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APOLLONIA DEL PONTO (Sozopol) Burgas, E Bulgaria.

On the W coast of the Black Sea, a Milesian colony (Ps. Scym., 730-731; Strab. C.319), founded ca. 600 B.C. Two large gates and an island are known where the celebrated Sanctuary of Apollo and the major part of the ancient city were situated. A Greek inscription records the reconstruction of the ruined city and of the famous sanctuary by a Thracian tribe. The Imperial coins continue to use the name Apollonia until the 3d c. A.D., when the name Sozopol appears. During the Byzantine Empire Sozopol was the seat of a bishop, a rich and prosperous city that was frequented by the Genoese until it fell under Turkish domination in 1383. Today it is a modest town. Nothing of the ancient city remains visible above ground. Early excavations furnished little clarification. It is certainly on the island of St. Ciriaco where the stele of Anaxandros was found that the Temple of Apollo must be sought since all the material found in 1904, including a series of terracotta figurines datable to the 6th c. B.C., is connected with that cult; on the island of St. George there are traces of Byzantine construction. Both older and more recent excavations at Kalfata and the port of Giardino brought to light rich Greek necropoleis containing painted funerary vases dating between the 5th and the 2d c. B.C. The promontory is called Cape Kolokuntas (pumpkins) because of the great number of tumuli in the area. They are scattered over the upland and contain dromoi and funerary chambers, as was the Thracian custom. There are also cultural blendings as in the tumulus of Mapès, with dromoi and painted sarcophagi, where the Greek influence dominates.

For the Temple of Apollo, Kalamis made the bronze statue of the god (ca. 13.2 m tall), which was stolen by Licinius Lucullus in A.D. 73 after the seizure of Apollonia, and transported to the Campidoglio in Rome. The symbolic lion of Apollo is found on the coins of Apollonia. There are many inscriptions and also an important decree. The only notable monument surviving is the stele of Anaxandros, now in the National Museum of Sofia. It is a masterpiece of Ionic art from the end of the 6th c. B.C., representing the deceased cloaked, with his dog. At the Louvre is a fragment of a slab from Apollonia in the archaic Ionic style.


G. Seure, RevArch (1924); F. Bilabel, Die Jonische Kolonisation (1920) 13-15; G. Mihailov, Inscriptiones graecae in Bulgaria repertae, (1957); I. Venedikov et al., Les fouilles dans la nécropole d'Apolonia en 1947-1949 (1963); D. Dimitrov, Ann. Univ. Sofia fac. stor. filol. 34 (1942-43).


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