. p. 527.) III. Show Speeches. 59. *)Epita/fios *)Epita/fios, refers to B. C. 338, but is un questionably spurious. (Dionys. de Adnir. vi dic. Dem. 23, 44; Liban. p. 6; Harpocrat. s. tv. *Ai)gei=dai and *Kekroipi/s; Phot. Bibl. p. 491; Suid. s
fortunate consequences of a war of the Amphictyons, and he succeeded at least in persuading the Athenians not to send any deputies to that extraordinary meeting. (Dem. de Coron. p. 275; Aeschin. c. Ctesiph. § 125, &c.) The Amphictyons however decreed war against Amphissa, and the command of the Amphictyonic army was given to Cottyphus, an Arcadian; but the expedition failed from want of spirit and energy among those who took part in it. (Dem. de Coron. p. 277.) The consequence was, that in B. C. 339, at the next ordinary meeting of the Amphictyons, king Philip was appointed chief commander of the Amphictyonic army. This was the very thing which he had been looking for. With the appearance of justice on his side, he now had an opportunity of establishing himself with an armed force in the very heart of Greece. He set out without delay, and when the Athenians received the news of his having taken possession of Elatea, they were thrown into the deepest consternation. Demosthenes alone di
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