Chapter 21: military History.
At the second meeting of the Court of Assistants after their arrival at Charlestown, Sept. 7, 1630, ‘half a year's provision’ was made for ‘Mr. Patrick and Mr. Underhill;’ and at the next meeting, three weeks later, the sum of fifty pounds was assessed upon ‘the several plantations, for the maintenance’ of the same persons.1 These were the commanders of the incipient militia. Of Daniel Patrick, Winthrop says, ‘This Captain was entertained by us out of Holland (where he was a common soldier of the Prince's guard) to exercise our men. We made him a captain, and maintained him.’2 He resided a short time in Watertown, but came to Cambridge before May 1, 1632,3 and remained here until Nov. 1637, when he removed to Ipswich, and subsequently to Stamford, Connecticut, where he was killed by a Dutchman in 1643. During his residence here, the tract of upland surrounded by marsh, on which the Powder Magazine stands at the foot of Magazine Street, was granted by the town to him; and since that time it has been known as ‘Captain's Island.’ Thus, for five years, from 1632 to 1637, Cambridge was the Headquarters of one of the two principal military commanders. And when a more perfect organization of the militia was made, Dec. 13, 1636, the whole being divided into three regiments, Cambridge had a large share of the honors. Thomas Dudley, one of the founders of the town, was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the first regiment; and seven years later he was elected Major-general of all the militia. It was further ordered, ‘Charlestowne, Newetowne, Watertowne, Concord, Deddam, to bee another regiment, whearof John Haynes, Esqr., shalbee colonell, and Rogr. Herlakenden, Esqr., leiftenant colonell.’4 Both were Cambridge men; the former had been Governor of  Massachusetts, and was afterwards for many years Governor of Connecticut; the latter was one of the Assistants, and remained in office, both civil and military, until Nov. 17, 1638, when he departed this life. At the session of the General Court, commencing March 9, 1636-7, officers were appointed to command the militia in the several towns: ‘For Newetowne, Mr. George Cooke chosen captain; Mr. Willi: Spencer, leiftenant; Mr. Sam: Shepard, ensign.’5 All these exhibited a military spirit. Captain Cooke was one of the earliest members of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company in 1638-9, was its captain in 1643, and when a similar company was incorporated in Middlesex County, May 14, 1645, he was its first captain. Having performed faithfully many military and civil services here,6 he returned to England near the end of 1645, was a colonel in Cromwell's army, and sacrificed his life in the service of the Commonwealth, being ‘reported to be slain in the wars in Ireland in the year 1652.’7 Lieutenant Spencer was one of the corporate members of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company, 1638-9, in which year he removed to Connecticut, where, as well as here, he was an active and useful civil officer.8 Ensign Shepard returned to England with Captain Cooke, being excused by the General Court in October, 1645, from further attendance as a member, ‘being to go for England.’ He was a Major in Cromwell's army, and very probably in Colonel Cooke's regiment. He is represented in Mitchell's Church Record, 1658, as then living in Ireland, where he probably died about 1673. It does not appear that either of these officers was engaged in the short and decisive Pequot War, which occurred shortly after they were commissioned;9 but in September, 1643, but ‘it was agreed that we should send three commissioners, with a guard of forty able men to attend them, which have authority and order to bring Samu: Gorton and his company, if they do not give them satisfaction. The three commissioners are Capt. George Cooke, Humfrey Atherton, and Edward Johnson; and Capt. Cooke to command  in chief, and Hum: Atherton to be his Leift: of the military force.’10 When