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παλαίστρα). A private trainingschool where boys received regular instruction in gymnastics and physical culture, and thus differing from gymnasia, which were public establishments for the training of men (Becker-Göll, Charikles, ii. 239; Grasberger, Erziehung und Unterricht, i. 252; and Iwan Müller, Handbuch, iv. 451 c). The training-master (παιδοτρίβης) was paid by the parents of the boys whom he taught, and he trained all who did not intend either to enter the games in competition or to become professional athletes. The latter were trained by the γυμναστής, whose work was of a more special and scientific character. The exercises practised in the palaestra were running, jumping, wrestling, throwing the discus, and spear-throwing (i. e. the pentathlon), and in a mild way boxing and the pancration. Boys were also taught to walk properly and to have a graceful carriage. The Romans did not support the institution of the palaestra to any great extent (Quaest. Rom. 40; Epist. 88, 18; Pliny , Epist. x. 40, 2). Among them, as among the later Greeks, the word is often used of the part of a gymnasium especially devoted to wrestling and often as a synonym for gymnasium (Vitruv. v. 11). The details of the institution are not known with certainty, but it may be assumed that they differed from those of the gymnasium only in being milder and less exacting. See Athletae; Gymnasium.

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